Advances in Steel and Composite Steel–Concrete Bridges and Buildings

A special issue of Infrastructures (ISSN 2412-3811).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 8066

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Mechanics, Sound & Vibration Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Interests: behavior of reinforced; prestressed concrete and steel structures; bridge engineering; engineering material; machine learning; method of finite elements; structural health assessment and monitoring
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Construction steel has widely been used worldwide for developing infrastructures, e.g., bridges and buildings, because of its many advantages, including durability, lightweight, high strength, and sustainability. Moreover, combining such advantages with those of concrete, composite steel–concrete structures have increasingly been applied due to a growing demand for new research. In recent years, a great variety of structural members have been developed, including post-tensioned thin-walled steel box-girders, steel–concrete composite decks with shear connectors, and concrete-filled steel tubular and concrete-encased steel members. Particularly, research topics on steel and composite steel–concrete bridges and buildings cover corrosion, fatigue, fire scenarios, limit and ultimate state designs, linear and nonlinear analyses, maintenance, monitoring, post-tensioning applications, progressive collapse, resistance of components, retrofitting and strengthening, seismic, dynamic, and static loadings, stability, etc.

This Special Issue aims to gather new, genuine, and detailed contributions and future perspectives in the aforementioned topics. State-of-the-art papers are also welcome. It is our pleasure to invite you to submit your work and share this call for papers with your colleagues. High-quality manuscripts related to (but not limited to) the following topics in steel and composite steel–concrete bridges and buildings are welcome:

  • Advanced construction technologies;
  • Advanced discrete and finite element modeling;
  • Development of design standards;
  • Development of high-performance material;
  • Laboratory and field investigations;
  • Linear and nonlinear analyses of geometric and material properties;
  • Monitoring techniques/sensor technologies for deterioration conditions;
  • Nondestructive testing methods;
  • Progressive collapse performance;
  • Serviceability issues under seismic, dynamic, and static loadings, fracture, fatigue, fire, corrosion, etc.;
  • Strengthening and repair interventions.

Dr. Marco Bonopera
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Infrastructures is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • composite structure
  • limit-state behavior
  • linear and nonlinear analysis
  • mechanics
  • numerical modeling
  • post–tensioning
  • service condition
  • stability
  • steel structure
  • structural performance

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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33 pages, 8700 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Flexural Strength of RC Beams with Different Steel–Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite Laminate Configurations: Experimental and Analytical Approach
by Arash K. Pour, Mehrdad Karami and Moses Karakouzian
Infrastructures 2024, 9(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9040073 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 395
Abstract
This study intended to measure the efficiency of different strengthening techniques to advance the flexural characteristics of reinforced concrete (RC) beams using glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates, including externally bonded reinforcement (EBR), externally bonded reinforcement on grooves (EBROG), externally bonded reinforcement in grooves [...] Read more.
This study intended to measure the efficiency of different strengthening techniques to advance the flexural characteristics of reinforced concrete (RC) beams using glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates, including externally bonded reinforcement (EBR), externally bonded reinforcement on grooves (EBROG), externally bonded reinforcement in grooves (EBRIG), and the near-surface mounted (NSM) system. A new NSM technique was also established using an anchorage rebar. Then, the effect of the NSM method with and without externally strengthening GFRP laminates was studied. Twelve RC beams (150 × 200 × 1500 mm) were manufactured and examined under a bending system. One specimen was designated as the control with no GFRP laminate. To perform the NSM method, both steel and GFRP rebars were used. In the experiments, capability, as well as the deformation and ductileness of specimens, were evaluated, and a comparison was made between the experimental consequences and existing standards. Finally, a new regression was generated to predict the final resistance of RC beams bound with various retrofitting techniques. The findings exhibited that the NSM technique, besides preserving the strengthening materials, could enhance the load-bearing capacity and ductileness of RC beams up to 42.3% more than the EBR, EBROG, and EBRIG performances. Full article
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22 pages, 6290 KiB  
Article
Joint Behavior of Full-Scale Precast Concrete Pipe Infrastructure: Experimental and Numerical Analysis
by Abdul Basit, Safeer Abbas, Muhammad Mubashir Ajmal, Ubaid Ahmad Mughal, Syed Minhaj Saleem Kazmi and Muhammad Junaid Munir
Infrastructures 2024, 9(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9040069 - 03 Apr 2024
Viewed by 521
Abstract
This study undertakes a comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis of the structural integrity of buried RC sewerage pipes, focusing on the performance of two distinct jointing materials: cement mortar and non-shrinkage grout. Through joint shear tests on full-scale sewer pipes under single point [...] Read more.
This study undertakes a comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis of the structural integrity of buried RC sewerage pipes, focusing on the performance of two distinct jointing materials: cement mortar and non-shrinkage grout. Through joint shear tests on full-scale sewer pipes under single point loading conditions, notable effects on the crown and invert of the joint were observed, highlighting the critical vulnerability of these structures to internal and external pressures. Two materials—cement–sand mortar and non-shrinkage grout—were used in RC pipe joints to experimentally evaluate the joint strength of the sewerage pipes. Among the materials tested, cement–sand mortar emerged as the superior choice, demonstrating the ability to sustain higher loads up to 25.60 kN, proving its cost-effectiveness and versatility for use in various locations within RC pipe joints. Conversely, non-shrinkage grout exhibited the lowest ultimate failure load, i.e., 21.50 kN, emphasizing the importance of material selection in enhancing the resilience and durability of urban infrastructure. A 3D finite element (FE) analysis was also employed to assess the effect of various factors on stress distribution and joint deformation. The findings revealed a 10% divergence between the experimental and numerical data regarding the ultimate load capacity of pipe joints, with experimental tests indicating a 25.60 kN ultimate load and numerical simulations showing a 23.27 kN ultimate load. Despite this discrepancy, the close concordance between the two sets of data underscores the utility of numerical simulations in predicting the behavior of pipe joints accurately. This study provides valuable insights into the selection and application of jointing materials in sewerage systems, aiming to improve the structural integrity and longevity of such critical infrastructure. Full article
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15 pages, 4028 KiB  
Article
Corrosion of Steel Rebars in Construction Materials with Reinforced Pervious Concrete
by Rosendo Lerma Villa, José Luis Reyes Araiza, José de Jesús Pérez Bueno, Alejandro Manzano-Ramírez and Maria Luisa Mendoza López
Infrastructures 2024, 9(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9040068 - 01 Apr 2024
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Pervious concrete has great potential for use in many practical applications as a part of urban facilities that can add value through water harvesting and mitigating severe damage from floods. The construction and agricultural industries can take direct advantage of pervious concrete’s characteristics [...] Read more.
Pervious concrete has great potential for use in many practical applications as a part of urban facilities that can add value through water harvesting and mitigating severe damage from floods. The construction and agricultural industries can take direct advantage of pervious concrete’s characteristics when water is a key factor included in projects as part of the useful life of a facility. Pervious concrete also has applications in vertical constructions, fountains, and pedestrian crossings. This work evidences that pervious concrete’s corrosion current increases with increasing aggregate size. Also, corrosion is a factor to consider only when steel pieces are immersed, aggravated by the presence of chlorine, but it drains water and does not retain moisture. Steel-reinforced pervious concrete was studied, and the grain size of the inert material and the corrosion process parameters were investigated. The electrochemical frequency modulation technique is proposed as a suitable test for a fast, reproducible assessment which, without damaging reinforced cement structures, particularly pervious concrete, indicates a trend of increasing corrosion current density as the size of the aggregate increases or density diminishes. Full article
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16 pages, 5200 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Equivalent Stress Intensity Factor Models under Mixed-Mode (I+II) Loading
by Estefanía Gómez-Gamboa, Jorge Guillermo Díaz-Rodríguez, Jairo Andrés Mantilla-Villalobos, Oscar Rodolfo Bohórquez-Becerra and Manuel del Jesús Martínez
Infrastructures 2024, 9(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9030045 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
This study determines the equivalent stress intensity factor (SIF) model that best fits the experimental behavior of low-carbon steel under mixed modes (I and II). The study assessed Tanaka, Richard, and Pook’s equivalent SIF models. The theoretical values used for [...] Read more.
This study determines the equivalent stress intensity factor (SIF) model that best fits the experimental behavior of low-carbon steel under mixed modes (I and II). The study assessed Tanaka, Richard, and Pook’s equivalent SIF models. The theoretical values used for comparison correspond to the experimental results in a modified C(T) geometry by machining a hole ahead of the crack tip subjected to fatigue loads with a load ratio of R = 0.1. The comparison involved the SIF for six experimental points and the values computed through the numerical simulation. The Paris, Klesnil, and Modified Forman–Newman crack growth models were used with each equivalent SIF to analyze the prediction in the estimated number of cycles. The Klesnil model showed the closest prediction since the error between the calculated and experimentally recorded number of cycles is the lowest. However, the material behavior reflects a reduced crack propagation rate attributed to plasticity in the crack tip. The results suggest that Asaro equivalent SIF conservatively estimates the element lifespan with increasing errors from 2.3% at the start of growth to 27% at the end of the calculation. This study sheds light on the accuracy and limitations of different equivalent SIF models, providing valuable insights for structural integrity assessments in engineering applications. Full article
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13 pages, 7907 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Characteristics of Steel–Concrete Composite Beams
by Ayman El-Zohairy, Hani Salim, Hesham Shaaban and Mahmoud T. Nawar
Infrastructures 2024, 9(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9020029 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Fatigue in steel–concrete composite beams can result from cyclic loading, causing stress fluctuations that may lead to cumulative damage and eventual failure over an extended period. In this paper, the experimental findings from fatigue loading tests on composite beams with various arrangements are [...] Read more.
Fatigue in steel–concrete composite beams can result from cyclic loading, causing stress fluctuations that may lead to cumulative damage and eventual failure over an extended period. In this paper, the experimental findings from fatigue loading tests on composite beams with various arrangements are presented. Fatigue tests were performed up to 1,000,000 cycles using four-point loading, encompassing various ranges of shear stress at a consistent amplitude. Additionally, the effects of external post-tensioning and the strength of the shear connection were investigated. Static tests were run until failure to assess the enduring strength of the specimens subjected to fatigue. The cyclic mid-span deflections, slippages, and strains were measured during the testing. Based on the experimental findings, it was found that the damage region that the shear studs caused in the concrete slab, which resulted in a reduction in stiffness within the shear connection, grew as the loading cycles increased, leading to an increase in residual deflections and plastic slippages. Controlling the longitudinal fatigue cracks in the concrete slab was largely dependent on the strength of the shear connection between the steel beams and concrete slabs. Moreover, the applied fatigue loading range affected the propagation and distribution of fatigue cracks in the concrete slab. The strains in different parts of the composite specimens were significantly reduced by applying the external post-tensioning. With no signs of distress at the anchors, the tendons displayed excellent fatigue performance. Full article
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24 pages, 21460 KiB  
Article
Strength and Deformation of Concrete-Encased Grouting-Filled Steel Tubes Columns Exposed to Monotonic Quasi-Static Loading Conditions
by Ahlam A. Abbood, Nazar Oukaili, Abbas A. Allawi and George Wardeh
Infrastructures 2024, 9(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9020026 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1350
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel concrete-encased column (CE) using small circular steel tubes filled with cementitious grouting material (GFST) as the primary reinforcement instead of traditional steel bars. The research involved three different types of reinforcement: conventional steel [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel concrete-encased column (CE) using small circular steel tubes filled with cementitious grouting material (GFST) as the primary reinforcement instead of traditional steel bars. The research involved three different types of reinforcement: conventional steel bars, concrete-filled steel tubes with 30% of the reinforcement ratio of steel bars, and concrete-filled steel tubes with the same reinforcement ratio as steel bars. Twenty-four circular concrete columns were tested and categorized into six groups based on the type of reinforcement employed. Each group comprised four columns, with one subjected to concentric axial load, two subjected to eccentric axial load (with eccentricities of 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively), and one tested under lateral flexural loads. To validate the experimental results, finite element (FE) analysis was conducted using ABAQUS software version 6.14. The experimental findings for concentric load reveal that columns with the second type of reinforcement, concrete-filled steel tubes with 30% of the reinforcement ratio of steel bars exhibited a failure load 19% lower than those with steel bars, while columns with the third type of reinforcement, concrete-filled steel tubes with the same reinforcement ratio as steel bars achieved a failure load 17% greater than the traditional steel bars. The FE analysis demonstrates good agreement with the experimental outcomes in terms of ultimate strength, deformation, and failure modes. Full article
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14 pages, 5911 KiB  
Technical Note
Practical Aspects of Correlation Analysis of Compressive Strength from Destructive and Non-Destructive Methods in Different Directions
by Baitollah Badarloo and Petr Lehner
Infrastructures 2023, 8(11), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8110155 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1512
Abstract
The research presented here demonstrates the practical aspects of the numerical correlation of the results of the compressive strength test. The destructive test (DT) in a hydraulic press and the non-destructive test (NDT) using a Schmidt hammer in several process variations were evaluated. [...] Read more.
The research presented here demonstrates the practical aspects of the numerical correlation of the results of the compressive strength test. The destructive test (DT) in a hydraulic press and the non-destructive test (NDT) using a Schmidt hammer in several process variations were evaluated. The aim was to evaluate the real differences between the tool supplier’s curve and testing. Therefore, 150 concrete cube specimens with an edge length of 150 mm were produced using a mixture of three types of concrete classes: C30, C35, and C40. The test was carried out 7 and 28 days of age of the concrete. The Schmidt hammer test was carried out in horizontal (θ = 0) and vertical (θ = 90) directions and using a series of 10 measurements. Furthermore, the tests were performed in two sets: first, the sample was placed on the ground, and second, under a hydraulic jack with a load of 50% of the maximum bearing capacity of specific concrete. Then, regression analysis was performed on the data sets to establish linear mathematical relationships between compressive strength and number of bounces. The results showed that the correlation between the DT and NDT tests has a high value for each group, but the correlation equations are different and must be taken into account. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Equivalent Stress Intensity Factor Models under mixed-mode (I+II) loading
Author: Díaz-Rodriguez
Highlights: Experimental fatigue crack growth (FCG) is compared with two numerical methods Numerical SIF and SIF ranges are valitated with Digital Image Correlation SIF Three equivalent SIF models are used as benchmark for FCG in combination with three FCG rules The FCG is achieved regarless of the numerical model used.

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