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Safety, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2016) – 8 articles

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921 KiB  
Review
Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Evaluations of Road Safety Countermeasures
by Evelyn Vingilis
Safety 2016, 2(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010008 - 18 Mar 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5980
Abstract
Researchers have a long history in the conduct of evaluations of road safety countermeasures. However, despite the strengths of some evaluative road safety evaluations that align with previous and current thinking on program evaluation, few published road safety evaluations have followed standard conceptualization [...] Read more.
Researchers have a long history in the conduct of evaluations of road safety countermeasures. However, despite the strengths of some evaluative road safety evaluations that align with previous and current thinking on program evaluation, few published road safety evaluations have followed standard conceptualization and methodology outlined in numerous program evaluation textbooks, journal articles and Web-based handbooks. However, conceptual and methodological challenges inherent in many evaluations of road safety countermeasures can affect causal attribution. Valid determination of causal attribution is enhanced by use of relevant theory or hypotheses on the putative mechanisms or pathways of change and by the use of a process evaluation to assess the actual implementation process. This article provides a detailed description of the constructs of causal chain, program logic models and process evaluation. This article provides an example of how these standard methods of theory-driven evaluation can improve the interpretation of outcomes and enhance causal attribution of a road safety countermeasure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Road Safety Evaluation)
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213 KiB  
Article
An Engineering or Behavioural Approach? A Study into Employees’ Perceptions Regarding the Effectiveness of Occupational Road Safety Initiatives
by Tamara Banks, James Freeman and Jeremy Davey
Safety 2016, 2(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010007 - 16 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4275
Abstract
Background and Aims: Considerable variation has been documented with fleet safety interventions’ abilities to create lasting behavioural change, and research has neglected to consider employees’ perceptions regarding the effectiveness of fleet interventions. This is a critical oversight as employees’ beliefs and acceptance levels [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: Considerable variation has been documented with fleet safety interventions’ abilities to create lasting behavioural change, and research has neglected to consider employees’ perceptions regarding the effectiveness of fleet interventions. This is a critical oversight as employees’ beliefs and acceptance levels (as well as the perceived organisational commitment to safety) can ultimately influence levels of effectiveness, and this study aimed to examine such perceptions in Australian fleet settings. Method: 679 employees sourced from four Australian organisations completed a safety climate questionnaire as well as provided perspectives about the effectiveness of 35 different safety initiatives. Results: Countermeasures that were perceived as most effective were a mix of human and engineering-based approaches: (a) purchasing safer vehicles; (b) investigating serious vehicle incidents; and (c) practical driver skills training. In contrast, least effective countermeasures were considered to be: (a) signing a promise card; (b) advertising a company’s phone number on the back of cars for complaints and compliments; and (c) communicating cost benefits of road safety to employees. No significant differences in employee perceptions were identified based on age, gender, employees’ self-reported crash involvement or employees’ self-reported traffic infringement history. Perceptions of safety climate were identified to be “moderate” but were not linked to self-reported crash or traffic infringement history. However, higher levels of safety climate were positively correlated with perceived effectiveness of some interventions. Conclusion: Taken together, employees believed occupational road safety risks could best be managed by the employer by implementing a combination of engineering and human resource initiatives to enhance road safety. This paper will further outline the key findings in regards to practice as well as provide direction for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Road Safety Evaluation)
381 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Specificity of Community Injury Hospitalization Data over Time
by Kirsten Vallmuur and Angela Watson
Safety 2016, 2(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010006 - 29 Feb 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3312
Abstract
This study identified the areas of poor specificity in national injury hospitalization data and the areas of improvement and deterioration in specificity over time. A descriptive analysis of 10 years of national hospital discharge data for Australia from July 2002–June 2012 was performed. [...] Read more.
This study identified the areas of poor specificity in national injury hospitalization data and the areas of improvement and deterioration in specificity over time. A descriptive analysis of 10 years of national hospital discharge data for Australia from July 2002–June 2012 was performed. Proportions and percentage change of defined/undefined codes over time was examined. At the intent block level, accidents and assault were the most poorly defined with over 11% undefined in each block. The mechanism blocks for accidents showed a significant deterioration in specificity over time with up to 20% more undefined codes in some mechanisms. Place and activity were poorly defined at the broad block level (43% and 72% undefined respectively). Private hospitals and hospitals in very remote locations recorded the highest proportion of undefined codes. Those aged over 60 years and females had the higher proportion of undefined code usage. This study has identified significant, and worsening, deficiencies in the specificity of coded injury data in several areas. Focal attention is needed to improve the quality of injury data, especially on those identified in this study, to provide the evidence base needed to address the significant burden of injury in the Australian community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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1013 KiB  
Article
Potential Benefit of the Quadbar™ on All-Terrain Vehicles
by Melvin L. Myers
Safety 2016, 2(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010005 - 19 Feb 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4980
Abstract
An epidemic exists related to all-terrain vehicle (ATV) fatal and nonfatal injuries in the United States and in Australia as well as in other countries. More than 60% of these injuries are associated with ATV overturns. While behavior-related methods have failed to abate [...] Read more.
An epidemic exists related to all-terrain vehicle (ATV) fatal and nonfatal injuries in the United States and in Australia as well as in other countries. More than 60% of these injuries are associated with ATV overturns. While behavior-related methods have failed to abate this epidemic, engineered interventions have been lacking. However, one technology, the Quadbar™ (QB), shows promise as a crush prevention device for reducing overturn-related injuries and their severity. The question addressed in this study is “What is the potential public health and economic benefit of the QB when used on ATVs?” At 40% effectiveness, our model estimated that 5082 injuries related to ATV overturns would be prevented per 100,000 ATVs equipped with QBs. The overall societal economic benefit was estimated at US$3,943 per ATV that greatly exceeds the QB purchase price of US$478, which represents an 8:1 return on investment. Full article
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2896 KiB  
Article
Damage Survivability of Passenger Ships—Re-Engineering the Safety Factor
by Jakub Cichowicz, Nikolaos Tsakalakis, Dracos Vassalos and Andrzej Jasionowski
Safety 2016, 2(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010004 - 19 Feb 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4476
Abstract
This paper presents a brief summary of the work carried out by SSRC and Brookes Bell Safety at Sea within the EC-funded project GOALDS on the development of a new formulation for assessing the survivability of damaged ships in waves. The proposed formula [...] Read more.
This paper presents a brief summary of the work carried out by SSRC and Brookes Bell Safety at Sea within the EC-funded project GOALDS on the development of a new formulation for assessing the survivability of damaged ships in waves. The proposed formula is meant to be an alternative or replacement to the s-factor in use within the current SOLAS regulations for probabilistic damage stability. The authors briefly discuss concerns related to the current survivability model and present the process of development that led to the re-engineered formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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955 KiB  
Article
All-Terrain Vehicle Safety―Potential Effectiveness of the Quadbar as a Crush Prevention Device
by Melvin L. Myers
Safety 2016, 2(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010003 - 17 Feb 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5625
Abstract
A total of 10,561 all-terrain vehicle (ATV) related deaths have been documented for the years 1985 through 2009 in the United States, most of which were associated with overturns of the machine. The current analysis addresses the question, “How effective is the Quadbar [...] Read more.
A total of 10,561 all-terrain vehicle (ATV) related deaths have been documented for the years 1985 through 2009 in the United States, most of which were associated with overturns of the machine. The current analysis addresses the question, “How effective is the QuadbarTM (QB) as a crush prevention device (CPD) in preventing ATV overturn-related injuries?” A CPD is designed as a guard against crushing injuries to the ATV rider in the event of an overturn. The analysis used a prevention effectiveness model to address this question. Based on this analysis, the CPD and more specifically the QB were found to potentially prevent serious injuries and death to ATV riders that result from overturns. Systematic real-life studies are needed to evaluate the prevention potential of CPDs that are in use to guide the implementation of policies to better protect the public from these injuries. Full article
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146 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Safety in 2015
by Safety Editorial Office
Safety 2016, 2(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010002 - 26 Jan 2016
Viewed by 2176
Abstract
The editors of Safety would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
190 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Passengers on All-Terrain Vehicle Crash Mechanisms and Injuries
by Charles A. Jennissen, Karisa K. Harland, Kristel M. Wetjen and Gerene M. Denning
Safety 2016, 2(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010001 - 20 Jan 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4353
Abstract
Traditional all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are designed for single riders. Although carrying passengers is a known risk factor for injury, how passengers contribute to ATV crashes remains poorly understood. To address this question, we performed a retrospective chart review of ATV crash victims at [...] Read more.
Traditional all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are designed for single riders. Although carrying passengers is a known risk factor for injury, how passengers contribute to ATV crashes remains poorly understood. To address this question, we performed a retrospective chart review of ATV crash victims at a U.S. trauma center (2002–2013). Of 537 cases, 20% were passengers or drivers with passengers. The odds of backward rollovers, falls/ejections, crashes on sloped terrain, and collisions with motorized vehicles were all significantly greater when passengers were present. In contrast, the odds of self-ejection or falls/ejections over the handlebars were significantly lower than falls/ejections to the side or rear, in crashes with multiple riders. Among all ejections, self-ejections had the lowest head and highest extremity injury scores and being ejected over the handlebars or to the rear resulted in worse head injury scores than being ejected to the side. In summary, our study found that passengers increased the odds of specific crash and injury mechanisms and that head and extremity injury severity varied by ejection type. Safety interventions including seat design changes that prevent carrying passengers, and a strict, well-enforced no-rider rule are needed to effectively prevent passenger–related deaths and injuries. Full article
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