Feature Papers

A special issue of Safety (ISSN 2313-576X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2015) | Viewed by 63889

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Transport and Road Safety (TARS), University of New South Wales, Old Main Building (K15), Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Interests: all terrain vehicles; motorcycle safety; road safety barriers; wire-rope barriers; rollover crashworthiness; cycling safety; go-kart safety; FEM crash and impact computer simulations; injury biomechanics
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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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1140 KiB  
Article
Application of the D3H2 Methodology for the Cost-Effective Design of Dependable Systems
by Jose Ignacio Aizpurua, Eñaut Muxika, Yiannis Papadopoulos, Ferdinando Chiacchio and Gabriele Manno
Safety 2016, 2(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020009 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5595
Abstract
The use of dedicated components as a means of achieving desirable levels of fault tolerance in a system may result in high costs. A cost effective way of restoring failed functions is to use heterogeneous redundancies: components that, besides performing their primary intended [...] Read more.
The use of dedicated components as a means of achieving desirable levels of fault tolerance in a system may result in high costs. A cost effective way of restoring failed functions is to use heterogeneous redundancies: components that, besides performing their primary intended design function, can also restore compatible functions of other components. In this paper, we apply a novel design methodology called D3H2 (aDaptive Dependable Design for systems with Homogeneous and Heterogeneous redundancies) to assist in the systematic identification of heterogeneous redundancies, the design of hardware/software architectures including fault detection and reconfiguration, and the systematic dependability and cost assessments of the system. D3H2 integrates parameter uncertainty and criticality analyses to model inexact failure data in dependability assessment. The application to a railway case study is presented with a focus on analysing different reconfiguration strategies as well as types and levels of redundancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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381 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Specificity of Community Injury Hospitalization Data over Time
by Kirsten Vallmuur and Angela Watson
Safety 2016, 2(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010006 - 29 Feb 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3326
Abstract
This study identified the areas of poor specificity in national injury hospitalization data and the areas of improvement and deterioration in specificity over time. A descriptive analysis of 10 years of national hospital discharge data for Australia from July 2002–June 2012 was performed. [...] Read more.
This study identified the areas of poor specificity in national injury hospitalization data and the areas of improvement and deterioration in specificity over time. A descriptive analysis of 10 years of national hospital discharge data for Australia from July 2002–June 2012 was performed. Proportions and percentage change of defined/undefined codes over time was examined. At the intent block level, accidents and assault were the most poorly defined with over 11% undefined in each block. The mechanism blocks for accidents showed a significant deterioration in specificity over time with up to 20% more undefined codes in some mechanisms. Place and activity were poorly defined at the broad block level (43% and 72% undefined respectively). Private hospitals and hospitals in very remote locations recorded the highest proportion of undefined codes. Those aged over 60 years and females had the higher proportion of undefined code usage. This study has identified significant, and worsening, deficiencies in the specificity of coded injury data in several areas. Focal attention is needed to improve the quality of injury data, especially on those identified in this study, to provide the evidence base needed to address the significant burden of injury in the Australian community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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2896 KiB  
Article
Damage Survivability of Passenger Ships—Re-Engineering the Safety Factor
by Jakub Cichowicz, Nikolaos Tsakalakis, Dracos Vassalos and Andrzej Jasionowski
Safety 2016, 2(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010004 - 19 Feb 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4493
Abstract
This paper presents a brief summary of the work carried out by SSRC and Brookes Bell Safety at Sea within the EC-funded project GOALDS on the development of a new formulation for assessing the survivability of damaged ships in waves. The proposed formula [...] Read more.
This paper presents a brief summary of the work carried out by SSRC and Brookes Bell Safety at Sea within the EC-funded project GOALDS on the development of a new formulation for assessing the survivability of damaged ships in waves. The proposed formula is meant to be an alternative or replacement to the s-factor in use within the current SOLAS regulations for probabilistic damage stability. The authors briefly discuss concerns related to the current survivability model and present the process of development that led to the re-engineered formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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212 KiB  
Article
Influence of Cognitive Biases in Distorting Decision Making and Leading to Critical Unfavorable Incidents
by Atsuo Murata, Tomoko Nakamura and Waldemar Karwowski
Safety 2015, 1(1), 44-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety1010044 - 11 Nov 2015
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 31646
Abstract
On the basis of the analyses of past cases, we demonstrate how cognitive biases are ubiquitous in the process of incidents, crashes, collisions or disasters, as well as how they distort decision making and lead to undesirable outcomes. Five case studies were considered: [...] Read more.
On the basis of the analyses of past cases, we demonstrate how cognitive biases are ubiquitous in the process of incidents, crashes, collisions or disasters, as well as how they distort decision making and lead to undesirable outcomes. Five case studies were considered: a fire outbreak during cooking using an induction heating (IH) cooker, the KLM Flight 4805 crash, the Challenger space shuttle disaster, the collision between the Japanese Aegis-equipped destroyer “Atago” and a fishing boat and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant meltdown. We demonstrate that heuristic-based biases, such as confirmation bias, groupthink and social loafing, overconfidence-based biases, such as the illusion of plan and control, and optimistic bias; framing biases majorly contributed to distorted decision making and eventually became the main cause of the incident, crash, collision or disaster. Therefore, we concluded that, in addition to human factors or ergonomics approaches, recognition and elimination of cognitive biases is indispensable for preventing incidents, crashes, collisions or disasters from occurring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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220 KiB  
Article
An Exploration into Younger and Older Pedestrians’ Risky Behaviours at Train Level Crossings
by James Freeman, Mitchell McMaster and Andry Rakotonirainy
Safety 2015, 1(1), 16-27; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety1010016 - 18 Aug 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4494
Abstract
Background: Younger and older pedestrians are both overrepresented in train-pedestrian injury and fatality collision databases. However, scant research has attempted to determine the factors that influence level crossing behaviours for these high risk groups. Method: Five focus groups were undertaken with a total [...] Read more.
Background: Younger and older pedestrians are both overrepresented in train-pedestrian injury and fatality collision databases. However, scant research has attempted to determine the factors that influence level crossing behaviours for these high risk groups. Method: Five focus groups were undertaken with a total of 27 younger and 17 older pedestrian level crossing users (N = 44). Due to the lack of research in the area, a focus group methodology was implemented to gain a deeper exploratory understanding into the sample’s decision making processes through a pilot study. The three main areas of enquiry were identifying the: (a) primary reasons for unsafe behaviour; (b) factors that deter this behaviour and (c) proposed interventions to improve pedestrian safety at level crossings in the future. Results: Common themes to emerge from both groups regarding the origins of unsafe behaviours were: running late and a fatalistic perspective that some accidents are inevitable. However, younger pedestrians were more likely to report motivators to be: (a) non-perception of danger; (b) impulsive risk taking; and (c) inattention. In contrast, older pedestrians reported their decisions to cross are influenced by mobility issues and sensory salience. Conclusion: The findings indicate that a range of factors influence pedestrian crossing behaviours. This paper will further outline the major findings of the research in regards to intervention development and future research direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)

Review

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238 KiB  
Review
Getting a Hold of Skitching
by Richard C. Franklin and Jemma C. King
Safety 2015, 1(1), 28-43; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety1010028 - 10 Nov 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7398
Abstract
Skitching is the act of hitching a ride on a vehicle while riding/using a non-motorized wheeled device (e.g., skateboard or bicycle). To date there has been little discussion of skitching beyond media reports on the serious and often fatal ramification of this activity. [...] Read more.
Skitching is the act of hitching a ride on a vehicle while riding/using a non-motorized wheeled device (e.g., skateboard or bicycle). To date there has been little discussion of skitching beyond media reports on the serious and often fatal ramification of this activity. To rectify this and improve our understanding of skitching including: who participates; circumstances and motivation; and possible injury prevention strategies, informed by the Haddon’s Matrix, an integrative review was undertaken. To gain a comprehensive overview, the review encapsulated information from a variety of sources including peer reviewed literature, grey and popular internet sources including news and social media. There was an absence of literature from which strong conclusions could be made; however, some preliminary insights were obtained. A key participant group is young males, likely a function of their use of non-motorized wheeled devices, adolescent risk taking and the influence of peers, such that the behavior amongst this group is largely thought to be opportunistic. A number of prevention strategies are proposed including targeting young males and young drivers, provision of/retrofitting skate parks, educating young drivers and improving helmet use. There is also a need to incorporate coding into injury data collections to capture skitching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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190 KiB  
Review
Applying a Human-Centred Process to Re-Design Equipment and Work Environments
by Tim Horberry and Robin Burgess-Limerick
Safety 2015, 1(1), 7-15; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety1010007 - 15 May 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5884
Abstract
Safe design is an increasingly influential approach due to a growing recognition of the contribution of design to workplace safety. It aims to eliminate workplace hazards by systematically involving end-users in the design or redesign process. In this review paper, the explicit and [...] Read more.
Safe design is an increasingly influential approach due to a growing recognition of the contribution of design to workplace safety. It aims to eliminate workplace hazards by systematically involving end-users in the design or redesign process. In this review paper, the explicit and novel focus is upon redesign, rather than original design. The literature in the field is appraised and a human-centred safe redesign method is presented. The safe redesign method is a task-based, risk management approach that centres on end-users. In describing the method, indicative results from two domains are outlined: mining equipment and highway environments. Focusing on end-users and their tasks by means of a structured human-centred process can be highly beneficial. Further work to expand the human-centred safe redesign method is outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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