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Volume 13, November
 
 

Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ., Volume 13, Issue 12 (December 2023) – 12 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Functional psychology's developmental theory places the Basic Experience of the Self (BES) at the core of its approach. The BES is the starting point of the complex psycho-bodily functioning that we experience in adulthood. In the typical trajectory of child development, every observable behaviour represents a functional and integrated process. This process involves various aspects, such as motor skills, cognitive abilities, emotions, and physiological responses. By organising the functions, the smallest psycho-bodily features of early complex life development, the BES shows the intricate and multifaceted process that encompasses various elements of growth and advancement. Through BES assessment, we can gain insights into the complexity of child development and move beyond a rigid consideration of milestones towards epistemological breakthroughs. View this paper
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13 pages, 923 KiB  
Review
Prevention of Work Absence Due to Back Pain: A Network Meta-Analysis
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2891-2903; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120200 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 770
Abstract
This paper reviewed the most effective strategies for preventing work absence due to back pain (BP) and BP episodes (the number of people reporting back pain). We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prevention strategies for BP from previous meta-analyses, PubMed, CENTRAL, and [...] Read more.
This paper reviewed the most effective strategies for preventing work absence due to back pain (BP) and BP episodes (the number of people reporting back pain). We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prevention strategies for BP from previous meta-analyses, PubMed, CENTRAL, and Embase and conducted a network meta-analysis. Thirteen RCTs (2033 participants) were included. Low- to high-quality evidence showed that exercise combined with ergonomics, education, back belts, and education combined with ergonomics did not prevent sickness absenteeism or BP episodes. There was moderate-quality evidence that exercise, especially resistance exercise, was the best prevention strategy to reduce the number of people reporting absenteeism due to BP (risk ratio [RR] = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.69). Moderate-quality evidence suggested that resistance and stretching exercises combined with education was the best prevention strategy to reduce pain (RR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.96) and the number of absenteeism days for BP (standardized mean difference [SMD] = −0.39; 95% CI: −0.77 to −0.02). In conclusion, exercise, especially resistance and stretching exercises, and exercise combined with education were ranked as the best interventions to prevent sickness absenteeism and BP episodes. Full article
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14 pages, 330 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Jealousy and Mate Retention Strategies in Romantic Relationships among Women during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2877-2890; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120199 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 730
Abstract
Jealousy and mate retention have received attention in research over the last few decades. Despite this, most of the research has examined male jealousy and male mate retention, emphasizing cost-inflicting behavior due to its role in relationships and domestic violence. The aim of [...] Read more.
Jealousy and mate retention have received attention in research over the last few decades. Despite this, most of the research has examined male jealousy and male mate retention, emphasizing cost-inflicting behavior due to its role in relationships and domestic violence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between jealousy and all mate retention strategies in romantic relationships among women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 772 Croatian women aged 19 to 40 who were in a heterosexual relationship at the time. This study was conducted online, and the participants completed the Multidimensional Jealousy Scale and Mate Retention Inventory. The results showed that cognitive, emotional, and behavioral jealousy were positively correlated with all mate retention strategies, which indicates that a stronger experience of jealousy can be expected to result in more frequent use of all partner retention strategies. We also found that all three dimensions of jealousy and relationship length positively predicted both cost-inflicting and benefit-provisioning mate retention behavior, whereas age was a negative predictor of benefit-provisioning behavior only. The findings of this study suggest that, although jealousy can substantially explain interpersonally risky and damaging behavior in relationships, it can also explain affectionate and attentive behavior, to some extent. Full article
14 pages, 1380 KiB  
Article
On the Construct of Functional Psychology’s Developmental Theory: Basic Experiences of the Self (BEsS)
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2863-2876; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120198 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 757
Abstract
According to the neo-functional developmental theory, newborns and infants exhibit complex psycho-bodily functioning. The Basic Experiences of the Self (BEsS) refer to how they fulfil their essential life needs by organising their psycho-bodily functions in a typical configuration. As part of our research [...] Read more.
According to the neo-functional developmental theory, newborns and infants exhibit complex psycho-bodily functioning. The Basic Experiences of the Self (BEsS) refer to how they fulfil their essential life needs by organising their psycho-bodily functions in a typical configuration. As part of our research study, we developed a prototype psychometric tool called the BEsS Assessment Form (BAF) to assess the BEsS in infants aged zero to three years. We collected video recordings of their spontaneous behaviour and used the BAF to evaluate function polarity. In the BAF, thirty pairs of words represent functions in their dyadic polarity. To estimate the level of function polarity, we used the Osgood semantic differential scale, which ranges from seven to one. The study’s results confirm that functions can be assessed by grading along the opposite polarity spectrum. Moreover, in accordance with the theory, the functions can be grouped into four domains: the emotional, postural motor, physiological, and cognitive-symbolic planes. Our findings suggest that the characteristics of BEsS are significantly influenced by the activation of the physiological and postural motor functions, which are related to the early regulation of the autonomic nervous system and can be used to evaluate infant arousal. Full article
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10 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Subjective Well-Being and Self-Assessed Health of Adolescents: A Longitudinal Cohort Study
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2853-2862; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120197 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the stability and predictors of subjective well-being and self-perceived health in adolescents over a two-year period, focusing on the importance of mental health in overall well-being. Methods: Participants in this longitudinal cohort study were [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the stability and predictors of subjective well-being and self-perceived health in adolescents over a two-year period, focusing on the importance of mental health in overall well-being. Methods: Participants in this longitudinal cohort study were surveyed at the ages of 15 (n = 441) and 17 (n = 354) through questionnaires. The data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Hierarchical regression was employed to investigate significant predictors of subjective well-being. The subjective well-being and self-perceived health dimensions showed a consistent level of stability throughout the two-year period of secondary education. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between well-being at the beginning and end of this education period. Furthermore, self-perceived health dimensions, particularly general health, vitality, and mental health, were positively associated with well-being at the end of secondary education, highlighting their role in overall subjective well-being. The regression analysis revealed that self-perceived health factors, notably “General health” and “Mental health”, significantly predicted overall subjective well-being, enhancing the model’s explanatory power beyond gender and economic status. Nevertheless, baseline subjective well-being has the strongest predictive effect on final well-being. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of psychological and health factors, particularly mental health, that affect the overall well-being of adolescents and emphasizes the need to focus on and improve these factors in order to improve subjective well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Variables Related to Well-Being in Adolescence)
12 pages, 763 KiB  
Article
Psychophysical and Social Functioning of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Depression
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2841-2852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120196 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 666
Abstract
The relationship between depression and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not fully understood. The comorbidity rate ranges from 18 to 84%, and depression is closely related to chronic inflammation, which affects how patients and the people around them perceive their condition. This [...] Read more.
The relationship between depression and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not fully understood. The comorbidity rate ranges from 18 to 84%, and depression is closely related to chronic inflammation, which affects how patients and the people around them perceive their condition. This study aims to examine the relationship between the psychophysical and social functioning of COPD patients who have been diagnosed with depression and the therapeutic benefits of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This prospective study enrolled primary care patients diagnosed with COPD and depression. The entire period of this research was 3 years. The research was conducted at the Primary Health Center, Kragujevac, Serbia, in 87 patients for 8 weeks. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and Questionnaire for Quality of Life and Life Satisfaction Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF) were used for psychiatric assessment. A positive correlation was found between the psychophysical and social functioning of the participants after 8 weeks of treatment with SSRIs. Based on the value of the phi correlation coefficient (phi = 0.5) obtained using the χ2 test, a large influence was observed in terms of life satisfaction and physical health (p < 0.05). In terms of physical functioning by gender, based on the value of the Pearson’s coefficient (r) obtained with the χ2 test, it was shown that physical functioning was superior in the female respondents (p < 0.05). Treatment was found to improve depression in COPD after 8 weeks of therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Research in Clinical and Health Contexts)
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14 pages, 521 KiB  
Article
Social Support and Its Impact on Job Satisfaction and Emotional Exhaustion
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2827-2840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120195 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 855
Abstract
Social support at work has demonstrated itself to be an important variable for predicting desirable outcomes and helping to buffer the effects of adverse events. The main objective of this research is to understand the impact of social support on job satisfaction on [...] Read more.
Social support at work has demonstrated itself to be an important variable for predicting desirable outcomes and helping to buffer the effects of adverse events. The main objective of this research is to understand the impact of social support on job satisfaction on the one hand and emotional exhaustion on the other. Furthermore, in order to gain a deeper understanding of intricate organizational relationships, the mediating effects of work recovery experiences are taken into consideration. The sample was composed of 496 workers (41.5% men and 58.5% women). The mean age was 42 years (SD = 9.82). A cross-sectional design was used. The results, both direct (r = 0.43; R2 = 0.19; p < 0.001) and indirect (B = 0.04; SE = 0.02; 95% C.I. = 0.01, 0.09), of the model relating social support to job satisfaction were statistically significant. On the other hand, in the model that links social support to emotional exhaustion, we observed statistically significant direct (r = 0.26; R2 = 0.07; p < 0.001) and indirect effects (B = −0.05; SE = 0.02; 95% C.I. = −0.10, −0.01). Only the relaxation factor was a significant mediator of these variables. Implications, limitations, and future research recommendations are discussed. Full article
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16 pages, 913 KiB  
Review
The Relation between Cognitive and Emotional Processes in Children and Adolescents with Neurodevelopmental Disorders—A Meta-Analysis
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2811-2826; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120194 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Background: Up to 80% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have mental health issues—either emotional or behavioral problems. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown, even if emotional regulation (ER) is considered to play a major role in child and adolescent psychopathology. Several [...] Read more.
Background: Up to 80% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have mental health issues—either emotional or behavioral problems. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown, even if emotional regulation (ER) is considered to play a major role in child and adolescent psychopathology. Several studies link the ability to regulate the intensity and quality of emotions with executive functioning. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between executive functions (EFs) and ER and affective problems in children with ASD. Methods: This meta-analysis is based on a literature search of peer-reviewed journals from the following databases: Scopus, ProQuest, Ebsco, Science Direct, Springer Link and Clarivate. We analyzed 15 studies that investigated the link between EF, ER or affective problems (APs) in children and adolescents with ASD aged between 2 and 18 y with ASD. To assess the effect size of the relationship between EF and ER, and EF and AP, 15 studies comprising 54 effect sizes were analyzed. Results: Our findings revealed a small effect size regarding the association between EF and ER, r = 0.331, p = 0.034, and a small effect size regarding the association between EF and AP, r = −0.213, p = 0.024. No significant moderators were found. The results are presented in regard to the two analyses developed, as well as a short review of the studies included in the meta-analysis. Conclusion: Even if there are several limitations of this study, especially considering the small number of studies included, the results suggest that it is worth considering EF as an underlying mechanism for the appearance of emotional or behavioral problems in children with ASD. These findings have important implications for the development of ASD intervention plans, as well as for increasing awareness among specialists about the importance of executive functions in school adjustment and social functioning. Full article
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16 pages, 5009 KiB  
Article
Trends in Suicidal Mortality and Motives among Working-Ages Individuals in Japan during 2007–2022
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2795-2810; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120193 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 831
Abstract
Suicides in Japan consistently decreased from 2009–2019, but increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. To identify causes of increasing suicides, age-dependent and temporal fluctuations of suicide mortality rate per 100,000 (SMRP) in working-age generations (20–59 years) disaggregated by suicidal motives (7-categories; 52-subcategories) and sex [...] Read more.
Suicides in Japan consistently decreased from 2009–2019, but increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. To identify causes of increasing suicides, age-dependent and temporal fluctuations of suicide mortality rate per 100,000 (SMRP) in working-age generations (20–59 years) disaggregated by suicidal motives (7-categories; 52-subcategories) and sex from 2007 to 2022, were analyzed by analysis of variance and joinpoint regression, respectively, using the government suicide database “Suicide Statistics”. The SMRP of 20–29 year-old males and 20–49 year-old females began to increase in the late 2010s. SMRPs of these high-risk groups for suicides caused by depression (the leading suicidal motive for all groups) began increasing in the late 2010s. Economic-related, employment-related, and romance-related problems contributed to the increasing SMRPs in 20–29 males in the late 2010s. Romance-related and family-related problems contributed to the increasing SMRPs of 20–29 females in the late 2010s. Increasing SMRPs caused by child-raising stress in 20–39 year-old females from the late 2010s was a remarkable finding. In contrast, SMRPs of 30–59 year-old males consistently decreased until 2021; however, in these groups, SMRPs for suicides caused by various motives sharply increased in 2022. The consistent increase in SMRPs of high-risk groups from the late 2010s to the pandemic suggest recent socioeconomic and psychosocial problems in Japan possibly contributed to the increasing SMRPs in these high-risk groups independently of pandemic-associated factors, whereas the SMRPs of males of 30–59 years were probably associated with the ending of the pandemic rather than pandemic-associated factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health during COVID-19 Pandemic: What Do We Know So Far?)
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16 pages, 1630 KiB  
Article
Influence of Concurrent Exercise Training on Ankle Muscle Activation during Static and Proactive Postural Control on Older Adults with Sarcopenic Obesity: A Multicenter, Randomized, and Controlled Trial
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2779-2794; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120192 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Sarcopenic obesity (SO), characterized by age-related muscle loss and excess body fat, significantly impairs postural control. However, limited research has explored the effects of concurrent exercise training on neuromuscular strategies during postural control in older adults with SO. The study enrolled 50 older [...] Read more.
Sarcopenic obesity (SO), characterized by age-related muscle loss and excess body fat, significantly impairs postural control. However, limited research has explored the effects of concurrent exercise training on neuromuscular strategies during postural control in older adults with SO. The study enrolled 50 older adults with SO, split into an intervention group (IG, n = 25, mean age = 76.1 ± 3.5 years; mean BMI = 34.4 ± 4.0 kg/m2) and a control group (CG, n = 25, mean age = 75.9 ± 5.4 years; mean BMI = 32.9 ± 2.3 kg/m2). Participants in the IG were engaged in 60-min Total Mobility Plus Program (TMP) sessions three times a week for four months, while the CG maintained their typical daily activities. Standardized evaluations were conducted both before and after the intervention. These assessments included the Romberg and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests, as well as the measurement of Center of Pressure (CoP) displacements parameters under various conditions. Additionally, ankle muscle activities were quantified during postural control evaluations and maximal voluntary contractions of plantar and dorsal flexors. Post-intervention results revealed a significant reduction of the standing time measured in the Romberg (−15.6%, p < 0.005) and TUG (−34.6%, p < 0.05) tests. Additionally, CoP area and velocity were notably reduced in various conditions (p < 0.05). Postural control improvements were associated with an increase of strength (p < 0.05) and decrease of ankle muscle activation (p < 0.05). These findings highlight the reversibility of neuromuscular system alterations associated with the synergistic effects of sarcopenia and obesity, emphasizing the trainability of postural control regulation within this population. By incorporating these insights into clinical practice and public health strategies, it seems possible to optimize the health and well-being of older adults with SO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motor Control and Healthy Ageing)
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14 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
Nomophobia and Its Association with Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS Scale), among Young Adults in Greece
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2765-2778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120191 - 26 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
Smartphones with their numerous applications have become essential daily equipment, prompting scientific research to deal with the impact of their use on psychosocial health. Under this spectrum, the aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine the association between nomophobia and the [...] Read more.
Smartphones with their numerous applications have become essential daily equipment, prompting scientific research to deal with the impact of their use on psychosocial health. Under this spectrum, the aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine the association between nomophobia and the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress, in relation to self-esteem and sociodemographic data, among the young adult population. The study sample consisted of 1408 young adults aged 18–25 years, participating on a voluntary basis with an online anonymous questionnaire. Data were collected through the “Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q)”, “Depression Anxiety Stress Scales—short form (DASS-21)”, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). The questionnaire also included socio-demographic characteristics and smartphone use variables. Data analysis showed that women were identified with severe depression and stress to a greater extent than men (63.3% vs. 55.1% for depression and 18.1% vs. 13.8% for stress scale). With respect to nomophobia, participants with severe levels of nomophobia also exhibited severe levels of negative emotional states in all DASS components, i.e., 40.6% in depression, 73.7% in anxiety, and 32.7% in stress (all p values < 0.001). Participants with severe levels of depression and anxiety were very often checking their phone and used it in all daily activities. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that self-esteem had a moderating effect on the relationship between nomophobia and DASS, a fact that modifies the association between the involved variables: stronger relationships appeared between nomophobia and DASS components in individuals with normal/high self-esteem than in individuals with low self-esteem. Full article
18 pages, 785 KiB  
Article
Psychometric Properties of a New Mexican Optimism Scale: Ethnopsychological Approach
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2747-2764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120190 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 823
Abstract
Background: In this paper, a Mexican Optimism Scale was constructed to investigate and estimate psychometric properties (reliability and validity based on the measurement model). The convergent validity and validity criterion were evaluated for a sample of young Mexicans. Methods: The scale was presented [...] Read more.
Background: In this paper, a Mexican Optimism Scale was constructed to investigate and estimate psychometric properties (reliability and validity based on the measurement model). The convergent validity and validity criterion were evaluated for a sample of young Mexicans. Methods: The scale was presented to 848 Mexican young people aged between 17 and 30 years from three different regions of Mexico. The scale was reduced to 20 items on the basis of CFA and analyses of internal consistency. Results: The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) suggested a three-factor structure of optimism: affective resources, positive vision and hope. The data provided evidence for convergent validity with positive affect, negative affect and coping. Additionally, males scored higher on affective resources and positive vision than females. Finally, the results support the reliability of the instrument. Conclusions: The psychometric properties of the Mexican Optimism Scale proved to be highly acceptable and allow for a novel assessment of optimism from an ethnopsychological perspective. Validity, reliability and invariance were determined, as well as percentiles for the practical use of the scale. This scale may be of crucial importance for future research on optimism and health. Full article
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11 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Diets including Animal Food Are Associated with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2736-2746; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120189 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 940
Abstract
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a clinical condition with a prevalence of up to 25% in Western countries. Typical GERD symptoms include heartburn and retrosternal regurgitation. Lifestyle modifications, including diet, are considered a first-line therapeutic approach. To evaluate the impact of life habits [...] Read more.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a clinical condition with a prevalence of up to 25% in Western countries. Typical GERD symptoms include heartburn and retrosternal regurgitation. Lifestyle modifications, including diet, are considered a first-line therapeutic approach. To evaluate the impact of life habits on GERD in this cross-sectional study, we used data collected through an online survey from 1146 participants. GERD was defined according to the Montreal Consensus. For all participants, clinical and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Overall, 723 participants (63.1%) consumed a diet including animal food (non-vegans), and 423 participants (36.9%) were vegans. The prevalence of GERD was 11% (CI 95%, 9–14%) in non-vegans and 6% (CI 95%, 4–8%) in vegans. In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, subjects on a non-vegan diet were associated with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of GERD compared to vegans (OR = 1.96, CI 95%, 1.22–3.17, p = 0.006). BMI and smoking habits were also significantly associated with GERD. This study shows that an animal food-based diet (meat, fish, poultry, dairy, and eggs) is associated with an increased risk of GERD compared to a vegan diet. These findings might inform the lifestyle management of patients with GERD-related symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Research in Clinical and Health Contexts)
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