# Repairing of One-Way Solid Slab Exposed to Thermal Shock Using CFRP: Experimental and Analytical Study

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Research Significance

## 3. Experimental Work

#### 3.1. Materials

#### 3.1.1. Concrete

#### 3.1.2. Steel Reinforcement

#### 3.1.3. CFRP

#### 3.1.4. Epoxy

^{®}-330 was used as an anchorage resin for the mentioned CFRP materials and Sikandar

^{®}-52 LP was used for resin impregnation of CFRP ropes. Table 2 presents characteristics of epoxy, based on the manufacturer’s datasheet.

#### 3.2. Slab Details

#### 3.3. Thermal Shock Procedure

#### 3.4. Test Matrix

#### 3.5. Installation of CFRP

#### 3.5.1. CFRP Ropes and Strips Installation

^{®}-330 epoxy to install ropes and strip in the grooves, anchoring them with epoxy and leveling the surface. The installation process for both ropes and strips are similar as shown in Figure 10, with the difference being that the ropes were immersed in Sikandar

^{®}-52 LP epoxy. Repair samples were left at laboratory temperature for 7 days to ensure full strength development, as recommended by the manufacturer.

#### 3.5.2. CFRP Sheet Installation

^{®}-330 epoxy. The application of CFRP sheets is carried out externally using the same procedures mentioned in Section 3.5.1, as illustrated in Figure 11.

#### 3.6. Test Setup

## 4. Experimental Results

#### 4.1. Load-Deflection Curve

#### 4.2. Ultimate Load

#### 4.3. Maximum Deflection

#### 4.4. Failure Mode

#### 4.5. Stiffness

#### 4.6. Ductility Factor

#### 4.7. Toughness

## 5. Discussion of Experimental Results

#### 5.1. Impact of Thermal Shock (at 600 ℃)

#### 5.2. Impact of Spacing between CFRP Material

#### 5.2.1. Impact of Spacing between Ropes

#### 5.2.2. Impact of Spacing between Strips

#### 5.3. Impact of Number of Sheet Layers

#### 5.4. Impact of CFRP Form (Rope, Strip, Sheet)

## 6. Analytical Results

## 7. Numerical Analysis

#### 7.1. Finite Element Method (FEM)

#### 7.2. Model Description

#### 7.2.1. Parts

#### 7.2.2. Materials

- Concrete

- Concrete Damage Parameter (CDP)

- σ
_{c}: Concrete compressive stress along the descending stress–strain curve. - f′ co: Concrete compressive stress at the peak point.
- σt: Concrete tensile stress along the descending stress–strain curve.
- f′ ct: Concrete tensile stress at the peak point.

- Steel reinforcement

^{9}kg/mm

^{3}, and the Poisson’s ratio was 0.3.

- CFRP

#### 7.3. Numerical Results

## 8. Conclusions

- Exposure to thermal shock has an obvious and significant effect on mechanical properties. This effect is characterized by a decline in parameters such as compressive strength, elasticity, load capacity, toughness, and ductility.
- Extensive cracks were observed to propagate across the concrete surface of thermally shocked slabs without spalling, a phenomenon attributed to water evaporation.
- The use of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer showed a noteworthy enhancement of the mechanical and structural properties of thermally shocked slabs, particularly in terms of load capacity, stiffness, toughness, and deflection.
- All rehabilitated slabs exhibited the ability to recover their initial capacity before being subjected to thermal shock. However, the repaired slabs were unable to regain their original stiffness, likely due to internal cracks.
- The utilization of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer led to a reduction in the ductility property of thermally shocked slabs, possibly due to the brittle nature of the material.
- This research demonstrated that decreasing the spacing between carbon fiber-reinforced polymer materials resulted in improved load capacity: 2.9% for ropes and 14.6% for strips. Similarly, stiffness increased by 1.8% for ropes and 29.9% for strips, with positive effects extending to deflection reduction. Similar enhancements were observed with an increase in the number of layers.
- Thermal shock may have a negative effect on the failure mode of the slab. In this research, it shifted from flexural failure to brittle shear failure.
- The theoretical analysis consistently demonstrated slightly superior performance compared to the experimental results. Therefore, it is advisable to incorporate a safety factor when evaluating the load capacity of a repaired slab.
- The finite element method stands out as a potent tool for replicating experimental tests, and its results can be extrapolated to investigate scenarios that have not been examined experimentally, requiring significant cost and time.

## 9. Recommendation and Future Work

- No studies have investigated the effect of using various types of FRP, such as GFRP.
- Temperature may play different roles in response and behavior; therefore, an in-depth understanding of the effect of temperature values and their correlations is needed.
- Conducting more research on various structural elements such as columns and two-way solid slabs.
- Using FRP with different configurations, such as orientation (45° and 90°), sheet widths (100 and 200 mm), CFRP rope and strip with different lengths, and more than one layer (2 and 3).

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 9.**Repair configuration: (

**a**) RS-R-D10; (

**b**) RS-R-D20; (

**c**) RS-St-D10; (

**d**) RS-St-D20; (

**e**) RS-Sh-L1; (

**f**) RS-Sh-L2.

**Figure 13.**Load-deflection curve of slabs: (

**a**) CS1-N; CS2-N; (

**b**) CS3-ETS; (

**c**) RS-R-D10; (

**d**) RS-R-D20; (

**e**) RS-St-D10; (

**f**) RS-St-D20; (

**g**) RS-Sh-L1; (

**h**) RS-Sh-L2.

**Figure 15.**Failure mode of slabs: (

**a**) CS1-N; (

**b**) CS2-N; (

**c**) CS 3-ETS; (

**d**) RS-R-D10; (

**e**) RS-R-D20; (

**f**) RS-St-D10; (

**g**) RS-St-D20; (

**h**) RS-Sh-L1; (

**i**) RS-Sh-L2.

**Figure 16.**Percentage of the impact of thermal shock on the characteristics of the load-deflection curve.

**Figure 17.**Percentage of the impact of the spacing between the ropes on the characteristics of the load-deflection curve.

**Figure 18.**Percentage of the impact of the spacing between the strips on the characteristics of the load-deflection curve.

**Figure 19.**Percentage of the impact of the number of sheet layers on the characteristics of the load-deflection curve.

**Figure 20.**Percentage of the impact of CFRP form (rope, strip, and sheet) on the characteristics of the load-deflection curve at 10 cm.

**Figure 21.**Percentage of the impact of CFRP form (rope and strip) on the characteristics of the load-deflection curve at 20 cm.

**Figure 22.**Stress and strain compatibility of concrete rectangular cross sections strengthened by NSM-CFRP under flexural capacity.

**Figure 23.**Stress–strain diagram: (

**a**) compressive curve for unheated slab; (

**b**) tensile curve for unheated slab; (

**c**) compressive curve for heated slab; (

**d**) tensile curve for heated slab.

**Figure 24.**Load-deflection curve for experimental vs. numerical results: (

**a**) CS avg-N; (

**b**) CS3-TS; (

**c**) RS-R-D10; (

**d**) RS-R-D20; (

**e**) RS-St-D10; (

**f**) RS-St-D20; (

**g**) RS-Sh-L1; (

**h**) RS-Sh-L2.

**Figure 25.**Failure mode for slabs using FE model: (

**a**) CS1-N; CS2-N; (

**b**) CS 3-ETS; (

**c**) RS-R-D10; (

**d**) RS-R-D20; (

**e**) RS-St-D10; (

**f**) RS-St-D20; (

**g**) RS-Sh-L1; (

**h**) RS-Sh-L2.

Characteristics | CFRP Type | ||
---|---|---|---|

Rope | Strip | Sheet | |

Elasticit Modulus (GPa) | 240 | 165 | 230 |

Tensile Strength (MPa) | 4000 | 3100 | 4900 |

Fiber Density (g/cm^{3}) | 1.82 | 1.6 | 1.8 |

Cross Section (mm^{2}) | 28 | 37.5 | 167/m width |

Elongation at Break | ≥1.6% | ≥1.7% | 1.7% |

Characteristics | Epoxy Type | |
---|---|---|

Sikandar^{®}-330 | Sikandar^{®}-52 LP | |

Packaging | 5 kg A + B (light grey) | 4 kg A + B (Yellowish brownish) |

Density (Kg/L) | 1.3 ± 0.1 | 1.06 |

Tensile Strength (MPa) | 30 | 27 |

Elastic Modulus (MPa) | 4500 | 1100 |

Mixing Ratio | A:B = 4:1 part by weight | A:B = 2:1 part by weight and by volume |

Elongation at Break | 0.9% | 1.9% |

Symbol | Indicator |
---|---|

CS | Control Slab |

RS | Repairing Slab exposed to thermal shock |

N | Natural |

TS | Thermal Shock |

R | Rope |

St | Strip |

Sh | Sheet |

D10 | Distance = 10 cm |

D20 | Distance = 20 cm |

L1 | One Layer |

L2 | Two Layers |

NO of Sample | Labeled | Exposure to Thermal Shock | Type of FRP | Parameter | Repair Configuration |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | CS1-N | Non | Non | Non | N/A |

2 | CS2-N | Non | Non | Non | N/A |

3 | CS3-TS | Exposed | Non | Non | N/A |

4 | RS-R-D10 | Exposed | Rope | Spacing (10 cm) | Rope at 10 cm |

5 | RS-R-D20 | Exposed | Rope | Spacing (20 cm) | Rope at 20 cm |

6 | RS-St-D10 | Exposed | Strip | Spacing (10 cm) | Strip at 10 cm |

7 | RS-St-D20 | Exposed | Strip | Spacing (20 cm) | Strip at 20 cm |

8 | RS-Sh-L1 | Exposed | Sheet | One Layer | One layer of sheet |

9 | RS-Sh-L2 | Exposed | Sheet | Two Layers | Two layers of sheet |

Name | Ultimate Load (KN) | Max Deflection (mm) | Stiffness (KN/mm) | Ductility Factor | Toughness (KN.mm) | * Failure Mode |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

** CS avg-N | 48.5 | 33.22 | 2.86 | 2.05 | 1200.58 | FF |

CS3-TS | 41.08 | 45.98 | 1.1 | 1.33 | 1162.60 | SF and F-S |

RS-R-D10 | 58.3 | 40.23 | 1.59 | 1.26 | 1247.02 | SF and CC |

RS-R-D20 | 57.09 | 44.84 | 1.57 | 1.28 | 1442.48 | SF and CS |

RS-St-D10 | 61.42 | 41.33 | 1.8 | 1.25 | 1494.92 | SF, CC, CS, and DF |

RS-St-D20 | 55.43 | 42.36 | 1.46 | 1.28 | 1308.06 | SF, CS, and DF |

RS-Sh-L1 | 50.88 | 33.8 | 1.8 | 1.03 | 1167.3 | SF |

RS-Sh-L2 | 63 | 38.63 | 1.82 | 1.1 | 1439.19 | SF, CC, CS, and DF |

Name | Ultimate Load (%) | Max Deflection (%) | Stiffness (%) | Ductility Factor (%) | Toughness (%) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

CSavg-N | 18.1 | −27.8 | 160 | 54.1 | 3.23 |

RS-R-D10 | 41.9 | −12.5 | 44.5 | −5.3 | 7.3 |

RS-R-D20 | 39 | −2.5 | 42.7 | −3.8 | 24.1 |

RS-St-D10 | 49.5 | −10.1 | 63.6 | −6 | 28.6 |

RS-St-D20 | 34.9 | −7.9 | 32.7 | −3.8 | 12.5 |

RS-Sh-L1 | 23.9 | −26.5 | 63.6 | −22.6 | 0.4 |

RS-Sh-L2 | 53.4 | −16 | 65.5 | −17.23 | 23.8 |

Name of Slab | Pn Exp (KN) | Pn Theo (KN) | Difference Ratio Compared with (Pn Exp) (%) | Deflection Exp (mm) | Deflection Theo (mm) | Difference Ratio Compared with (Deflection Exp) (%) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

CSavg-N | 48.5 | 51.46 | 6.1 | 33.22 | 26.38 | −20.59 |

CS3-TS | 41.08 | 42.83 | 4.26 | 45.98 | 38.59 | −16.07 |

RS-R-D10 | 58.3 | 65.81 | 12.88 | 40.23 | 54.76 | 36.12 |

RS-R-D20 | 57.09 | 59.62 | 4.43 | 44.84 | 53.63 | 19.6 |

RS-St-D10 | 61.42 | 64.44 | 4.92 | 41.33 | 57.69 | 39.58 |

RS-St-D20 | 55.43 | 58.81 | 6.1 | 42.36 | 52.07 | 22.92 |

RS-Sh-L1 | 50.88 | 54.11 | 6.35 | 33.8 | 41.4 | 50.03 |

RS-Sh-L2 | 63 | 63.05 | 0.07 | 38.63 | 59.18 | 53.2 |

Part | Modeling Space | Element Type | Shape |
---|---|---|---|

Concrete | 3D | C3D8R: An 8-node linear brick, reduced integration, hourglass control. | Solid |

Steel bars | 3D | T3D2: A 2-node linear 3D truss. | Wire |

Load plate | 3D | C3D8R: An 8-node linear brick, reduced integration, hourglass control. | Solid |

Support plate | 3D | C3D8R: An 8-node linear brick, reduced integration, hourglass control. | Solid |

Rope | 3D | T3D2: A 2-node linear 3D truss. | Wire |

Strip | 3D | S4R: A 4-node doubly curved thin or thick shell, reduced integration, hourglass control, finite membrane strains. | Shell |

Sheet | 3D | S4R: A 4-node doubly curved thin or thick shell, reduced integration, hourglass control, finite membrane strains. | Shell |

Material | Density | Elastic Modulus (Mpa) | Poisson’s Ratio |
---|---|---|---|

Rope | 1.82 × 10^{−9} | 240,000 | 0.2 |

Strip | 1.6 × 10^{−9} | 165,000 | 0.2 |

Sheet | 1.8 × 10^{−9} | 230,000 | 0.2 |

Name of Slab | Ultimate Load Numerical (KN) | Max Deflection Numerical (mm) | Failure Mode |
---|---|---|---|

CSavg-N | 53.12 | 31.89 | FF |

CS3-TS | 45.34 | 43.88 | SF |

RS-R-D10 | 62.94 | 36.28 | SF |

RS-R-D20 | 61.9 | 42.6 | SF |

RS-St-D10 | 62.65 | 40.86 | SF |

RS-St-D20 | 60.46 | 36.36 | SF |

RS-Sh-L1 | 53.98 | 30.68 | SF |

RS-Sh-L2 | 63.45 | 38.26 | SF |

**Table 11.**Difference ratio of the numerical results compared to the experimental and theoretical results.

Name of Slab | Pn Compared to Experimental Results (%) | Max Deflection Compared to Experimental Results (%) | Pn Compared to Theoretical Results (%) | Max Deflection Compared to Theoretical Results (%) |
---|---|---|---|---|

CS avg-N | 9.54 | −4.01 | 6.42 | 20.87 |

CS3-TS | 10.38 | −4.58 | 11.45 | 13.70 |

RS-R-D10 | 7.96 | −9.83 | −4.36 | −33.75 |

RS-R-D20 | 8.42 | −5 | 3.81 | −20.56 |

RS-St-D10 | 2.01 | −1.14 | −2.78 | −29.17 |

RS-St-D20 | 9.07 | −14.16 | 4.62 | −30.17 |

RS-Sh-L1 | 6.09 | −9.2 | −0.24 | −35.81 |

RS-Sh-L2 | 0.71 | −0.95 | 0.64 | −35.35 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Shhabat, M.; Ashteyat, A.; Abdel-Jaber, M.
Repairing of One-Way Solid Slab Exposed to Thermal Shock Using CFRP: Experimental and Analytical Study. *Fibers* **2024**, *12*, 18.
https://doi.org/10.3390/fib12020018

**AMA Style**

Shhabat M, Ashteyat A, Abdel-Jaber M.
Repairing of One-Way Solid Slab Exposed to Thermal Shock Using CFRP: Experimental and Analytical Study. *Fibers*. 2024; 12(2):18.
https://doi.org/10.3390/fib12020018

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Shhabat, Mousa, Ahmed Ashteyat, and Mu’tasim Abdel-Jaber.
2024. "Repairing of One-Way Solid Slab Exposed to Thermal Shock Using CFRP: Experimental and Analytical Study" *Fibers* 12, no. 2: 18.
https://doi.org/10.3390/fib12020018