Next Issue
Volume 10, May
Previous Issue
Volume 10, March
 
 

Sports, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2022) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Two forms of carbohydrate sensing in the mouth (i.e., carbohydrate mouth rinse and carbohydrate mouth spray), which do not involve ingestion of the carbohydrate solution, have been introduced with the goal of maintaining performance during prolonged exercise. This study aimed to examine the effects of both forms of carbohydrate sensing on reducing performance decline during ultra-high intensity intermittent exercise over time in recreationally trained male college students. Both solutions were found to be effective at reducing performance decline during exercise fatigue. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
11 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Early Sport Specialization and Relative Age Effect: Prevalence and Influence on Perceived Competence in Ice Hockey Players
by Vincent Huard Pelletier and Jean Lemoyne
Sports 2022, 10(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040062 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3187
Abstract
The relative age effect (RAE) and early sport specialization (ESS) have been of growing interest in the sports world, especially in ice hockey, because of their potential adverse effects. However, little is known about their distribution within each level of play in Canadian [...] Read more.
The relative age effect (RAE) and early sport specialization (ESS) have been of growing interest in the sports world, especially in ice hockey, because of their potential adverse effects. However, little is known about their distribution within each level of play in Canadian minor ice hockey, or whether they influence young people’s perceived competence, a variable of interest in long-term sports development. A sample of elite adolescent players (N = 204) and a sample of recreational and competitive players (N = 404) were used to measure these constructs, and chi-square tabulations were conducted to compare their distribution. Our results reveal that RAE (χ2 = 20.03, p < 0.01, Cramer’s V = 0.13) and ESS (χ2 = 66.14, p < 0.001, Cramer’s V = 0.24) are present, but there are apparently no gender differences in their distributions. Neither the level of RAE nor ESS seems to affect the perceived competence of the players, regardless of gender. The results of this study highlight the presence of RAE and ESS in Canadian minor ice hockey, especially at the elite level, but indicate that they do not affect the self-perception of ice hockey players. Additional research on these concepts is needed to obtain a complete picture of their potential impact on sports development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
11 pages, 490 KiB  
Article
The Cut-Off Value for Classifying Active Italian Children Using the Corresponding National Version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire
by Corrado Lupo, Gennaro Boccia, Alexandru Nicolae Ungureanu, Anna Mulasso, Paolo De Pasquale, Annamaria Mancini, Pasqualina Buono, Alberto Rainoldi and Paolo Riccardo Brustio
Sports 2022, 10(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040061 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2569
Abstract
The present study aimed to determine a cut-off value following the filling in of a questionnaire (PAQ-C-It) to identify active Italian children. One-hundred-twenty-nine primary school children (5 Piedmont schools; 47.3% female; mean age = 10 ± 1 years) wore an accelerometer (Actigraph wGT3X-BT) [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to determine a cut-off value following the filling in of a questionnaire (PAQ-C-It) to identify active Italian children. One-hundred-twenty-nine primary school children (5 Piedmont schools; 47.3% female; mean age = 10 ± 1 years) wore an accelerometer (Actigraph wGT3X-BT) to objectively quantify individual moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during one week. Afterwards, the PAQ-C-It was filled in by participants. A ROC curve procedure was applied to obtain an active/non-active cut-off point. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also applied to establish the relationship between the two parameters. According to the ROC analysis, the PAQ-C-It cut-off point value is identifiable at >2.75 to indicate active children (area under the curve = 0.62; standard error = 0.05; p = 0.025; coefficient intervals = 0.518–0.716; sensitivity = 0.592, specificity = 0.382), determining that 65 participants (55%) were non-active (mean PAQ-C-It value = 2.3 ± 0.4; active mean PAQ-C-It value = 3.3 ± 0.4). Spearman’s correlation coefficient results were significant but with a small effect size (rho = 0.214; p = 0.008). In conclusion, the present results suggest that the PAQ-C-It can be cautiously used as tool to practically classify active Italian children because of a non-solid relationship between respective accelerometer data and MVPA daily data. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
An Examination of the Experiences of Practitioners Delivering Sport Psychology Services within English Premier League Soccer Academies
by Francesca Dean, Emma Kavanagh, Amanda Wilding and Tim Rees
Sports 2022, 10(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040060 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4338
Abstract
Sport psychology has become increasingly recognized and accepted within professional sports, including soccer. To date, there is a lack of research that examines the provision of sport psychology within elite soccer, particularly from the experience of applied practitioners working within the field. The [...] Read more.
Sport psychology has become increasingly recognized and accepted within professional sports, including soccer. To date, there is a lack of research that examines the provision of sport psychology within elite soccer, particularly from the experience of applied practitioners working within the field. The current study adopted a qualitative, inductive approach, to examine the experiences of practitioners responsible for sport psychology delivery within elite soccer academies in England. Seven participants (four females; three males), working within academies in the English Premier League, took part in semi-structured interviews about their experience of delivering sport psychology services within elite soccer academies. Results demonstrated that the provision of sport psychology is continually evolving, yet there are a number of factors that appear to inhibit the full integration of the discipline into academy soccer. Six key themes were identified: The breadth of sport psychology provision; what is sport psychology; the stigma surrounding sport psychology services; psychological literacy; the elite youth soccer environment; and the delivery of sport psychology under the Elite Player Performance Plan. Participants identified a lack of psychological literacy among coaches and academy staff, as well as a low level of guidance regarding the provision of psychology within the England Football Association’s guiding document—the Elite Player Performance Plan—leading to considerable variation in the nature of the sport psychology provision. Future research would do well to also sample from a range of staff working within English soccer academies, in order to assess their perception of the level of provision and understanding of psychology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
14 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
The Birthplace Effect in 14–18-Year-Old Athletes Participating in Competitive Individual and Team Sports
by Zohar Maayan, Ronnie Lidor and Michal Arnon
Sports 2022, 10(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040059 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3066
Abstract
The birthplace (the place where an athlete was born) effect (BPE) has been found to be one of the environmental variables associated with early talent development and the achievement of a high level of proficiency in sport. The purpose of the current study [...] Read more.
The birthplace (the place where an athlete was born) effect (BPE) has been found to be one of the environmental variables associated with early talent development and the achievement of a high level of proficiency in sport. The purpose of the current study is twofold: (1) to calculate the BPE in 14–18-year-old athletes who participated in individual and team sports and (2) examine how coaches perceived this effect. The participants were 1397 athletes (390 females and 1007 males) who competed in 5 individual (gymnastics, judo, swimming, tennis, and track and field) and 5 team (basketball, soccer, team handball, volleyball, and water polo) sports, as well as 147 coaches who provided their preliminary thoughts about the BPE. Data analyses revealed that although the BPE was not found to be associated with cities of a similar size, it was observed that growing up in cities of small and medium sizes was more beneficial than growing up in towns or cities of other sizes. Most of the coaches believed that certain characteristics of the place or city where the athlete grew up (e.g., proximity to sport facilities) could contribute positively to the athlete’s development. We discuss how the BPE data can aid policymakers in developing a sport policy associated with early phases of talent development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
17 pages, 6228 KiB  
Article
Talent Identification in Elite Adolescent Ice Hockey Players: The Discriminant Capacity of Fitness Tests, Skating Performance and Psychological Characteristics
by Jean Lemoyne, Jean-François Brunelle, Vincent Huard Pelletier, Julien Glaude-Roy and Gaëtan Martini
Sports 2022, 10(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040058 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4685
Abstract
Background: The process of talent identification in ice hockey occurs during middle adolescence when players are selected to participate in “off-season” evaluation camps, where coaches observe their fitness levels and status of development. Recently, the Quebec ice hockey federation opted for a holistic [...] Read more.
Background: The process of talent identification in ice hockey occurs during middle adolescence when players are selected to participate in “off-season” evaluation camps, where coaches observe their fitness levels and status of development. Recently, the Quebec ice hockey federation opted for a holistic approach by evaluating players based on three criteria: (1) fitness, (2) skating abilities and (3) personality traits and psychological assets. This study aimed to analyze the discriminant validity of a multi-dimensional talent identification testing protocol in competitive ice hockey. Method: Data were collected from 160 adolescent hockey players who took part in Team Quebec summer evaluation camps. Off-ice fitness, skating abilities and psychological variables were measured on two consecutive days. Descriptive statistics, group comparisons (gender, positions) and discriminant analyses (selected versus non-selected) were performed. Results: No differences were observed among males in which selected players were similar to non-selected. Results from discriminant analyses also showed no discriminant function for male players. For females, selected players displayed higher fitness, on-ice agility and psychological characteristics. Nine performance markers were significantly discriminant. Conclusions: A holistic evaluation protocol allows for the discrimination of selected and non-selected players in elite ice hockey. Developing more discriminant tests is a promising avenue of research in male ice hockey. Knowing the factors that are associated with team selection in competitive ice hockey allow to focus on the specific attributes to work with young promising players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2063 KiB  
Article
Level of Agreement, Reliability, and Minimal Detectable Change of the MusclelabTM Laser Speed Device on Force–Velocity–Power Sprint Profiles in Division II Collegiate Athletes
by Jamie J. Ghigiarelli, Keith J. Ferrara, Kevin M. Poblete, Carl F. Valle, Adam M. Gonzalez and Katie M. Sell
Sports 2022, 10(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040057 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3428
Abstract
This study examined the level of agreement (Pearson product-moment correlation [rP]), within- and between-day reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]), and minimal detectable change of the MusclelabTM Laser Speed (MLS) device on sprint time and force–velocity–power profiles in Division II [...] Read more.
This study examined the level of agreement (Pearson product-moment correlation [rP]), within- and between-day reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]), and minimal detectable change of the MusclelabTM Laser Speed (MLS) device on sprint time and force–velocity–power profiles in Division II Collegiate athletes. Twenty-two athletes (soccer = 17, basketball = 2, volleyball = 3; 20.1 ± 1.5 y; 1.71 ± 0.11 m; 70.7 ± 12.5 kg) performed three 30-m (m) sprints on two separate occasions (seven days apart). Six time splits (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 m), horizontal force (HZT F0; N∙kg−1), peak velocity (VMAX; m∙s−1), horizontal power (HZT P0; W∙kg−1), and force–velocity slope (SFV; N·s·m−1·kg−1) were measured. Sprint data for the MLS were compared to the previously validated MySprint (MySp) app to assess for level of agreement. The MLS reported good to excellent reliability for within- and between-day trials (ICC = 0.69–0.98, ICC = 0.77–0.98, respectively). Despite a low level of agreement with HZT F0 (rP = 0.44), the MLS had moderate to excellent agreement across nine variables (rp = 0.68–0.98). Bland–Altman plots displayed significant proportional bias for VMAX (mean difference = 0.31 m∙s−1, MLS < MySp). Overall, the MLS is in agreement with the MySp app and is a reliable device for assessing sprint times, VMAX, HZT P0, and SFV. Proportional bias should be considered for VMAX when comparing the MLS to the MySp app. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Biomechanics for Sports)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 568 KiB  
Review
Training Monitoring in Sports: It Is Time to Embrace Cognitive Demand
by Stéphane Perrey
Sports 2022, 10(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040056 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5942
Abstract
Appropriate training burden monitoring is still a challenge for the support staff, athletes, and coaches. Extensive research has been done in recent years that proposes several external and internal indicators. Among all measurements, the importance of cognitive factors has been indicated but has [...] Read more.
Appropriate training burden monitoring is still a challenge for the support staff, athletes, and coaches. Extensive research has been done in recent years that proposes several external and internal indicators. Among all measurements, the importance of cognitive factors has been indicated but has never been really considered in the training monitoring process. While there is strong evidence supporting the use of cognitive demand indicators in cognitive neuroscience, their importance in training monitoring for multiple sports settings must be better emphasized. The aims of this scoping review are to (1) provide an overview of the cognitive demand concept beside the physical demand in training; (2) highlight the current methods for assessing cognitive demand in an applied setting to sports in part through a neuroergonomics approach; (3) show how cognitive demand metrics can be exploited and applied to our better understanding of fatigue, sport injury, overtraining and individual performance capabilities. This review highlights also the potential new ways of brain imaging approaches for monitoring in situ. While assessment of cognitive demand is still in its infancy in sport, it may represent a very fruitful approach if applied with rigorous protocols and deep knowledge of both the neurobehavioral and cognitive aspects. It is time now to consider the cognitive demand to avoid underestimating the total training burden and its management. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 550 KiB  
Review
Kinesiology, Physical Activity, Physical Education, and Sports through an Equity/Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion (EDI) Lens: A Scoping Review
by Khushi Arora and Gregor Wolbring
Sports 2022, 10(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040055 - 7 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7584
Abstract
Background: Equity, equality, diversity, and inclusion are terms covered in the academic literature focusing on sports, kinesiology, physical education, and physical activity, including in conjunction with marginalized groups. Universities in many countries use various EDI policy frameworks and work under the EDI headers [...] Read more.
Background: Equity, equality, diversity, and inclusion are terms covered in the academic literature focusing on sports, kinesiology, physical education, and physical activity, including in conjunction with marginalized groups. Universities in many countries use various EDI policy frameworks and work under the EDI headers “equality, diversity and inclusion”, “equity, diversity and inclusion”, “diversity, equity and inclusion”, and similar phrases (all referred to as EDI) to rectify problems students, non-academic staff, and academic staff from marginalized groups, such as women, Indigenous peoples, visible/racialized minorities, disabled people, and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer or Questioning, and Two-Spirit (LGBTQ2S+) experience. Which EDI data, if any, are generated influences EDI efforts in universities (research, education, and general workplace climate) of all programs. Method: Our study used a scoping review approach and employed SCOPUS and the 70 databases of EBSCO-Host, which includes SportDiscus, as sources aimed to analyze the extent (and how) the academic literature focusing on sports, kinesiology, physical education, and physical activity engages with EDI. Results: We found only 18 relevant sources and a low to no coverage of marginalized groups linked to EDI, namely racialized minorities (12), women (6), LGBTQ2S+ (5), disabled people (2), and Indigenous peoples (0). Conclusions: Our findings suggest a gap in the academic inquiry and huge opportunities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3438 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical and Psychological Predictors of Failure in the Air Force Physical Fitness Test
by Jeffrey Turner, Torrey Wagner and Brent Langhals
Sports 2022, 10(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040054 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3557
Abstract
Physical fitness is a pillar of U.S. Air Force (USAF) readiness and ensures that Airmen can fulfill their assigned mission and be fit to deploy in any environment. The USAF assesses the fitness of service members on a periodic basis, and discharge can [...] Read more.
Physical fitness is a pillar of U.S. Air Force (USAF) readiness and ensures that Airmen can fulfill their assigned mission and be fit to deploy in any environment. The USAF assesses the fitness of service members on a periodic basis, and discharge can result from failed assessments. In this study, a 21-feature dataset was analyzed related to 223 active-duty Airmen who participated in a comprehensive mental and social health survey, body composition assessment, and physical performance battery. Graphical analysis revealed pass/fail trends related to body composition and obesity. Logistic regression and limited-capacity neural network algorithms were then applied to predict fitness test performance using these biomechanical and psychological variables. The logistic regression model achieved a high level of significance (p < 0.01) with an accuracy of 0.84 and AUC of 0.89 on the holdout dataset. This model yielded important inferences that Airmen with poor sleep quality, recent history of an injury, higher BMI, and low fitness satisfaction tend to be at greater risk for fitness test failure. The neural network model demonstrated the best performance with 0.93 accuracy and 0.97 AUC on the holdout dataset. This study is the first application of psychological features and neural networks to predict fitness test performance and obtained higher predictive accuracy than prior work. Accurate prediction of Airmen at risk of failing the USAF fitness test can enable early intervention and prevent workplace injury, absenteeism, inability to deploy, and attrition. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 502 KiB  
Article
Effect of Two Different Training Interventions on Cycling Performance in Mountain Bike Cross-Country Olympic Athletes
by Patrick Schneeweiss, Philipp Schellhorn, Daniel Haigis, Andreas Michael Niess, Peter Martus and Inga Krauss
Sports 2022, 10(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040053 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3457
Abstract
To improve performance in endurance sports, it is important to include both high-intensity and low-intensity training, but there is neither a universally accepted practice nor clear scientific evidence that allows reliable statements about the predominance of a specific training method. This randomized controlled [...] Read more.
To improve performance in endurance sports, it is important to include both high-intensity and low-intensity training, but there is neither a universally accepted practice nor clear scientific evidence that allows reliable statements about the predominance of a specific training method. This randomized controlled trial compared the effects of a polarized training model (POL) to a low-intensity training model (LIT) on physiological parameters and mountain bike cross-country Olympic (XCO) race performance in eighteen competitive XCO athletes (17.9 ± 3.6 years). The superiority of one of the two methods could not be shown in this study. The results did not show statistically significant differences between POL and LIT, as both interventions led to slight improvements. However, a small tendency toward better effects for POL was seen for cycling power output during the race (4.4% vs. –2.2%), at the 4 mmol/L (6.1% vs. 2.8%) and individual anaerobic lactate threshold (5.1% vs. 2.3%), and for maximal aerobic performance (4.4% vs. 2.6%), but not for maximal efforts lasting 10 to 300 s. Despite the lack of significant superiority in this and some other studies, many athletes and coaches prefer POL because it produces at least equivalent effects and requires less training time. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 833 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Dry-Land and Swimming Priming on 50 m Crawl Performance in Well-Trained Adolescent Swimmers
by Nikolaos Zaras, Andreas Apostolidis, Angeliki Kavvoura and Marios Hadjicharalambous
Sports 2022, 10(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040052 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of dry-land priming (DLP) versus swimming priming (SP) on the 50 m crawl performance of well-trained adolescent swimmers. Thirteen adolescent swimmers were randomly assigned to perform either a DLP or SP 24 h [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of dry-land priming (DLP) versus swimming priming (SP) on the 50 m crawl performance of well-trained adolescent swimmers. Thirteen adolescent swimmers were randomly assigned to perform either a DLP or SP 24 h prior to a 50 m sprint crawl time-trial. Baseline measurements included a 50 m sprint crawl time-trial as a control (C) condition, the evaluation of body composition, countermovement jump (CMJ), isometric peak torque (IPT), and rate of torque development (RTD). Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained following the DLP and SP programs. Both DLP and SP significantly decreased the 50 m crawl time-trial, by −2.51 ± 2.43% and −2.59 ± 1.89% (p < 0.01), respectively, compared with the C time-trial. RPE was not different between DLP and SP (p = 0.919). CMJ performance remained unchanged after DLP and SP programs compared with the C trial (p > 0.05). The percentage decrease in the 50 m crawl after DLP was significantly correlated with the percentage decrease in the 50 m crawl following SP (r = 0.720, p = 0.006). CMJ power, lean body mass, IPT, and RTD were significantly correlated with 50 m crawl performance. These results suggest that both DLP and SP strategies, when applied 24 h prior to a 50 m crawl time-trial, may enhance performance in well-trained adolescent swimmers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2576 KiB  
Article
Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse and Spray Improve Prolonged Exercise Performance in Recreationally Trained Male College Students
by Asako Shirai, Tsuyoshi Wadazumi, Yoko Hirata, Naomi Hamada and Nobuko Hongu
Sports 2022, 10(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040051 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4093
Abstract
Mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution has emerged as a sports nutrition strategy to increase endurance performance. This study aimed to clarify the effects of two forms of CHO sensing in the mouth (i.e., CHO mouth rinse (CMR) and CHO mouth spray [...] Read more.
Mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution has emerged as a sports nutrition strategy to increase endurance performance. This study aimed to clarify the effects of two forms of CHO sensing in the mouth (i.e., CHO mouth rinse (CMR) and CHO mouth spray (CMS)) on exercise performance during prolonged exercise, including ultra-high intensity intermittent exercise over time. We conducted the following experimental trials: (1) 6% glucose solution (G), (2) 6% CMR, (3) 6% CMS, and (4) water (WAT). These trials were conducted at least 1 week apart in a randomized crossover design. Eight male college students performed constant-load exercise for 60 min (intensity 40% VO2peak), four sets of the Wingate test (three 30 s Wingate tests with a 4 min recovery between each test), and a constant-load exercise for 30 min (intensity 40% VO2peak). The mean exercise power output (Watt), ratings of perceived exertion, and blood glucose levels were measured. We found that the mean power values of the CMR and CMS in the third and fourth sets was significantly higher than that of WAT (p < 0.05), and that the G trial did not show a significant difference from any other trial. Thus, when compared to G or WAT, CMR and CMS can help improve endurance exercise performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Recovery in Sport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1077 KiB  
Article
Is There a Sex Difference in Technical Skills among Youth Soccer Players in Norway?
by Arne Sørensen, Emma C. Haugen and Roland van den Tillaar
Sports 2022, 10(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040050 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 22300
Abstract
Female soccer has recently experienced an impressive increase in the number of players, and an impressive improvement in the quality of elite matches. Still, studies show sex differences in match statistics on passing accuracy and the ability to control the ball in international [...] Read more.
Female soccer has recently experienced an impressive increase in the number of players, and an impressive improvement in the quality of elite matches. Still, studies show sex differences in match statistics on passing accuracy and the ability to control the ball in international matches, which is explained by a lower skill of level in female soccer players as compared to male players. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate if female youth soccer players had bridged the gap in technical skills to reach the level that boys have traditionally attained. Sixteen male and 17 female youth soccer players of the same age and experience level took part in technical skill tests of reception of the ball on the ground and long passes. The results show a significant difference between the sexes in reception performance in favour of the male players (p < 0.05, ES = 1.09), but no significant difference in the long pass test (p = 0.11, ES = 0.43). This leads to the conclusion that the lower score on ball reception is probably the result of experience in small-sided self-organised soccer games during childhood among the male players, which influences reception skills but not the ability to make accurate long passes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3071 KiB  
Article
Combined Eccentric-Isokinetic and Isoinertial Training Leads to Large Ring-Specific Strength Gains in Elite Gymnasts
by Christoph Schärer, Pascal Bucher, Fabian Lüthy and Klaus Hübner
Sports 2022, 10(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040049 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4002
Abstract
In male elite gymnastics, lately, eccentric training is often used to improve the maximum specific strength of static elements on rings. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a three-week, gymnastic-specific, eccentric-isokinetic (0.1 m/s) cluster training with a change [...] Read more.
In male elite gymnastics, lately, eccentric training is often used to improve the maximum specific strength of static elements on rings. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a three-week, gymnastic-specific, eccentric-isokinetic (0.1 m/s) cluster training with a change of stimulus after three of six training sessions (eccentric-isokinetic with additional load) on a computer-controlled training device on the improvement of the elements swallow and support scale on rings. Maximum strength and strength endurance in maintaining the static positions of ten international elite male gymnasts were determined on a weekly basis. After three weeks of training, specific maximum strength and strength endurance increased significantly (strength: swallow: +8.72%, p < 0.001; support scale: 8.32%, p < 0.0001; strength endurance: swallow: +122.36%; p = 0.02; Support Scale: +93.30%; p = 0.03). Consequently, top gymnasts can considerably improve ring-specific strength and strength endurance in only three weeks. The separate analysis of the effects of both eccentric-isokinetic training modalities showed that efficiency might even be increased in future training interventions. We suggest using this type of training in phases in which the technical training load is low and monitoring the adaptations in order to compile an individually optimized training after an intervention. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 730 KiB  
Article
Roots to Grow and Wings to Fly: An Ethnography of Psychosocial Development in Adolescent Performance Sport
by Sergio Lara-Bercial and Jim McKenna
Sports 2022, 10(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040048 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2981
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the potential for sport to support psychosocial development in young people in a youth performance setting using a novel realistic evaluation approach. Part 1 of this two-paper series published in this Special Issue identified the programme theories—how the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the potential for sport to support psychosocial development in young people in a youth performance setting using a novel realistic evaluation approach. Part 1 of this two-paper series published in this Special Issue identified the programme theories—how the programme is supposed to work. A wide and deep network of context, generative mechanisms and outcomes responsible for psychosocial development in this youth performance basketball club emerged. The first paper also concluded that the outcomes and the experience are highly contextual and individualised. In this second part, the stakeholder’s programme theories were tested during a full-season ethnography of the same club. Immersion in the day-to-day environment generated a fine-grain analysis of the processes involved, including: (i) sustained attentional focus; (ii) structured and unstructured skill-building activities; (iii) deliberate and incidental support; and (iv) feelings indicating personal growth. Personal development in and through sport is thus shown to be conditional, multi-faceted, time-sensitive and idiosyncratic. The findings of this two-part study are considered to propose a model of psychosocial development in and through sport. This heuristic tool is presented to support sport psychologists, coaches, club administrators and parents to deliberately create and optimise developmental environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 427 KiB  
Article
Looking Back and Looking Around: How Athletes, Parents and Coaches See Psychosocial Development in Adolescent Performance Sport
by Sergio Lara-Bercial and Jim McKenna
Sports 2022, 10(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040047 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2898
Abstract
Sport has the potential to support psychosocial development in young people. However, extant studies have tended to evaluate purpose-built interventions, leaving regular organised sport relatively overlooked. Moreover, previous work has tended to concentrated on a narrow range of outcomes. To address these gaps, [...] Read more.
Sport has the potential to support psychosocial development in young people. However, extant studies have tended to evaluate purpose-built interventions, leaving regular organised sport relatively overlooked. Moreover, previous work has tended to concentrated on a narrow range of outcomes. To address these gaps, we conducted a season-long ethnography of a youth performance sport club based on a novel Realist Evaluation approach. We construed the club as a social intervention within a complex system of agents and structures. The results are published in this special issue as a two-part series. In this first paper, we detail the perceptions of former and current club parents, players and coaches, using them to build a set of programme theories. The resulting network of outcomes (i.e., self, emotional, social, moral and cognitive) and generative mechanisms (i.e., the attention factory, the greenhouse for growth, the personal boost and the real-life simulator), spanning across multiple contextual layers, provides a nuanced understanding of stakeholders’ views and experiences. This textured perspective of the multi-faceted process of development provides new insights for administrators, coaches and parents to maximise the developmental properties of youth sport, and signposts new avenues for research in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
Physiological Responses and Stroke Variables during Arm Stroke Swimming Using Critical Stroke Rate in Competitive Swimmers
by Yuki Funai, Masaru Matsunami, Shoichiro Taba and Shigehiro Takahashi
Sports 2022, 10(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040046 - 22 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2048
Abstract
The current study examined the physiological responses and stroke variables at critical stroke rate (CSR), 105% CSR, and 110% CSR in order to utilize CSR for prescription arm stroke swimming. Nine male national-level collegiate swimmers performed an all-out 200 m and 400 m [...] Read more.
The current study examined the physiological responses and stroke variables at critical stroke rate (CSR), 105% CSR, and 110% CSR in order to utilize CSR for prescription arm stroke swimming. Nine male national-level collegiate swimmers performed an all-out 200 m and 400 m for determining the CSR. Participants performed three sets of 6 × 100 m (with 10 s of rest between each bout), the stroke rate for each set was enforced at CSR, 105% CSR, and 110% CSR. Mean swimming velocity, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion were found to increase with each set (p < 0.05). Blood lactate concentration did not differ between the CSR and the 105% CSR (3.3 ± 1.4 vs. 3.5 ± 1.5 mmol/L) but was higher in 110% CSR (5.1 ± 1.6 mmol/L) than in the other two sets (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the stroke rate between all bouts in each set, and the stroke length did not change from the second to sixth bout in each set. This study suggested that training intensity for CSR and 105% CSR correspond to threshold level, and 110% CSR corresponds to high-intensity training level. It was also suggested that training in the CSR–110% CSR range could be performed without regard to SL reduction. Full article
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop