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Sports, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2022) – 18 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This narrative review describes neuromuscular fatigue and the complex processes that cause this specific type of fatigue. Fatigue management is essential for controlling the training adaptations of athletes and reducing their susceptibility to injury and illness. To control the fatigue, performance tests are most used for their practical application in team sports training. The main technologies used and their advantages and disadvantages are described, but ecology is the most important of these procedures in high‐performance sports settings. View this paper
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8 pages, 223 KiB  
Article
Plank Times and Lower Extremity Overuse Injury in Collegiate Track-and-Field and Cross Country Athletes
by Lace E. Luedke and Mitchell J. Rauh
Sports 2022, 10(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030045 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3010
Abstract
Trunk muscle endurance has been theorized to play a role in running kinematics and lower extremity injury. However, the evidence examining the relationships between static trunk endurance tests, such as plank tests, and lower extremity injury in athletes is conflicting. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Trunk muscle endurance has been theorized to play a role in running kinematics and lower extremity injury. However, the evidence examining the relationships between static trunk endurance tests, such as plank tests, and lower extremity injury in athletes is conflicting. The purpose of this study was to assess if collegiate cross country and track-and-field athletes with shorter pre-season prone and side plank hold times would have a higher incidence of lower extremity time-loss overuse injury during their competitive sport seasons. During the first week of their competitive season, 75 NCAA Division III uninjured collegiate cross country and track-and-field athletes (52% female; mean age 20.0 ± 1.3 years) performed three trunk endurance plank tests. Hold times for prone plank (PP), right-side plank (RSP) and left-side plank (LSP) were recorded in seconds. Athletes were followed prospectively during the season for lower extremity overuse injury that resulted in limited or missed practices or competitions. Among the athletes, 25 (33.3%) experienced a lower extremity overuse injury. There were no statistically significant mean differences or associations found between PP, RSP or LSP plank test hold times (seconds) and occurrence of lower extremity overuse injury. In isolation, plank hold times appear to have limited utility as a screening test in collegiate track-and-field and cross country athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance of Collegiate or College-Aged Athletes)
9 pages, 1948 KiB  
Brief Report
COVID19 Pandemic and Physical Activity: An Observational Study on Sleep Quality and Anxiety
by Ausilia Elce, Aurora Daniele, Ilaria Loperto, Lucia De Coppi, Armando Sangiorgio, Angelina Vivona, Clorinda Sorrentino, Simona Iannaccone, Lucia Martiniello and Ersilia Nigro
Sports 2022, 10(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030044 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2944
Abstract
Mental alterations were described during the COVID-19 pandemic and sleep deprivation has been reported as a consequence of social isolation. In Italy, the COVID-19 pandemic spread out at the beginning of 2020 determining severe lockdown periods. The aim of our study was to [...] Read more.
Mental alterations were described during the COVID-19 pandemic and sleep deprivation has been reported as a consequence of social isolation. In Italy, the COVID-19 pandemic spread out at the beginning of 2020 determining severe lockdown periods. The aim of our study was to observe the effects of lockdown on sleep and anxiety in trained non-professional subjects and professional athletes who continued to train during the lockdown period. Forty-six subjects (21 trained non-professional subjects and 25 professional athletes) were recruited from a variety of team and individual sports to complete a battery of previously validated and widely used questionnaires assessing psychometric and anthropometric parameters, physical activity levels, lifestyle habits, and sleep quality. Subjects were aged 27.0 ± 5.14. All items were evaluated as percentages and chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were performed, as appropriate. Our data showed that the prevalence of the difficulty of falling asleep (over 30%), the tendency of nocturnal awakenings (over 30%), and moderate anxiety (over 38%) were at the same extent in the two groups. Of the professional athletes, 72.73% declared snoring during sleep vs 42.86% of non-professional subjects. No other significant differences were found between the two groups except for the perception of being constant in daily activity, significantly more reported by trained subjects (p < 0.005). Our data show a similar scenario of anxiety and sleep disturbances for the two groups, suggesting that lockdown by the COVID-19 pandemic has partially mitigated the known beneficial effects due to physical activity on mental health and sleep quality. Further analyses are necessary to define the associated risk factors. Full article
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22 pages, 10429 KiB  
Article
The Impact of COVID-19-Related Mitigation Measures on the Health and Fitness Status of Primary School Children in Austria: A Longitudinal Study with Data from 708 Children Measured before and during the Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic
by Gerald Jarnig, Reinhold Kerbl and Mireille N. M. van Poppel
Sports 2022, 10(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030043 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4772
Abstract
The COVID-19-related closing of schools and sport facilities resulted in major changes to daily routines worldwide. It was the aim of this study to investigate the impact of COVID-19-related mitigation measures on the health and fitness status of primary school children in Austria. [...] Read more.
The COVID-19-related closing of schools and sport facilities resulted in major changes to daily routines worldwide. It was the aim of this study to investigate the impact of COVID-19-related mitigation measures on the health and fitness status of primary school children in Austria. Seven hundred and eight primary school children (7–10 years old) participated in the longitudinal study. Data on height, weight, waist circumference, and fitness were collected before (September 2019) and during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic (June 20, September 20, March 21, June 21). A significant increase in EQUI BMIAUTp2 = 0.087) and significant changes (ηp2 = 0.355) in waist circumference were found. Cardiorespiratory endurance (ηp2 = 0.440) and action speed (ηp2 = 0.221) decreased dramatically following lockdowns/school closures. In contrast, muscle strength showed no significant changes. The COVID-19-related mitigation measures intended to contain a communicable disease resulted in an acceleration of the pre-existing pandemic of overweight and obesity. The adverse combination of increasing BMI and the loss of physical fitness is likely to result in long-term negative effects on the health status of growing and developing individuals. Health professionals should therefore not only support further longitudinal observations of this “non-communicable disease” but also support intervention programs to reverse this worrying side-effect of COVID-19-associated containment policies. Full article
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29 pages, 715 KiB  
Review
Effects of Different Types of Exercise on Kidney Diseases
by Hamid Arazi, Majid Mohabbat, Payam Saidie, Akram Falahati and Katsuhiko Suzuki
Sports 2022, 10(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030042 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 12437
Abstract
The effects of exercise on kidney function have been studied for more than three decades. One of the most common health issues among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a lack of physical activity, which leads to a low exercise capacity in [...] Read more.
The effects of exercise on kidney function have been studied for more than three decades. One of the most common health issues among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a lack of physical activity, which leads to a low exercise capacity in these patients. The majority of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients do not exercise at all. At each stage of dialysis, patients lose 10–12 g of their amino acids through blood sampling. Dialysis also leads to increased cortisol and circadian rhythm sleep disorders in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Studies have also reported higher C-reactive protein levels in HD patients, which causes arterial stiffness. Exercise has a variety of health benefits in these patients, including improved blood pressure control, better sleep, higher physical function, and reduced anxiety and depression. On the other hand, it should be noted that intense exercise has the potential to progress KD, especially when conducted in hot weather with dehydration. This review aimed to investigate the effects of different types of exercise on kidney disease and provide exercise guidelines. In conclusion, moderate-intensity and long-term exercise (for at least a 6-month period), with consideration of the principles of exercise (individualization, intensity, time, etc.), can be used as an adjunctive treatment strategy in patients undergoing dialysis or kidney transplantation. Full article
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10 pages, 1474 KiB  
Article
Effects of Unilateral Muscle Fatigue on Thermographic Skin Surface Temperature of Back and Abdominal Muscles—A Pilot Study
by Carlo Dindorf, Eva Bartaguiz, Elena Janowicz, Michael Fröhlich and Oliver Ludwig
Sports 2022, 10(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030041 - 8 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3343
Abstract
The present study aimed to assess the effects of asymmetric muscle fatigue on the skin surface temperature of abdominal and back muscles. The study was based on a pre-post/follow-up design with one group and included a total of 41 subjects (22 male, 19 [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to assess the effects of asymmetric muscle fatigue on the skin surface temperature of abdominal and back muscles. The study was based on a pre-post/follow-up design with one group and included a total of 41 subjects (22 male, 19 female; age, 22.63 ± 3.91; weight, 71.89 ± 12.97 kg; height, 173.36 ± 9.95). All the participants were asked to perform side bends in sets of 20 repetitions on a Roman chair until complete exhaustion. The pre-, post- and follow-up test (24 h after) skin surface temperatures were recorded with infrared thermography. Subjective muscle soreness and muscle fatigue were analyzed using two questionnaires. The results of the post hoc tests showed that skin temperature was statistically significantly lower in the post-tests than in the pre- and follow-up tests, but no meaningful differences existed between the pre- and follow-up tests. Asymmetric side differences were found in the post-test for the upper and lower areas of the back. Differences were also noted for the front in both the upper and lower areas. No thermographic side asymmetries were found at the pre- or follow-up measurement for either the back or the front. Our results support the potential of using thermographic skin surface temperature to monitor exercise and recovery in athletes, as well as its use in rehabilitational exercise selection. Full article
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9 pages, 1880 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Reduction in Training Volume during the COVID-19 Era on Performance in 100-m and 400-m Freestyle Events in Greek Swimming Championships
by George Tsalis and Vassilis Mougios
Sports 2022, 10(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030040 - 7 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2116
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic had a profound impact on almost all social activities, including sport participation. Swimming training was greatly reduced during the 2019–2020 and 2020–2021 seasons (by four and two months, respectively), which caused athletes and coaches to worry about performance in championships. [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic had a profound impact on almost all social activities, including sport participation. Swimming training was greatly reduced during the 2019–2020 and 2020–2021 seasons (by four and two months, respectively), which caused athletes and coaches to worry about performance in championships. The present study investigated the impact of COVID-19 lockdowns on the results of Greek swimming championships in the categories of 13 to 18 years of age during 2020 and 2021. Forty-one coaches were interviewed about the training process (satisfaction, duration of the training season, and daily training swimming distance), and the performance of swimmers in national championships over seven seasons (2014–2021) was analyzed. The duration of the training season and the daily swimming distance, as reported by the coaches, were lower during the 2019–2020 and 2020–2021 seasons, compared to the previous five seasons (p < 0.001). The number of swimmers who achieved qualifying times for the national championships during the COVID-19 era were similar to those in previous years. Comparisons of the times in the 100-m and 400-m freestyle events, in both genders, from 2015 through 2021, showed no significant differences except for the 400-m event in males, in which a lower performance was detected in 2021 compared to 2015 (by 2.7%, p = 0.001). In conclusion, two or four months of detraining during the COVID-19 era had a negative impact on the coaches’ evaluation of the training process, but there was no effect on the number of young swimmers who qualified for the national championships and a negligible effect on swimming performance in 100-m and 400-m freestyle events. Full article
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17 pages, 1421 KiB  
Article
Relative Age Effects in Male Cricket: A Personal Assets Approach to Explain Immediate, Short-Term, and Long-Term Developmental Outcomes
by Adam L. Kelly, Thomas Brown, Rob Reed, Jean Côté and Jennifer Turnnidge
Sports 2022, 10(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030039 - 5 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5846
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to adopt the Personal Assets Framework (PAF) to examine the immediate, short-term, and long-term developmental outcomes associated with relative age effects (RAEs) in male cricket. As such, this study was comprised of three aims: (a) examine the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to adopt the Personal Assets Framework (PAF) to examine the immediate, short-term, and long-term developmental outcomes associated with relative age effects (RAEs) in male cricket. As such, this study was comprised of three aims: (a) examine the birth quarter (BQ) distribution of players throughout the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) national talent pathway (i.e., Regional U15, Regional U17, England U19, England Lions, England T20, England ODI, and England Test; n = 1800; immediate timescale), (b) explore the youth-to-senior transitions based on BQ and skill-set (i.e., batters and bowlers; short-term timescale), and (c) analyse the average number of games played at senior levels based on BQ and skill-set (i.e., long-term timescale). A chi-square goodness of fit test, Cramer’s V, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals were used to compare the BQ distributions of each cohort against the expected BQ distributions. In the immediate timescale, results showed that relatively older players were overrepresented throughout all the youth levels (p < 0.05, V = 0.16–0.30), whereas there were no differences at senior levels (p > 0.05, V = 0.05–0.15). In the short-term timescale, when the senior cohorts were compared to the expected BQ distributions based on the Regional U15 cohort, relatively younger players were more likely to transition from youth to senior levels (p < 0.05, V = 0.22–0.37). In the long-term timescale, relatively older batters were selected for more games (p < 0.05, V = 0.18–0.51), whereas relatively younger bowlers were selected for more games (p < 0.05, V = 0.17–0.39). Moving forward, it is important for researchers and practitioners to better understand how (bi)annual-age grouping shapes developmental outcomes in across different timescales (i.e., immediate, short-term, and long-term), as well as consider alternative grouping strategies and RAE solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
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17 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Dietary Intake of Adults Who Participate in CrossFit® Exercise Regimens
by Regis C. Pearson and Nathan T. Jenkins
Sports 2022, 10(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030038 - 5 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4149
Abstract
Background: The combination of high-intensity aerobic and high-load resistance training, as in CrossFit®, exerts similar or superior benefits to other exercise modalities. This study aimed to assess dietary habits and characterize the nutritional goals, exercise habits, and clinical health outcomes of [...] Read more.
Background: The combination of high-intensity aerobic and high-load resistance training, as in CrossFit®, exerts similar or superior benefits to other exercise modalities. This study aimed to assess dietary habits and characterize the nutritional goals, exercise habits, and clinical health outcomes of individuals who participate in CrossFit®. Methods: Adults who are 19 y or older, with >6 mo of CrossFit® participation, completed an electronic survey and the dietary health questionnaire III. In separate models, multiple stepwise linear regressions were performed to detect the associations between (i) dietary intake, (ii) exercise habits, (iii) clinical measures, and a priori selected predictors (sex, weight status, age, and exercise frequency) in each case. Odds ratios were detected between nutritional and fitness goals, clinical outcomes, and predictors. Results: In total, 449 respondents completed both questionnaires. Of these, 443 respondents were used for relative macronutrients assessment due to not reporting body weight. Dietary intake was associated with sex, weight status, age, exercise frequency, and nutritional goals. Nutritional and fitness goals and clinical outcomes were associated with sex, weight status, age, and exercise frequency. Conclusion: Nutritional goals are underlying factors that affect eating behaviors in non-competitive CrossFit® participants. It is imperative to consider the sex, age, exercise habits, and nutritional goals of CrossFit® participants when investigating and prescribing dietary outcomes. Full article
10 pages, 452 KiB  
Article
Vascular Function in Norwegian Female Elite Runners: A Cross-Sectional, Controlled Study
by Karoline Holsen Kyte, Trine Stensrud, Tore Julsrud Berg, Ingebjørg Seljeflot and Jonny Hisdal
Sports 2022, 10(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030037 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2816
Abstract
In general, aerobic exercise has a positive impact on the vascular system, but the syndrome of relative energy-deficiency in sports (RED-S) makes this impact less clear for the athlete. The present cross-sectional controlled study aimed to investigate the vascular function in female elite [...] Read more.
In general, aerobic exercise has a positive impact on the vascular system, but the syndrome of relative energy-deficiency in sports (RED-S) makes this impact less clear for the athlete. The present cross-sectional controlled study aimed to investigate the vascular function in female elite long-distance runners, compared to inactive women. Sixteen female elite long-distance runners and seventeen healthy controls were recruited. Assessments of vascular function and morphology included endothelial function, evaluated by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), vascular stiffness, evaluated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid artery reactivity (CAR %), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Blood samples included hormone analyses, metabolic parameters, lipids, and biomarkers reflecting endothelial activation. RED-S risk was assessed through the low energy availability in female questionnaire (LEAF-Q), and body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We found no significant differences in brachial FMD, PWV, CAR %, cIMT, or biomarkers reflecting endothelial activation between the two groups. Forty-four percent of the runners had a LEAF-Q score consistent with being at risk of RED-S. Runners showed significantly higher HDL-cholesterol and insulin sensitivity compared to controls. In conclusion, Norwegian female elite runners had an as good vascular function and morphology as inactive women of the same age. Full article
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12 pages, 844 KiB  
Review
Overuse of Short-Acting Beta-2 Agonists (SABAs) in Elite Athletes: Hypotheses to Explain It
by Nicolas Vertadier, Wojciech Trzepizur and Sébastien Faure
Sports 2022, 10(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030036 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5105
Abstract
The use of short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) is more common in elite athletes than in the general population, especially in endurance sports. The World Anti-Doping Code places some restrictions on prescribing inhaled β2-agonists. These drugs are used in respiratory diseases (such as asthma) [...] Read more.
The use of short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) is more common in elite athletes than in the general population, especially in endurance sports. The World Anti-Doping Code places some restrictions on prescribing inhaled β2-agonists. These drugs are used in respiratory diseases (such as asthma) that might reduce athletes’ performances. Recently, studies based on the results of the Olympic Games revealed that athletes with confirmed asthma/airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) outperformed their non-asthmatic rivals. This overuse of SABA by high-level athletes, therefore, raises some questions, and many explanatory hypotheses are proposed. Asthma and EIB have a high prevalence in elite athletes, especially within endurance sports. It appears that many years of intensive endurance training can provoke airway injury, EIB, and asthma in athletes without any past history of respiratory diseases. Some sports lead to a higher risk of asthma than others due to the hyperventilation required over long periods of time and/or the high environmental exposure while performing the sport (for example swimming and the associated chlorine exposure). Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have a low efficacy in the treatment of asthma and EIB in elite athletes, leading to a much greater use of SABAs. A significant proportion of these high-level athletes suffer from non-allergic asthma, involving the th1-th17 pathway. Full article
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20 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Psychosocial and Physiological Factors Affecting Selection to Regional Age-Grade Rugby Union Squads: A Machine Learning Approach
by Julian Owen, Robin Owen, Jessica Hughes, Josh Leach, Dior Anderson and Eleri Jones
Sports 2022, 10(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030035 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4189
Abstract
Talent selection programmes choose athletes for talent development pathways. Currently, the set of psychosocial variables that determine talent selection in youth Rugby Union are unknown, with the literature almost exclusively focusing on physiological variables. The purpose of this study was to use a [...] Read more.
Talent selection programmes choose athletes for talent development pathways. Currently, the set of psychosocial variables that determine talent selection in youth Rugby Union are unknown, with the literature almost exclusively focusing on physiological variables. The purpose of this study was to use a novel machine learning approach to identify the physiological and psychosocial models that predict selection to a regional age-grade rugby union team. Age-grade club rugby players (n = 104; age, 15.47 ± 0.80; U16, n = 62; U18, n = 42) were assessed for physiological and psychosocial factors during regional talent selection days. Predictive models (selected vs. non-selected) were created for forwards, backs, and across all players using Bayesian machine learning. The generated physiological models correctly classified 67.55% of all players, 70.09% of forwards, and 62.50% of backs. Greater hand-grip strength, faster 10 m and 40 m sprint, and power were common features for selection. The generated psychosocial models correctly classified 62.26% of all players, 73.66% of forwards, and 60.42% of backs. Reduced burnout, reduced emotional exhaustion, and lower reduced sense of accomplishment, were common features for selection. Selection appears to be predominantly based on greater strength, speed, and power, as well as lower athlete burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
15 pages, 2534 KiB  
Article
Proportions of Early Specializers Varies According to Methods and Skill Level
by Alexandra Mosher, Jessica Fraser-Thomas, Melissa J. Wilson and Joseph Baker
Sports 2022, 10(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030034 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3127
Abstract
Sport researchers have warned about the lack of a clear and consistent definition of early specialization, while others have raised concerns around the validity of methods used to classify athletes as ‘specializers’. The current investigation includes two studies examining the implications of varying [...] Read more.
Sport researchers have warned about the lack of a clear and consistent definition of early specialization, while others have raised concerns around the validity of methods used to classify athletes as ‘specializers’. The current investigation includes two studies examining the implications of varying classification methods for exploring both specialization and early specialization in sport. Study 1 examined whether different approaches to defining and measuring specialization affected the classification of athletes throughout development and provided a ‘profile’ of the sample in terms of developmental milestones related to specialization. Results indicated the proportion of athletes classified as specializers varied depending on the method used and athletes generally met specialization milestones after the age of 12. Study 2 examined the proportions of athletes who achieved ‘elite’, ‘pre-elite’, and ‘non-elite’ status in adulthood who were early specializers as determined by different methods. Results showed the method used changed the proportion of athletes classified as specializers at each level and there was no clear advantage or disadvantage to being a specializer. Combined, these studies provide intriguing data regarding the implications of different measures for assessing specialization in young athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
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15 pages, 2029 KiB  
Review
Trends Assessing Neuromuscular Fatigue in Team Sports: A Narrative Review
by Claudia Alba-Jiménez, Daniel Moreno-Doutres and Javier Peña
Sports 2022, 10(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030033 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 12319
Abstract
Neuromuscular fatigue is defined as a reduction induced by exercise in the maximal voluntary force that a muscle or group of muscles can generate. An accumulation of work or an incomplete force restoration can significantly influence the neuromuscular performance in both the short [...] Read more.
Neuromuscular fatigue is defined as a reduction induced by exercise in the maximal voluntary force that a muscle or group of muscles can generate. An accumulation of work or an incomplete force restoration can significantly influence the neuromuscular performance in both the short and long terms. Thus, fatigue management is essential for controlling the training adaptations of athletes and reducing their susceptibility to injury and illness. The main individualized monitoring tools used to describe fatigue are questionnaires and subjective assessments of fatigue, biochemical markers, sprint tests, and vertical jump tests. Among the subjective measures, the rating of the perceived exertion has been widely used because of its simplicity and high validity. In terms of the objective measures, one of the more frequently employed tools by practitioners to assess neuromuscular fatigue is the countermovement jump. Because of its high validity and reliability, it is accepted as the reference standard test in sports, in general, and particularly in team sports. Our review aims to clarify how all these indicators, as well as several devices, can help coaches in different sports contexts to monitor neuromuscular fatigue, and how these procedures should be used to obtain data that can be used to make decisions in complex environments. Full article
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10 pages, 2917 KiB  
Article
Effect of Short-Duration High-Intensity Upper-Body Pre-Load Component on Performance among High-Level Cyclists
by Dmitri Valiulin, Priit Purge, Jarek Mäestu, Jaak Jürimäe and Peter Hofmann
Sports 2022, 10(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030032 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of upper-body high-intensity exercise priming on subsequent leg exercise performance. Specifically, to compare maximal 4000 m cycling performance with upper-body pre-load (MPThigh) and common warm-up (MPTlow). In this [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of upper-body high-intensity exercise priming on subsequent leg exercise performance. Specifically, to compare maximal 4000 m cycling performance with upper-body pre-load (MPThigh) and common warm-up (MPTlow). In this case, 15 high-level cyclists (23.3 ± 3.6 years; 181 ± 7 cm; 76.2 ± 10.0 kg; V˙O2max: 65.4 ± 6.7 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in the study attending three laboratory sessions, completing an incremental test and both experimental protocols. In MPThigh, warm-up was added by a 25 s high-intensity all-out arm crank effort to the traditional 20-min aerobic warm-up. Both 4000 m maximal bouts started with a 12 s all-out start. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration [La) and spirometric data were measured and analyzed. Overall MPThigh time was slower by 5.3 ± 1.2 s (p < 0.05). [La] at the start was 5.5 ± 1.5 mmol·L−1 higher for MPThigh (p < 0.001) reducing anaerobic energy contribution which was higher in MPTlow during the first and third 1000 m split (p < 0.05). Similarly, MPTlow maintained higher total average power during the entire performance (p < 0.05, d = 0.7). Although the MPThigh condition performed less effectively due to decreased anaerobic capacity, pre-load effect may have the potential to enhance performance at longer distances. Full article
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11 pages, 2009 KiB  
Article
A Video-Based Tactical Task Does Not Elicit Mental Fatigue and Does Not Impair Soccer Performance in a Subsequent Small-Sided Game
by Gianmarco Ciocca, Antonio Tessitore, Mauro Mandorino and Harald Tschan
Sports 2022, 10(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030031 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4149
Abstract
Mental fatigue can impair physical, technical, and tactical performance in sports. Since most previous research used general cognitive tasks to elicit mental fatigue, the aim of this study was to investigate whether a more sport-specific task could induce the effects of mental fatigue [...] Read more.
Mental fatigue can impair physical, technical, and tactical performance in sports. Since most previous research used general cognitive tasks to elicit mental fatigue, the aim of this study was to investigate whether a more sport-specific task could induce the effects of mental fatigue and impair the subsequent physical and technical performance in a soccer small-sided game. Ten soccer players performed two small-sided games on two different days in a crossover design. Before each small-sided game, they performed a video-based tactical task (30 min) and a control task (documentary watching, 30 min) in a randomized and counterbalanced order. Mental effort was measured through a visual analog scale after the tactical and control tasks. Subjective ratings of perceived exertion were assessed through the RPE questionnaire after the end of the SSG. Physical performance was assessed during the SSG through GPS technology. Results showed no differences (p > 0.05) in physical performance between the two conditions. None of the technical variables were negatively affected by the video-based tactical condition, with the number of total passes (p = 0.003; ES = 0.72 medium) and successful passes (p = 0.003; ES = 0.82 large) results even improved by the video-based tactical task. The mental effort required by the video-tactical task was significantly higher than the control task (p = 0.002; ES = 2.09 huge). However, overall RPE did not differ between conditions. The video-based tactical task did not elicit mental fatigue and did not impair subsequent physical and technical performance. The higher ecological validity of the task and the higher motivation of the participants might have contributed to the results. Full article
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10 pages, 405 KiB  
Article
The Effectiveness of Adapted Personalized Motor Activity (AMPA) to Improve Health in Individuals with Mental Disorders and Physical Comorbidities: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Vito Lamberti, Stefano Palermi, Andrea Franceschin, Giovanni Scapol, Vincenzo Lamberti, Chiara Lamberti, Marco Vecchiato, Rocco Spera, Felice Sirico and Elisabetta Della Valle
Sports 2022, 10(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030030 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4169
Abstract
Mental disorders are highly prevalent worldwide and have a high impact on daily functioning. Exercise therapy was found to improve health of individuals with physical and mental disorders. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of an Adapted Personalized Motor Activity (AMPA) in [...] Read more.
Mental disorders are highly prevalent worldwide and have a high impact on daily functioning. Exercise therapy was found to improve health of individuals with physical and mental disorders. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of an Adapted Personalized Motor Activity (AMPA) in improving health in individuals with physical and mental disorders. Forty-three patients affected by both mental and chronic nontransmissible conditions were randomly assigned to intervention group (AMPA intervention) and control group (no intervention). Perceived physical and mental health were assessed using the Short Form 12 (SF-12) questionaries. Moreover, subjects underwent an accurate medical screening process, complete clinical evaluation, body composition evaluation, and cardiopulmonary assessment. Repeated Measurement Analysis of the Variance (RM-ANOVA) was used to compare any changes in health and physiological parameters in-between groups. AMPA group showed a statistically significant improvement in both perceived mental and physical health. Moreover, Body Mass Index (BMI), glycolipid profile, aerobic functional capacity and cardiopulmonary parameters improved significantly among individuals from the intervention group compared with the individuals from the control group. AMPA may be considered a possible intervention to improve health in individuals suffering from multiple physical and mental disorders. Future studies should examine the effectiveness in larger and heterogeneous sample of chronically ill patients and the long-term effect of AMPA. Full article
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15 pages, 1245 KiB  
Review
Acute and Long-Term Effects of Concurrent Resistance and Swimming Training on Swimming Performance
by Gavriil Arsoniadis, Petros Botonis, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Gerasimos Terzis and Argyris Toubekis
Sports 2022, 10(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030029 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5242
Abstract
Dry-land resistance exercise (RT) is routinely applied concurrent to swimming (SWIM) training sessions in a year-round training plan. To date, the impact of the acute effect of RT on SWIM or SWIM on RT performance and the long-term RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT training outcome [...] Read more.
Dry-land resistance exercise (RT) is routinely applied concurrent to swimming (SWIM) training sessions in a year-round training plan. To date, the impact of the acute effect of RT on SWIM or SWIM on RT performance and the long-term RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT training outcome has received limited attention. The existing studies indicate that acute RT or SWIM training may temporarily decrease subsequent muscle function. Concurrent application of RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT may induce similar physiological alterations. Such alterations are dependent on the recovery duration between sessions. Considering the long-term effects of RT-SWIM, the limited existing data present improvements in front crawl swimming performance, dry-land upper and lower body maximum strength, and peak power in swim turn. Accordingly, SWIM-RT training order induces swimming performance improvements in front crawl and increments in maximum dry-land upper and lower body strength. Concurrent application of RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT training applied within a training day leads in similar performance gains after six to twelve weeks of training. The current review suggests that recovery duration between RT and SWIM is a predisposing factor that may determine the training outcome. Competitive swimmers may benefit after concurrent application with both training order scenarios during a training cycle. Full article
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25 pages, 606 KiB  
Systematic Review
Association between Functional Movement Screen Scores and Athletic Performance in Adolescents: A Systematic Review
by Katie Fitton Davies, Ryan S. Sacko, Mark A. Lyons and Michael J. Duncan
Sports 2022, 10(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030028 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5573
Abstract
This study systematically reviews the literature examining the relationship between Fundamental Movement Screen (FMS©) scores and athletic performance in youth. We searched English-language papers on PubMed/MEDLINE, SportsDiscus, CINAHL, and EBSCO for the following inclusion criteria: Participants aged between 11 and 17 years, studies [...] Read more.
This study systematically reviews the literature examining the relationship between Fundamental Movement Screen (FMS©) scores and athletic performance in youth. We searched English-language papers on PubMed/MEDLINE, SportsDiscus, CINAHL, and EBSCO for the following inclusion criteria: Participants aged between 11 and 17 years, studies had to include the Functional Movement Screen© (FMS©) and at least one of the following performance outcomes, highlighted by athletic development models (i.e., long-term athletic development (LTAD), youth physical development (YPD)): agility, speed, power, strength, endurance, and balance (YPD), fitness (LTAD), or sport-specific skill (LTAD and YPD). A total of 3146 titles were identified, with 13 relevant studies satisfying the inclusion criteria after full-text screening. The results of this systematic review suggest that children and youth who score highly on the FMS© also tend to have better scores for agility, running speed, strength, and cardiovascular endurance. The strength of associations was weak to moderate in nature. Only one study was considered or controlled for biological maturation in their analysis. These results provide evidence that, while there is a relationship between FMS© scores and tests of athletic performance in youth, they are not the same thing and should be considered conceptually different constructs. Full article
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