# Rotation-Angle Solution and Singularity Handling of Five-Axis Machine Tools for Dual NURBS Interpolation

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Rotation-Angle Solution of Five-Axis Machine Tools for Dual NURBS Interpolation

#### 2.1. Dual NURBS Interpolation

#### 2.2. Generic Method of Rotation-Angle Solution of Five-Axis Machine Tools

#### 2.2.1. Typical Layouts of Rotary Axes of Five-Axis Machine Tools and Analysis

#### 2.2.2. Generic Method for Solving the Rotation Angles of Five-Axis Machine Tools Based on the Vector Inner Product

#### 2.3. Solution Space of the Generic Method

- (a)
- No solution. The tool orientation vector $O\left(u\right)$ cannot be realized by rotation axes as the tool orientation vector is beyond the reach of the machine tool when ${i}^{2}+{j}^{2}<{\eta}^{2}$.
- (b)
- Finite solutions. The C-axis angle has two sets of solutions when ${i}^{2}+{j}^{2}\ge {\eta}^{2}$ and ${i}^{2}+{j}^{2}>0$, as shown in Equation (13). The rotation angles are high-order continuous with respect to the parameter u, when the tool orientation vector is high-order continuous.
- (c)
- Infinite solutions. The C-axis angle has infinite sets of solutions when ${i}^{2}+{j}^{2}={\eta}^{2}=0$. The tool orientation vector is at the singularity point, which cannot be changed no matter the C-axis angle. The tool orientation and the layout of rotation axes must meet the following conditions.

#### 2.4. Singularity Handling

## 3. Experiments and Discussions

#### 3.1. Experiment on an Open-Pocket Tool Path

#### 3.2. Experiment on a Cardioid Curve

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

Parameters | Values |
---|---|

NURBS Degree | 3 |

Knot Vector | (0, 0, 0, 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1, 1, 1, 1) |

Weight Vector | (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1) |

Control Points of the Tool Tip Point Curve | (5,0,0), (−10,20,0), (10,20,0), (20,30,0), (30,30,0), (40,30,0), (50,20,0), (55,0,0) |

Control Points of the Tool Axis Point Curve | (0,0,15), (−15,20,15), (5,25,15), (15,35,15), (30,35,15), (45,35,15), (55,25,15), (60,0,15) |

## Appendix B

Parameters | Values |
---|---|

NURBS Degree | 3 |

Knot Vector | (0, 0, 0, 0, 1/9, 2/9, 3/9, 4/9, 5/9, 6/9, 7/9, 8/9, 1, 1, 1, 1) |

Weight Vector | (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1) |

Control Points of the Tool Tip Point Curve | (0,0,0), (−51,13.5,0), (−51,87,0), (−30,75,0), (−22.5,69,0), (−1.5,57,0),(1.5,57,0), (22.5,69,0), (30,75,0), (51,87,0), (51,13.5,0), (0,0,0) |

Control Points of the Tool Axis Point Curve | (0,2.25,9), (−45,15,9), (−48,81,9), (−30,75,9), (−22.5,69,9), (−3,60,9),(3,60,9), (22.5,69,9), (30,75,9), (48,81,9), (45,15,9), (0,2.25,9) |

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**Figure 1.**Common structure layouts of machine tools with orthogonal rotary axes. (

**a**) Dual-head style, (

**b**) single-head and single-turntable style, (

**c**) dual-turntable style.

**Figure 2.**Common structure layouts of machine tools with pendulous rotary axes. (

**a**) Dual-head style, (

**b**) single-head and single-turntable style, (

**c**) dual-turntable style.

**Figure 6.**The rotation-angle results of the open-pocket curve. (

**a**) The rotation angles of the machine tool with dual orthogonal turntables. (

**b**) The rotation angles of the machine tool with dual pendulous turntables.

**Figure 8.**Solution results of rotation angles in the cardioid curve interpolation. (

**a**) Results of the A−axis angle. (

**b**) Results of the C−axis angle.

**Figure 9.**The optimization results of the cardioid curve feedrate. (

**a**) The feedrate curves in the parameter field. (

**b**) The C−axis angles with interpolation time.

**Figure 11.**The machining results of the cardioid curve interpolation. (

**a**) The rotation angles solved by the proposed method. (

**b**) The rotation angles solved by the inverse trigonometric method.

**Table 1.**Rotation-angle handling at the singularity point based on the derivatives of the tool orientation vector.

Conditions of the Tool Orientation | Equation of the Rotation Angle | Solutions |
---|---|---|

$\{\begin{array}{l}{i}^{2}+{j}^{2}=0\\ {i}_{u}^{2}+{j}_{u}^{2}>0\end{array}$ | $\mathrm{sin}\omega \left({i}_{u}\mathrm{cos}\theta +{j}_{u}\mathrm{sin}\theta \right)=0$ | $\{\begin{array}{l}{\theta}_{1}=\mathrm{arctan}2\left(-{i}_{u},{j}_{u}\right)\\ {\theta}_{2}=\mathrm{arctan}2\left({i}_{u},-{j}_{u}\right)\end{array}$ |

$\{\begin{array}{c}{i}^{2}+{j}^{2}=0\\ {i}_{u}^{2}+{j}_{u}^{2}=0\\ {i}_{uu}^{2}+{j}_{uu}^{2}>0\end{array}$ | $\mathrm{sin}\omega \left({i}_{uu}\mathrm{cos}\theta +{j}_{uu}\mathrm{sin}\theta \right)=0$ | $\{\begin{array}{l}{\theta}_{1}=\mathrm{arctan}2\left(-{i}_{uu},{j}_{uu}\right)\\ {\theta}_{2}=\mathrm{arctan}2\left({i}_{uu},-{j}_{uu}\right)\end{array}$ |

$\{\begin{array}{c}{i}^{2}+{j}^{2}=0\\ {i}_{u}^{2}+{j}_{u}^{2}=0\\ {i}_{uu}^{2}+{j}_{uu}^{2}=0\\ {i}_{uuu}^{2}+{j}_{uuu}^{2}>0\end{array}$ | $\mathrm{sin}\omega \left({i}_{uu}\mathrm{cos}\theta +{j}_{uu}\mathrm{sin}\theta \right)=0$ | $\{\begin{array}{l}{\theta}_{1}=\mathrm{arctan}2\left(-{i}_{uuu},{j}_{uuu}\right)\\ {\theta}_{2}=\mathrm{arctan}2\left({i}_{uuu},-{j}_{uuu}\right)\end{array}$ |

… | … | … |

**Table 2.**The kinematic and dynamic constraints of the five-axis machine tool and the geometric constraint.

Axis | Maximum Velocity (Unit/s) | Maximum Acceleration (Unit/s^{2}) | Maximum Jerk (Unit/s^{3}) |
---|---|---|---|

X/Y/Z (mm) | 100 | 500 | 3000 |

A (degree) | 22.9 | 28.6 | 85.9 |

C (degree) | 45.8 | 28.6 | 85.9 |

Maximum Chord Error (mm) | 0.125 | ||

Interpolation Cycle Time (s) | 0.002 |

Feedrate (mm/s) | Spindle Speed (rpm) | Cutting Depth (mm) | Cutting Width (mm) |
---|---|---|---|

20 | 6000 | 9 | 0.2 |

Method | Ra (μm) | Rq (μm) | Rz (μm) |
---|---|---|---|

The proposed method | 1.26 | 1.55 | 6.89 |

The simple inverse trigonometric method | 5.67 | 7.48 | 33.78 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Sun, P.; Liu, Q.; Wang, J.; Yin, Z.; Wang, L.
Rotation-Angle Solution and Singularity Handling of Five-Axis Machine Tools for Dual NURBS Interpolation. *Machines* **2023**, *11*, 281.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020281

**AMA Style**

Sun P, Liu Q, Wang J, Yin Z, Wang L.
Rotation-Angle Solution and Singularity Handling of Five-Axis Machine Tools for Dual NURBS Interpolation. *Machines*. 2023; 11(2):281.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020281

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Sun, Pengpeng, Qiang Liu, Jian Wang, Zhenshuo Yin, and Liuquan Wang.
2023. "Rotation-Angle Solution and Singularity Handling of Five-Axis Machine Tools for Dual NURBS Interpolation" *Machines* 11, no. 2: 281.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020281