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Hematol. Rep., Volume 16, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 13 articles

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9 pages, 1255 KiB  
Case Report
Complications of Brentuximab Therapy in Patients with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Concurrent Autoimmune Pathology—A Case Series
by Oana Diana Preda, Sorina Bădeliță, Iulia Ursuleac, Ruxandra Maria Irimia, Sonia Balanica, Monica Cojocaru, Cristina Cotruta, Camelia Dobrea and Daniel Coriu
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 299-307; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020030 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 151
Abstract
Background: Brentuximab Vedotin (BV) has revolutionized the treatment landscape for Hodgkin’s lymphoma, yet its effects on pre-existing autoimmune disorders remain elusive. Methods: Here, we present four cases of patients with concurrent autoimmune conditions—Crohn’s disease, vitiligo, type I diabetes, and minimal change [...] Read more.
Background: Brentuximab Vedotin (BV) has revolutionized the treatment landscape for Hodgkin’s lymphoma, yet its effects on pre-existing autoimmune disorders remain elusive. Methods: Here, we present four cases of patients with concurrent autoimmune conditions—Crohn’s disease, vitiligo, type I diabetes, and minimal change disease—undergoing BV therapy for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The patients were treated with A-AVD instead of ABVD due to advanced-stage disease with high IPI scores. Results: Our findings reveal the surprising and complex interplay between BV exposure and autoimmune manifestations, highlighting the need for multidisciplinary collaboration in patient management. Notably, the exacerbation of autoimmune symptoms was observed in the first three cases where T-cell-mediated autoimmunity predominated. Additionally, BV exposure precipitated autoimmune thrombocytopenia in the vitiligo patient, underscoring the profound disruptions in immune regulation. Conversely, in the minimal change disease case, a disease characterized by a blend of B- and T-cell-mediated immunity, the outcome was favorable. Conclusions: This paper underscores the critical importance of vigilance toward autoimmune flare-ups induced by BV in patients with concurrent autoimmune conditions, offering insights for tailored patient care. Full article
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4 pages, 407 KiB  
Case Report
Anti-PF4 ELISA-Negative, SRA-Positive Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia
by Abraham Attah, Chelsea Peterson, Max Jacobs, Rama Bhagavatula, Deep Shah, Robert Kaplan and Yazan Samhouri
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 295-298; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020029 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Heparin products are frequently used in the inpatient setting to prevent and treat venous thromboembolism, but they simultaneously put patients at risk of developing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). The 4Ts score determines the pretest probability of HIT. Diagnosis is made with a screening antiplatelet [...] Read more.
Heparin products are frequently used in the inpatient setting to prevent and treat venous thromboembolism, but they simultaneously put patients at risk of developing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). The 4Ts score determines the pretest probability of HIT. Diagnosis is made with a screening antiplatelet factor (PF4) immunoassay and the serotonin-release assay (SRA) as a confirmatory test. Anti-PF4 assays have high sensitivity (98%) but lower specificity (50%) and result in frequent false-positive tests. We present a rare case from our institution of a patient with anti-PF4–Polyanion ELISA-negative, SRA-positive HIT and describe the challenges in making a timely diagnosis in this case. Full article
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12 pages, 1071 KiB  
Article
Treatment Patterns and Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Moderate to Severe Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease: A Multicenter Chart Review Study
by David Michonneau, Raynier Devillier, Mikko Keränen, Marie Thérèse Rubio, Malin Nicklasson, Hélène Labussière-Wallet, Martin Carre, Anne Huynh, Elisabet Viayna, Montserrat Roset, Jonathan Finzi, Minja Pfeiffer, Daniel Thunström, Núria Lara, Lorenzo Sabatelli, Patrice Chevallier and Maija Itälä-Remes
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 283-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020028 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a barrier to successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcomes. Contemporary comprehensive analyses of real-world clinical outcomes among patients who develop aGVHD post-HSCT are needed to better understand the unmet needs of this patient population. This multicenter, [...] Read more.
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a barrier to successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcomes. Contemporary comprehensive analyses of real-world clinical outcomes among patients who develop aGVHD post-HSCT are needed to better understand the unmet needs of this patient population. This multicenter, retrospective chart review describes treatment patterns and clinical outcomes among patients (≥18 years old) from Finland, Sweden, and France who developed grades II–IV aGVHD after their first HSCT (January 2016–June 2017). From 13 participating centers, 151 patients were included. The median (Q1, Q3) age at HSCT was 56 (45, 62) years old. One line of aGVHD treatment was received by 47.7%, and the most common first-line treatment was methylprednisolone (alone or in a combination regimen, 74.2%; monotherapy, 25.8%). Among patients treated with methylprednisolone, 79.5% achieved a complete or partial response. The median (Q1, Q3) number of treatment lines was 2.0 (1.0, 3.0). The median (Q1, Q3) time to obtain an aGVHD diagnosis from transplant was 29.5 (21.0, 44.0) days, and 14.5 (7.0, 34.0) days to achieve the best response for 110 evaluable patients. At 6 and 12 months, 53.6% and 49.0%, respectively, achieved a complete response. Chronic GVHD occurred in 37.7% of patients, and aGVHD reoccurred in 26.5%. Following aGVHD diagnosis, mortality rates were 30.0% at 6 months and 37.3% at 12 months. Findings from this study demonstrate a continuing unmet need for new therapies that control aGVHD and improve mortality. Full article
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13 pages, 887 KiB  
Review
Current Therapeutic Sequencing in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
by Samir Mouhssine, Nawar Maher, Sreekar Kogila, Claudio Cerchione, Giovanni Martinelli and Gianluca Gaidano
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 270-282; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020027 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 533
Abstract
The treatment landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most frequent leukemia in adults, is constantly changing. CLL patients can be divided into three risk categories, based on their IGHV mutational status and the occurrence of TP53 disruption and/or complex karyotype. For the [...] Read more.
The treatment landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most frequent leukemia in adults, is constantly changing. CLL patients can be divided into three risk categories, based on their IGHV mutational status and the occurrence of TP53 disruption and/or complex karyotype. For the first-line treatment of low- and intermediate-risk CLL, both the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax plus obinutuzumab and the second generation BTK inhibitors (BTKi), namely acalabrutinib and zanubrutinib, are valuable and effective options. Conversely, venetoclax-based fixed duration therapies have not shown remarkable results in high-risk CLL patients, while continuous treatment with acalabrutinib and zanubrutinib displayed favorable outcomes, similar to those obtained in TP53 wild-type patients. The development of acquired resistance to pathway inhibitors is still a clinical challenge, and the optimal treatment sequencing of relapsed/refractory CLL is not completely established. Covalent BTKi-refractory patients should be treated with venetoclax plus rituximab, whereas venetoclax-refractory CLL may be treated with second generation BTKi in the case of early relapse, while venetoclax plus rituximab might be used if late relapse has occurred. On these grounds, here we provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art therapeutic algorithms for treatment-naïve patients, as well as for relapsed/refractory disease. Full article
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10 pages, 2741 KiB  
Case Report
Is There an Association between a Tonsillar Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Arising after a Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Occult Primary? A Case Report and Extensive Literature Review
by Dimitris Tatsis, Athena Niakou, Konstantinos Paraskevopoulos, Stavroula Papadopoulou and Konstantinos Vahtsevanos
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 260-269; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020026 - 29 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Objectives: The aim of this review is to focus on the possibility of patients with squamous cell carcinoma to develop a second primary disease such as DLBCL, perhaps because of the irradiation of the head and neck area. Materials and methods: A case [...] Read more.
Objectives: The aim of this review is to focus on the possibility of patients with squamous cell carcinoma to develop a second primary disease such as DLBCL, perhaps because of the irradiation of the head and neck area. Materials and methods: A case of an 89-year-old man is reported, who initially underwent surgical and complementary treatment for neck squamous cell carcinoma of occult primary and later for tonsillar diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Results: The second primary was considered a recurrence in the neck of the original cancer of unknown primary, so a new surgical management was decided. The final pathology report described a diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusions: The importance of maintaining follow-ups for patients with occult primary cancers who are at an elevated risk of developing a metastasis or a second primary carcinoma outbreak is highlighted. Full article
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5 pages, 398 KiB  
Case Report
Eculizumab Treatment of Massive Hemolysis Occurring in a Rare Co-Existence of Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Myasthenia Gravis
by Ráhel Réka Bicskó, Árpád Illés, Zsuzsanna Hevessy, Gergely Ivády, György Kerekes, Gábor Méhes, Tünde Csépány and Lajos Gergely
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 255-259; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020025 - 19 Apr 2024
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Abstract
The co-occurrence of myasthenia gravis (MG) and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is rare; only one case has been published so far. We report a 63-year-old Caucasian female patient who was diagnosed with MG at the age of 43. Thymoma was also detected, and [...] Read more.
The co-occurrence of myasthenia gravis (MG) and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is rare; only one case has been published so far. We report a 63-year-old Caucasian female patient who was diagnosed with MG at the age of 43. Thymoma was also detected, and so it was surgically resected, which resulted in reasonable disease control for nearly 20 years. Slight hemolysis began to emerge, and then myasthenia symptoms progressed, so immunosuppressive therapy was started. Due to progressive disease and respiratory failure, the patient underwent plasmapheresis, and ventilatory support was stopped. Marked hemolysis was present, and diagnostic tests confirmed PNH with type III PNH cells. Her myasthenia symptoms aggravated, mechanical ventilation had to be started again, and due to the respiratory acidosis, massive hemolysis occurred. After two plasmapheresis sessions, the patient received eculizumab at 600 mg, resulting in prompt hemolysis control. After the second dose of the treatment, the patient was extubated. Still, due to their inability to cough, she developed another respiratory failure and pneumonia–sepsis, resulting in the patient’s death. This case highlights the rare association between these two serious diseases and similar immune-mediated pathophysiology mechanisms involving the complement system. Full article
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11 pages, 1460 KiB  
Review
A 2024 Update on Menin Inhibitors. A New Class of Target Agents against KMT2A-Rearranged and NPM1-Mutated Acute Myeloid Leukemia
by Anna Candoni and Gabriele Coppola
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 244-254; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020024 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 831
Abstract
Menin inhibitors are new and promising agents currently in clinical development that target the HOX/MEIS1 transcriptional program which is critical for leukemogenesis in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2A-rearranged (KMT2Ar) and in NPM1-mutated (NPM1mut) acute leukemias. The mechanism of action of this new class of agents [...] Read more.
Menin inhibitors are new and promising agents currently in clinical development that target the HOX/MEIS1 transcriptional program which is critical for leukemogenesis in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2A-rearranged (KMT2Ar) and in NPM1-mutated (NPM1mut) acute leukemias. The mechanism of action of this new class of agents is based on the disruption of the menin–KMT2A complex (consisting of chromatin remodeling proteins), leading to the differentiation and apoptosis of AML cells expressing KMT2A or with mutated NPM1. To date, this new class of drugs has been tested in phase I and II clinical trials, both alone and in combination with synergistic drugs showing promising results in terms of response rates and safety in heavily pre-treated acute leukemia patients. In this brief review, we summarize the key findings on menin inhibitors, focusing on the mechanism of action and preliminary clinical data on the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia with this promising new class of agents, particularly revumenib and ziftomenib. Full article
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10 pages, 707 KiB  
Communication
Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide versus Anti-Thymocyte Globulin in Patients with Hematological Malignancies Treated with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Haploidentical and Matched Unrelated Donors: A Real-Life Experience
by Bianca Serio, Gabriella Storti, Matteo D’Addona, Lidia Santoro, Camilla Frieri, Danilo De Novellis, Luana Marano, Giovanna De Santis, Roberto Guariglia, Ilenia Manfra, Eleonora Urciuoli, Serena Luponio, Serena Marotta, Denise Morini, Michela Rizzo, Fausto Palmieri, Nicola Cantore, Valentina Giudice, Antonio Maria Risitano and Carmine Selleri
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 234-243; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020023 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Background: Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) is widely used as graft versus host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, with reported clinical benefits in patients who underwent transplant from a matched unrelated donor (MUD). However, real-life data on clinical efficacy [...] Read more.
Background: Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) is widely used as graft versus host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, with reported clinical benefits in patients who underwent transplant from a matched unrelated donor (MUD). However, real-life data on clinical efficacy and safety of PTCY in haploidentical and MUD transplantations are still poor. Methods: In our real-life retrospective observational study, we included a total of 40 consecutive adult patients who underwent haploidentical or MUD HSCT for various hematological malignancies and who received PTCY (n = 24) or ATG (n = 16) as GvHD prophylaxis at Hematology Units from hospitals of Salerno and Avellino, Italy, and clinical outcomes were compared. Results: We showed protective effects of PTCY against disease relapse with the relapse rate after transplantation of 16% versus 50% in the ATG arm (p = 0.02). All-cause mortality was lower (36% vs. 75%; p = 0.02) and the 2-year overall survival was slightly superior in patients administered PTCY (61% vs. 42%; p = 0.26). Conclusions: We support the use of PTCY, even in a real-life setting; however, the optimization of this protocol should be further investigated to better balance relapse prevention and GvHD prophylaxis. Full article
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14 pages, 729 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Humoral Response Following BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation Patients: A Single-Center Prospective Study along with a Brief Review of Current Literature
by John V. Asimakopoulos, Eleni Lalou, George Seferlis, Maria Malliarou, Eliana Konstantinou, Ioannis Drandakis, Ioannis Vasilopoulos, Angeliki N. Georgopoulou, Anastasia Kopsaftopoulou, Alexandros Machairas, Alexia Piperidou, Anestis Karapaschalidis, Maria-Ekaterini Lefaki, Dimitrios Galopoulos, Maria-Panagiota Arapaki, Panagiota Petsa, Ekaterini Benekou, Marina P. Siakantaris, Athanasios G. Papavassiliou, Panagiotis Tsaftaridis, Panayiotis Panayiotidis, Theodoros P. Vassilakopoulos, Angeliki Papapanagiotou and Maria K. Angelopoulouadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 220-233; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020022 - 16 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Data on antibody response (AR) after vaccination against SARS-CoV2 in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation setting (HSCT) were initially scarce, mainly due to the exclusion of such patients from approval studies. Shortly after the worldwide application of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in vulnerable populations such as [...] Read more.
Data on antibody response (AR) after vaccination against SARS-CoV2 in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation setting (HSCT) were initially scarce, mainly due to the exclusion of such patients from approval studies. Shortly after the worldwide application of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in vulnerable populations such as patients with hematologic malignancies, limited single-center trials, including HSCT patients, were published. However, there was a great heterogeneity between them regarding the type of underlying malignancy, co-current treatment, type of vaccine, method of AR measurement, and time point of AR measurement. Herein, we present the results of a prospective study on AR after vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 using the BNT162b2 vaccine in a cohort of 54 HSCT recipients—mostly autologous from a single Unit—along with a broad review of the current literature. In our cohort, the AR positivity rate at 1 month was 80.8% and remained positive in 85.7% of patients at 3 months after vaccination. There were only nine non-responders, who were more heavily pretreated and more frequently hypogammaglobulinemic compared to responders. High antibody titers (AT), [AT ≥ 1000 U/mL], were detected in 38.5% and 30.6% of the patients at m1 and m3, respectively. A significant decline in AT between m1 and m3 was demonstrated—p < 0.0001; median AT1 and AT3 were 480.5 and 293 U/mL, respectively. A novel finding of our study was the negative impact of IgA hypogammaglobulinemia on response to vaccination. Other negative significant factors were treatment with anti-CD20 antibody at vaccination and vaccination within 18 months from HSCT. Our data indicate that HSCT recipients elicit a positive response to the BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 when vaccinated at 6 months post-transplant, and vaccination should be offered to this patient population even within the post-pandemic COVID-19 era. Full article
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16 pages, 604 KiB  
Review
Pathophysiology, Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Immune Thrombocytopenia: Contextualization from a Historical Perspective
by Daniel Martínez-Carballeira, Ángel Bernardo, Alberto Caro, Inmaculada Soto and Laura Gutiérrez
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 204-219; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020021 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 986
Abstract
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease characterized by an isolated decrease in the platelet count and an increased risk of bleeding. The pathogenesis is complex, affecting multiple components of the immune system and causing both peripheral destruction of platelets and impaired central [...] Read more.
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease characterized by an isolated decrease in the platelet count and an increased risk of bleeding. The pathogenesis is complex, affecting multiple components of the immune system and causing both peripheral destruction of platelets and impaired central megakaryopoiesis and platelet production in the bone marrow. Here, we intend to contextualize the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, terminology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prognosis of ITP from a historical perspective and the first references to the never-stopping garnering of knowledge about this entity. We highlight the necessity to better understand ITP in order to be able to provide ITP patients with personalized treatment options, improving disease prognosis and reducing the incidence or frequency of refractoriness. Full article
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11 pages, 3094 KiB  
Review
Ophthalmic Manifestations in Patients with Blood Malignancies
by Costanza Rossi, Alessandro Buizza, Giuseppe Alessio, Massimiliano Borselli, Andrea Taloni, Adriano Carnevali, Giovanna Carnovale Scalzo, Andrea Lucisano, Vincenzo Scorcia and Giuseppe Giannaccare
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 193-203; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020020 - 28 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Ocular complications can occur in up to 90% of patients with blood malignancies. Such complications range from direct infiltration to local hemostatic imbalance and treatment-related toxicity. This narrative review is based on a systematic computerized search of the literature conducted until January 2024 [...] Read more.
Ocular complications can occur in up to 90% of patients with blood malignancies. Such complications range from direct infiltration to local hemostatic imbalance and treatment-related toxicity. This narrative review is based on a systematic computerized search of the literature conducted until January 2024 and examines the common ocular complications associated with blood cancers. Ocular complications from primary disease include mass effects from ocular adnexal lymphomas and intraocular lymphomas, with B-cell lymphomas accounting for 95% of primary ocular presentations. Secondary disease involvement from systemic hematological malignancies can lead to a wide range of ocular manifestations, such as leukemic retinopathy. Furthermore, toxicity from antineoplastic therapies and ocular graft versus host disease (oGVHD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation present additional risks to ocular health. In conclusion, ocular complications in blood cancer patients are an integral part of patient management, requiring regular ophthalmic evaluations and close collaboration between oncologists and ophthalmologists. Advances in therapy and an increased focus on early symptom recognition are essential for preserving vision and enhancing patient quality of life. Full article
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8 pages, 2978 KiB  
Case Report
Partial Splenic Embolization in a Patient with Hemophilia A and Severe Thrombocytopenia: A Case Report
by Tomofumi Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Uchiba, Hirotomo Nakata, Takao Mizumoto, Toru Beppu and Shuzo Matsushita
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 185-192; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020019 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 587
Abstract
We report a patient with hemophilia A who underwent partial splenic embolization (PSE) for severe thrombocytopenia secondary to portal hypertension-induced splenomegaly, resulting in a stable long-term quality of life. The patient was diagnosed with hemophilia A and unfortunately contracted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), [...] Read more.
We report a patient with hemophilia A who underwent partial splenic embolization (PSE) for severe thrombocytopenia secondary to portal hypertension-induced splenomegaly, resulting in a stable long-term quality of life. The patient was diagnosed with hemophilia A and unfortunately contracted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) from blood products. He subsequently developed progressive splenomegaly due to portal hypertension from chronic HCV, resulting in severe thrombocytopenia. PSE was performed because he had occasional subcutaneous bleeding and needed to start interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) treatment for curing his HCV infection at that time. His platelet counts increased, and no serious adverse events were observed. Currently, he continues to receive outpatient treatment, regular factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy for hemophilia A, and antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection. Vascular embolization has been reported to be an effective and minimally invasive treatment for bleeding in hemophilia patients. PSE also provided him with a stable quality of life without the side effects of serious infections and thrombocytopenia relapses. We conclude that PSE is a promising therapeutic option for patients with hemophilia A. Full article
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6 pages, 4587 KiB  
Case Report
Indolent T Cell Lymphoproliferation of the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Evolving Disease Entity
by Luke Wang, Elaine Koh, Beena Kumar and Michael S. Y. Low
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 179-184; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020018 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Background: Indolent T cell lymphoproliferation of the gastrointestinal tract is a novel entity recently added to the 2016 WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Classically, these patients demonstrate an immunophenotype consistent with T cell proliferation and can be either CD4-positive or CD8-positive but with [...] Read more.
Background: Indolent T cell lymphoproliferation of the gastrointestinal tract is a novel entity recently added to the 2016 WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Classically, these patients demonstrate an immunophenotype consistent with T cell proliferation and can be either CD4-positive or CD8-positive but with a low Ki67 index, highlighting the indolent nature of this disease compared to its more aggressive T cell lymphoma counterparts such as enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma and monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T cell lymphoma. Methods: Here, we describe one rare case of such a neoplasm under our care, initially presenting with non-specific signs and symptoms and requiring extensive investigations to diagnose. Available cases in the literature reflect a wide variety of ages and ethnicities affected, and any part of the gastrointestinal sites can be affected, which makes diagnosis difficult and prolonged; however, progression beyond lymph nodes is rare, and prognosis is otherwise favourable, particularly if CD8-positive. The optimal management of these patients remains yet to be defined, given the paucity of available cases currently. The current evidence suggests the utility of steroids, cyclosporine, radiotherapy, and a potential role for JAK inhibitors. Conclusions: Our case showed an excellent response to the initial course of steroids, with a subsequent successful transition to cyclosporine, keeping symptoms at bay with ongoing stable disease. Full article
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