Topic Editors

Department of Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 11a-I, 16145 Genoa, Italy
Dipartimento Energia “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy

Power System Modeling and Control, 2nd Volume

Abstract submission deadline
31 October 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 January 2025
Viewed by
12180

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topic is a continuation of the previous successful Topic "Power System Modeling and Control”.

It aims at collecting innovative contributions related to the wide topic of power system modeling and control.

The ongoing transition to sustainable energy is giving rise to new challenges to guarantee the stability, resilience, and reliability of power systems and, therefore, the need of new approaches, techniques and methodology to accomplish this goal.

This topic will welcome innovative and high-quality contributions at power system level with a high level related but not limited to the following aspects:

  • Approaches to integrate renewable energy sources into the power grid by contributing to voltage and frequency regulation;
  • Innovative control architectures and energy management for battery energy storage systems;
  • Innovative features of grid-feeding, grid-forming, and grid-supporting inverters to provide ancillary services to the electricity power systems;
  • Innovative control approaches for microgrid operation, especially for islanded operation;
  • Approaches to achieve suitable operation of power-electronics-dominated power systems;
  • Exploitation of new forms of flexibility for the electrical system, exploiting new chains such as Power-to-X (P2X) and Vehicle-to-X (V2X), but also demand response, storage systems, and sector integration;
  • Integration of the distribution system as an active player for power system operation;
  • New planning procedures, involving stochastic and robust optimization algorithms, able to handle the intrinsic uncertainty of loads and generations;
  • Development of “digital twins” of the electrical system based on real-time simulation approach, allowing Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL), Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) or Control-in-the-Loop (CIL);
  • New modeling frameworks, investigating the electrical system as a complex and multi-layer system.
Dr. Andrea Bonfiglio
Dr. Andrea Mazza
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • power system modeling
  • power system control
  • renewable integration
  • microgrids
  • frequency stability
  • voltage stability
  • power system sustainability
  • complex systems
  • storage
  • Power-to-X
  • Vehicle-to-X
  • optimization algorithm
  • digital twins
  • real time simulation
  • multi-layer

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Mathematics
mathematics
2.4 3.5 2013 16.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Electronics
electronics
2.9 4.7 2012 15.6 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Smart Cities
smartcities
6.4 8.5 2018 20.2 Days CHF 2000 Submit
Designs
designs
- 3.2 2017 16.4 Days CHF 1600 Submit

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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16 pages, 5348 KiB  
Article
Urban Rail System Modeling and Simulation Based on Dynamic Train Density
Electronics 2024, 13(5), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13050853 (registering DOI) - 23 Feb 2024
Abstract
To further improve the simulation calculation ability of urban rail traction systems during the peak operation period and provide an accurate and reliable simulation tool for the subsequent train schedule and energy storage system design, a multi-train circuit model with a bilateral power [...] Read more.
To further improve the simulation calculation ability of urban rail traction systems during the peak operation period and provide an accurate and reliable simulation tool for the subsequent train schedule and energy storage system design, a multi-train circuit model with a bilateral power supply was established in this paper, and a power calculation algorithm based on dynamic train density was designed. The circuit topology in the model can be dynamically adjusted according to the number of trains to improve the operation rate. Based on the spatial and electrical data of a real section of the subway, the urban rail circuit model was built on the MATLAB platform, and the actual operation data of the subway was imported for verification. The experimental results show that the multi-train model can accurately reflect the influence of voltage fluctuations on the traction system under different train running conditions, and the results fit the actual operation conditions. By comparing the influence of different train intervals on the RBE (regenerative braking energy) utilization, the results show that the optimal RBE utilization rate can be achieved by adjusting the train interval in the peak period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Modeling and Control, 2nd Volume)
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24 pages, 3839 KiB  
Article
Case Study: Optimizing Grading Ring Design for High Voltage Polymeric Insulators in Power Transmission Systems for Enhanced Electric Field and Voltage Distribution by Using a Finite Element Method
Energies 2023, 16(13), 5235; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16135235 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1105
Abstract
This research paper aims to investigate the optimal design of grading rings for high-voltage polymeric insulators in an actual power transmission system, with a focus on improving the electrical representation of the insulator strings. One such subsidiary accessory commonly used with porcelain and [...] Read more.
This research paper aims to investigate the optimal design of grading rings for high-voltage polymeric insulators in an actual power transmission system, with a focus on improving the electrical representation of the insulator strings. One such subsidiary accessory commonly used with porcelain and polymer insulator strings is the grading ring, which is employed to improve the electric field and voltage distribution surrounding the insulator string. The efficiency of insulator strings can be enhanced by grading rings, as they facilitate a more linear potential division along the strings. The design parameters of grading rings significantly influence their performance on insulator strings. In this study, we examine the optimal design of the grading rings of high-voltage polymer insulators, since no uniform design methodology has been developed for high-voltage polymer insulators, and their optimization is currently the subject of many research studies. The electric field on an outdoor polymeric insulator is examined using finite element method (FEM) software and COMSOL Multi-Physics program. A 2D model is utilized to simulate a 220 kV polymeric insulator. The effectiveness of high-voltage polymeric insulators greatly depends on the dimensions and locations of the grading rings. Therefore, the impacts of the radius of the grading ring and that of its tube and the tube’s vertical position are thoroughly investigated, under dry and humid conditions. To achieve this objective, a search algorithm is employed to adjust the dimensions and locations of the grading ring. The optimization approach in this study is based on determining the maximum electric field across the insulator surface, while ensuring that it remains below the corona initiation level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Modeling and Control, 2nd Volume)
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21 pages, 7881 KiB  
Article
Economic/Environmental Optimal Power Flow Using a Multiobjective Convex Formulation
Energies 2023, 16(12), 4651; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16124651 - 12 Jun 2023
Viewed by 702
Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of economic/environmental optimal power flow with a multiobjective formulation using a second-order conic programming (SOCP) optimization model. This problem formulation considers renewable energy sources (RES), fossil-fuel-based power generation units, and voltage control. The proposed SOCP model is a [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the problem of economic/environmental optimal power flow with a multiobjective formulation using a second-order conic programming (SOCP) optimization model. This problem formulation considers renewable energy sources (RES), fossil-fuel-based power generation units, and voltage control. The proposed SOCP model is a stochastic scenario-based approach to deal with RES and load behavior uncertainties. An ε-constrained algorithm is used to handle the following three objective functions: (1) the costs of power generation, (2) active power losses in the branches, and (3) the emission of pollutant gases produced by fossil-fuel-based power generation units. For comparative purposes, the SOCP model is also presented using a linearized formulation, and numerical results are presented using a 118-bus system. The results confirm that changing the energy matrices directly affects the cost of objective functions. Additionally, using a linearized SOCP model significantly reduces reactive power violation in the generation units when compared to the nonlinearized SOCP model, but also increases the computational time consumed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Modeling and Control, 2nd Volume)
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19 pages, 2671 KiB  
Article
Optimized Power Flow Control to Minimize Congestion in a Modern Power System
Energies 2023, 16(12), 4594; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16124594 - 08 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
The growing integration of renewable energy sources (RES) into the power system causes congestion to occur more frequently. In order to reduce congestion in the short term and to make the utilization of the power system more efficient in the long term, power [...] Read more.
The growing integration of renewable energy sources (RES) into the power system causes congestion to occur more frequently. In order to reduce congestion in the short term and to make the utilization of the power system more efficient in the long term, power flow control (PFC) in the transmission system has been proposed. However, exemplary studies show that congestion will increase also in the distribution system if the transmission system is expanded. For this reason, the potential of PFC to reduce congestion in a model of a real 110 kV distribution system is investigated. Several Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) devices are optimized in terms of their number and placement in the power system, their size, control parameters, and costs, by using a Parallel Tempering approach as well as a greedy algorithm. Two optimization variants are considered, one reducing the number of degrees of freedom by integrating system knowledge while the other does not. It is found that near a critical grid state and disregarding costs, PFC can reduce congestion significantly (99.13%). When costs of the UPFCs are taken into account, PFC can reduce congestion by 73.2%. A basic economic analysis of the costs reveals that the usage of UPFCs is profitable. Furthermore, it is found that the reduction in the solution space of the optimization problem leads to better results faster and that, contrary to expectations, the optimization problem is simple to solve. The developed methods allow not only for the determination of the optimal use of UPFCs to minimize congestion, but also to estimate their profitability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Modeling and Control, 2nd Volume)
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31 pages, 6176 KiB  
Article
Optimized Non-Integer Load Frequency Control Scheme for Interconnected Microgrids in Remote Areas with High Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicle Penetrations
Mathematics 2023, 11(9), 2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11092080 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Renewable energy systems (RESs) have introduced themselves as vital solutions for energy supply in remote regions, wherein main utility supply systems are not available. The construction of microgrid (MG) systems is useful candidate for proper control and management with hybrid RESs. However, RESs-based [...] Read more.
Renewable energy systems (RESs) have introduced themselves as vital solutions for energy supply in remote regions, wherein main utility supply systems are not available. The construction of microgrid (MG) systems is useful candidate for proper control and management with hybrid RESs. However, RESs-based MGs face reduced power system inertia due to the dependency of RESs on power electronic converter systems. Accordingly, preserving nominal operating frequency and reduced deviations in tie-line power are crucial elements for proper operation of interconnected MGs in remote areas. To overcome this problem, load frequency control (LFC) systems have proven featured solutions. Therefore, this paper proposes a new non-integer LFC method based on the fractional order (FO) control theory for LFC in interconnected MGs in remote areas. The proposed control is based on the three degree of freedom (3DoF) cascaded 1+proportional-integral-derivative-accelerated (PIDA) controller with FOPI controller, namely 3DoF 1+PIDA/FOPI LFC scheme. The proposed 3DoF 1+PIDA/FOPItakes the advantages of the accelerated term of PIDA control to improve power system transients, regarding maximum overshoot/undershoot and settling times. Additionally, it employs outer loop to reduce errors and faster inner loop to mitigate disturbances effects. The contribution of plug-in controlled electric vehicles (EVs) are considered to enhance the frequency regulation functions. An optimized design of the proposed 3DoF 1+PIDA/FOPI LFC scheme is proposed using the newly developed hybrid equilibrium optimizer (EO)-slime mould optimization (SMA) algorithm (namely EOSMA optimizer). The EOSMA combines the features of the EO and SMA powerful optimization algorithms. A two interconnected MGs in remote areas with RESs and EVs inclusions with high penetration levels is selected to verify the proposed 3DoF 1+PIDA/FOPI LFC scheme and the EOSMA optimizer. The results show high ability of the proposed controller and design scheme to minimize MGs’ frequency and tie-line power fluctuations and to preserve frequency stability and security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Modeling and Control, 2nd Volume)
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19 pages, 32715 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Transmission Line Modeling on Lightning Overvoltage
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031343 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1363
Abstract
In most of the work that investigates the backflashover phenomenon due to direct lightning strikes, using EMT-type simulators, transmission lines are represented by the J. Marti model and the ground effect is computed employing J. R. Carson’s formulations. Thus, the ground displacement current [...] Read more.
In most of the work that investigates the backflashover phenomenon due to direct lightning strikes, using EMT-type simulators, transmission lines are represented by the J. Marti model and the ground effect is computed employing J. R. Carson’s formulations. Thus, the ground displacement current is neglected, the line voltage definition corresponds to the wire potential formulation, and soil resistivity is considered frequency-independent. These considerations can lead to erroneous measurements of the occurrences of the backflashover phenomenon in the insulator strings of transmission line. In this sense, this paper presents a systematic sensitivity analysis study of lightning overvoltage in insulator strings considering more physically consistent models of the transmission line, which consider the displacement current, ground admittance correction, rigorous voltage definition, and frequency-dependent soil parameters. According to the results, for the case study, transmission line parameters modeling can present a maximum percentual difference of around 71.54%, considering the frequency range of first strokes. This difference leads to a percent difference of around 5.25% in the maximum overvoltage across the insulator strings. These differences confirm that the occurrence or not of backflashover in the insulator strings, including the disruption time, are sensitive to the line model considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Modeling and Control, 2nd Volume)
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18 pages, 7170 KiB  
Article
Implementation of an Alternative Frequency-Dependent Three-Phase Transmission Line Model Based on the Folded Line Equivalent Model in MatLab-Simulink
Energies 2022, 15(24), 9302; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15249302 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1002
Abstract
This paper proposes an alternative multiconductor transmission line model that combines the folded line equivalent with the modal transformation. The folded line equivalent decomposes the nodal admittance matrix of a transmission line into its open-circuit and short-circuit contributions. These contributions are fitted to [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an alternative multiconductor transmission line model that combines the folded line equivalent with the modal transformation. The folded line equivalent decomposes the nodal admittance matrix of a transmission line into its open-circuit and short-circuit contributions. These contributions are fitted to rational functions, which are associated with Norton equivalent circuits based on their state space models. The proposed model uses an orthogonal matrix to transform voltages and currents from the phase domain to the folded line equivalent domain and vice versa. Because the transformation matrix is orthogonal, we represent it using ideal transformers in simulation software. First, we use a circuit representation of Clarke’s matrix to decompose a transmission line into its modes. Then, each mode is decomposed into its open-circuit and short-circuit contributions using a circuit implementation of the proposed matrix. The proposed approach can accurately represent short lines in simulations with time steps equal to or greater than the propagation time of the transmission line. We compare the results obtained with the proposed approach to those obtained with power systems computer-aided design/electromagnetic transients including the DC universal line model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Modeling and Control, 2nd Volume)
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16 pages, 4715 KiB  
Article
Ellipsoidal Design of Robust Stabilization for Markov Jump Power Systems under Normal and Contingency Conditions
Energies 2022, 15(19), 7249; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197249 - 02 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
The essential prerequisites for secure customer service are power system stability and reliability. This work shows how to construct a robust switching control for studying power system load changes using an invariant ellipsoid method. Furthermore, the suggested control ensures stability when the system [...] Read more.
The essential prerequisites for secure customer service are power system stability and reliability. This work shows how to construct a robust switching control for studying power system load changes using an invariant ellipsoid method. Furthermore, the suggested control ensures stability when the system is subjected to random stochastic external disturbances, and functions randomly in two conditions: normal and contingency. The extreme (least) reliability state is chosen as the most severe scenario (corresponding to a transmission line outage). As a two-state Markov random chain, the transition probabilities are utilized to simulate the switching between normal and contingency modes (or processes). To characterize the dynamics of the studied system, a stochastic mathematical model is developed. The effect of stochastic disturbances and random normal/contingency operations is taken into account during the design stage. For a stochastic power system, a novel excitation control is designed. The attractive ellipsoid approach and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) optimization are used to build the best two-controller gains. Therefore, the proposed modeling/design technique can be employed for the power system under load changes, stochastic topological changes, and random disturbances. Finally, the system’s random dynamics simulation indicates the effectiveness of the designed control law. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Modeling and Control, 2nd Volume)
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21 pages, 9733 KiB  
Article
Three Technical Challenges Faced by Power Systems in Transition
Energies 2022, 15(12), 4473; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124473 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1188
Abstract
In the 21st century, the worldwide concern about global warming has forced energy to transform in the direction of low-carbon and non-carbon. The utilization of renewable energy is developing rapidly, which makes the non-synchronous generator sources become the main part of the newly [...] Read more.
In the 21st century, the worldwide concern about global warming has forced energy to transform in the direction of low-carbon and non-carbon. The utilization of renewable energy is developing rapidly, which makes the non-synchronous generator sources become the main part of the newly added power sources. Based on the fundamentals of AC power grid operation, this paper describes three technical challenges faced by the power system in transition: the inadequacy of the classic synchronization stability concept in representing the new synchronization connotation of AC power systems with large proportion of non-synchronous generator sources; the inapplicability of the electromechanical transient analysis method in analyzing the generalized synchronization stability; and the wideband resonance instability caused by negative resistance of power electronic equipment. The decisive factors for maintaining the generalized synchronization stability, the countermeasure to solve the inapplicability of the electromechanical transient analysis method and a systematic approach to tackle the broadband resonance instability are proposed in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Modeling and Control, 2nd Volume)
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29 pages, 9534 KiB  
Article
New Method to Determine the Dynamic Fluid Flow Rate at the Gear Pump Outlet
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3451; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093451 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
External gear pumps are among the most popular fluid power positive displacement pumps; however, they often suffer from excessive flow pulsation transmitted to the downstream circuit. To meet the increasing demand of quiet operation for modern fluid power systems, it is necessary to [...] Read more.
External gear pumps are among the most popular fluid power positive displacement pumps; however, they often suffer from excessive flow pulsation transmitted to the downstream circuit. To meet the increasing demand of quiet operation for modern fluid power systems, it is necessary to give a physically sound method of analyzing the operation of a volumetric pump. The analysis of the basic approach used by the majority of researchers for calculating the flow rate of a gear pump by E.M. Yudin is presented. The article presents a new method for analyzing the operation of volumetric pumps. The method is suitable for the pumps whose dynamic characteristics should be considered according to the model of an equivalent source of flow fluctuations by V.P. Shorin. The method is based on wave theory, the method of hydrodynamic analogies and the impedance method, where the pump is considered according to the model in lumped parameters. The method consists in determining the pressure pulsations at the pump output in bench systems with known dynamic characteristics and recalculating the pump flow rate in pulsations. Computational dynamic models of bench systems in lumped parameters are proposed for subsequent use in dynamic tests of pumps in the form of equivalent sources of fluid flow fluctuations. We give recommendations for the formation of test bench systems with a throttle, a cavity and a pipeline at the pump output. Using the example of an external gear pump with a working volume of 14 cm3/rev, the implementation of the proposed method is considered. The pump’s own pulsation characteristic of the flow rate in a bench system with an “infinitely long” pipeline along two harmonic components of the spectrum is determined, and a test of the method based on the method of determining the instantaneous flow rate by R.N. Starobinskiy is proposed. It is shown that, according to the proposed method and the method of R.N. Starobinskiy, the divergence of the amplitudes of flow pulsations does not exceed (5–10)%. The high degree of coincidence of the results confirms that the external gear pump in question should be considered according to the equivalent source of flow fluctuations model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Modeling and Control, 2nd Volume)
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