Topic Editors

Department of Econometrics and Statistics, Institute of Economics and Finance, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska St. 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Dietetics, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska St. 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
Prof. Dr. Ariun Ishdorj
Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, 2124 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW-WULS), Nowoursynowska 159C, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland

Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity

Abstract submission deadline
closed (20 October 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (20 February 2023)
Viewed by
124383

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite numerous developmental achievements worldwide, food insecurity is a substantial problem. Thus, one of the Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations is to end hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. The Agenda for Sustainable Development acknowledged the importance of looking beyond hunger towards the aims of ensuring access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food for all people all year round, and of eradicating malnutrition in all its forms. Currently, one in nine people in the world suffer from malnutrition, and one in four children is stunted. Climate change and the progressive degradation of soil, drinking water and biodiversity adversely affect food production, increasing the risk of food insecurity. The development of sustainable food production and biodiversity can help reduce hunger, improve the food security status and provide a nutritious diet for the world’s population. On the other hand, sustainability and food security can also be achieved by limiting food loss and waste, consuming more plant-based foods or recycling foodstuffs. Therefore, we invite researchers conducting research on various aspects of food insecurity to contribute to this Topic.

This issue welcomes submissions relating to food insecurity focusing on both macroeconomic and microeconomic aspects of this phenomenon. We invite researchers who investigate the complex nature of food insecurity at global, state, region, household, or individual levels.

Food insecurity is a challenge that plagued people long before COVID-19. However, recent studies indicate that the pandemic has made the problem worse. Thus, we urge researchers to publish papers on food security in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Prof. Dr. Hanna Dudek
Dr. Joanna Myszkowska-Ryciak
Prof. Dr. Ariun Ishdorj
Prof. Dr. Marzena Jeżewska-Zychowicz
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • food insecurity
  • macro-level drivers of food insecurity
  • socio-demographic correlates of food insecurity
  • poverty
  • statistical modeling
  • sustainable development goals
  • social policy
  • consumer behaviour
  • agrobiodiversity
  • sustainable food production

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Foods
foods
5.2 5.8 2012 13.1 Days CHF 2900
Agriculture
agriculture
3.6 3.6 2011 17.7 Days CHF 2600
Economies
economies
2.6 3.2 2013 21.4 Days CHF 1800

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Published Papers (35 papers)

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27 pages, 1470 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Indigenous Food Plant Usage in Southern Africa
by Zoe Nomakhushe Nxusani, Mthokozisi Kwazi Zuma and Xikombiso Gertrude Mbhenyane
Sustainability 2023, 15(11), 8799; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15118799 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Indigenous food plants provide various social functions; they are crucial to food supply diversification efforts, and they improve food and nutrition security. Research has shown that indigenous foods’ nutritional potential and advantages have yet to be adequately appreciated and explored. This systematic review [...] Read more.
Indigenous food plants provide various social functions; they are crucial to food supply diversification efforts, and they improve food and nutrition security. Research has shown that indigenous foods’ nutritional potential and advantages have yet to be adequately appreciated and explored. This systematic review discusses the various elements contributing to IF promotion, which may help increase their intake. Therefore, a systematic literature review was conducted to determine the availability, regularity of consumption, utilisation, preparation, harvesting, and preservation of indigenous foods. Additionally, this review details the knowledge, perceptions, and beliefs of IFs under these themes. The findings of this systematic review highlight the importance of promoting IFs through policies, the development of capabilities and skills, in-depth research, and an extensive indigenous food plant composition. The fact that Southern African populations do not value indigenous foods and their potential advantages appears to be a significant barrier. Furthermore, the younger generation has lost access to the older generations’ indigenous food knowledge. Thus, the preservation of indigenous food knowledge in books and continuing education of the younger generation about the importance of consuming indigenous foods and the nutrition content they contain may help with its uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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27 pages, 6932 KiB  
Article
Time-Varying Elasticity of Cyclically Adjusted Primary Balance and Effect of Fiscal Consolidation on Domestic Government Debt in South Africa
by Eugene Msizi Buthelezi and Phocenah Nyatanga
Economies 2023, 11(5), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies11050141 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1668
Abstract
This paper investigates the impact of the time-varying elasticity of the cyclically adjusted primary balance (CAPB) and fiscal consolidation on government debt. The time-varying parameter structural vector autoregression (TVP-VAR) model is used on a time series of data from 1979 to 2022. The [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the impact of the time-varying elasticity of the cyclically adjusted primary balance (CAPB) and fiscal consolidation on government debt. The time-varying parameter structural vector autoregression (TVP-VAR) model is used on a time series of data from 1979 to 2022. The contribution of this paper is on the understanding of the impact of fiscal consolidation on domestic government debt and the need to use time-varying elasticity when calculating the cyclical adjusted primary balance to provide a more accurate representation of discretionary actions taken by fiscal authorities. It is found that there is more variation in the CAPB with time-varying elasticity than with constant elasticity. Constant elasticity is not effective in capturing fiscal consolidation episodes, and time-varying elasticity is a better alternative. There is evidence that fiscal consolidation increases domestic government debt. The shocks of fiscal consolidation through government expenditure cuts reduce domestic government debt in the long run, while taxes increase domestic government debt. It is recommended that fiscal authorities use fiscal consolidation to reduce government expenditure that is related to inefficient expenditure. In the event of government expenditure, this expenditure needs to be in productive sectors of the economy that will bring about an increase in revenue rather than an increase in the tax rate. Given the result, a tax increase should be something that fiscal authorities are not using in the effort to stimulate economic growth or reduce domestic government debt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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20 pages, 2891 KiB  
Article
Assessing Future Climate Change Impacts on Potato Yields — A Case Study for Prince Edward Island, Canada
by Toyin Adekanmbi, Xiuquan Wang, Sana Basheer, Rana Ali Nawaz, Tianze Pang, Yulin Hu and Suqi Liu
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061176 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3293
Abstract
Crop yields are adversely affected by climate change; therefore, it is crucial to develop climate adaptation strategies to mitigate the impacts of increasing climate variability on the agriculture system to ensure food security. As one of the largest potato-producing provinces in Canada, Prince [...] Read more.
Crop yields are adversely affected by climate change; therefore, it is crucial to develop climate adaptation strategies to mitigate the impacts of increasing climate variability on the agriculture system to ensure food security. As one of the largest potato-producing provinces in Canada, Prince Edward Island (PEI) has recently experienced significant instability in potato production. PEI’s local farmers and stakeholders are extremely concerned about the prospects for the future of potato farming industries in the context of climate change. This study aims to use the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) potato model to simulate future potato yields under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) climate scenarios (including SSP1–1.9, SSP1–2.6, SSP2–4.5, SSP3–7.0, and SSP5–8.5). The study evaluates the combined effects of changing climatic conditions at local scales (i.e., warming temperature and changing precipitation patterns) and increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere. The results indicate future significant declines in potato yield in PEI under the current farming practices. In particular, under the high-emission scenarios (e.g., SSP3–7.0 and SSP5–8.5), the potato yield in PEI would decline by 48% and 60% in the 2070s and by 63% and 80% by 2090s; even under the low-emission scenarios (i.e., SSP1–1.9 and SSP1–2.6), the potato yield in PEI would still decline by 6–10%. This implies that it is important to develop effective climate adaptation measures (e.g., adjusting farming practices and introducing supplemental irrigation plans) to ensure the long-term sustainability of potato production in PEI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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20 pages, 1737 KiB  
Article
Losing the Plot: The Impact of Urban Agriculture on Household Food Expenditure and Dietary Diversity in Sub-Saharan African Countries
by Navjot Sangwan and Luca Tasciotti
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020284 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
Urban agriculture (UA) is proposed as a solution to the social and economic challenges presented by cities by providing urban households with food and income using environmentally friendly food production techniques. To date, most analysis of UA has been based on single-city studies. [...] Read more.
Urban agriculture (UA) is proposed as a solution to the social and economic challenges presented by cities by providing urban households with food and income using environmentally friendly food production techniques. To date, most analysis of UA has been based on single-city studies. This paper aims to contribute to the literature by using a cross-country approach and by analysing household level data from nine sub-Saharan countries—Burkina Faso (2014), Ethiopia (2013), Ghana (2009), Malawi (2013), Niger 2014, Nigeria (2012), Tanzania (2010) and Uganda (2013). This paper sets out to answer three questions; the first investigates which are the main characteristics of households engaged in urban agriculture; the second looks at the role played by UA in diversifying household diets and reducing household food expenditure; the third examines the heterogeneity in the impact of UA across the food expenditure distribution. Using an inverse-probability weighted regression adjustment method, the results show that households engaged in agriculture reduced expenditure on food and modified their food expenditure profile by spending more on protein rich food -nuts, legumes, fruits, dairy products, meat and poultry. The study also finds substantial variation on the impact of UA across the food expenditure distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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17 pages, 2304 KiB  
Article
Indigenous Peoples’ Perceptions of Their Food System in the Context of Climate Change: A Case Study of Shawi Men in the Peruvian Amazon
by Ingrid Arotoma-Rojas, Lea Berrang-Ford, Carol Zavaleta-Cortijo, James D. Ford and Paul Cooke
Sustainability 2022, 14(24), 16502; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142416502 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
Biodiversity and ecosystem conservation in the Amazon play a critical role in climate-change mitigation. However, institutional responses have had conflicted and complex relations with Indigenous peoples. There is a growing need for meaningful engagement with—and recognition of—the centrality of Indigenous peoples’ perceptions and [...] Read more.
Biodiversity and ecosystem conservation in the Amazon play a critical role in climate-change mitigation. However, institutional responses have had conflicted and complex relations with Indigenous peoples. There is a growing need for meaningful engagement with—and recognition of—the centrality of Indigenous peoples’ perceptions and understanding of the changes they are experiencing to inform successful and effective place-based adaptation strategies. To fill this gap, this study focuses on the value-based perspectives and pragmatic decision-making of Shawi Indigenous men in the Peruvian Amazon. We are specifically interested in their perceptions of how their food system is changing, why it is changing, its consequences, and how/whether they are coping with and responding to this change. Our results highlight that Shawi men’s agency and conscious envisioning of their future food system intersect with the effects of government policy. Shawi men perceive that the main driver of their food-system changes, i.e., less forest food, is self-driven population growth, leading to emotions of guilt and shame. During our study, they articulated a conscious belief that future generations must transition from forest-based to agricultural foods, emphasising education as central to this transition. Additionally, results suggest that the Peruvian government is indirectly promoting Shawi population growth through policies linking population size to improved service delivery, particularly education. Despite intentional Shawi moves to transition to agriculture, this results in a loss of men’s cultural identity and has mental-health implications, creating new vulnerabilities due to increasing climatic extremes, such as flooding and higher temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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19 pages, 2562 KiB  
Article
A Scientometric Review of Grain Storage Technology in the Past 15 Years (2007–2022) Based on Knowledge Graph and Visualization
by Guixiang Chen, Jia Hou and Chaosai Liu
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3836; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233836 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2813
Abstract
Food storage helps to ensure the food consumption needs of non-agricultural populations and to respond to major natural disasters or other emergencies, and the application of food storage technology can reduce post-harvest food losses. However, there are still obvious shortcomings in coping with [...] Read more.
Food storage helps to ensure the food consumption needs of non-agricultural populations and to respond to major natural disasters or other emergencies, and the application of food storage technology can reduce post-harvest food losses. However, there are still obvious shortcomings in coping with large grain losses. Therefore, quantitative analysis of the research hotspots and evolutionary trends of grain storage technology is important to help the development of grain storage technology. This article uses the Web of Science database from 2007 to 2022 as a data sample with the help of CiteSpace software to analyze the basic situation, research hotspots, and evolutionary trends to draw a series of relevant knowledge maps. Visual analysis revealed that the number of publications had grown rapidly since 2015. First, the Journal of Stored Products Research, Journal of Economic Entomology, and Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, with citation frequencies of 929, 536, and 453, should be focused on in order to keep up with the latest research developments in this field. The United States, China, and Brazil occupy dominant positions in relation to grain storage technology studies in general. Purdue University, Kansas State University, and Agricultural Research Institute ranked the top three in terms of the number and centrality of publications. In terms of research hotspots, the centrality of temperature, insects, carbon dioxide, and quality were 0.16, 0.09, 0.08, and 0.08. It shows that the field of grain storage technology in recent years has focused on grain storage temperature, pest control, and grain storage quality research. From the perspective of the evolution trend, the life cycle of emergent words lasts for several years, after which the strength of emergent words slowly decreases and is replaced by new emergent words. Mortality was the first keyword to appear and remained from 2007 to 2011, indicating that research on fumigants and their toxicity, as well as pest mortality under air fumigation and chemical fumigation conditions, became more popular during this period. In recent years, new terms have emerged that had never been used before, such as “grain quality” (2019–2022) and “stability” (2020–2022). We can find that people pursue food quality more with the improvement of people’s living standards. In this context, future research should seek more efficient, safe, economical, and environmentally friendly methods of grain storage and continuously improve the level of scientific grain storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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19 pages, 831 KiB  
Article
A Research on the Evaluation of China’s Food Security under the Perspective of Sustainable Development—Based on an Entropy Weight TOPSIS Model
by Xiaoyun Zhang, Yu Wang, Jie Bao, Tengda Wei and Shiwei Xu
Agriculture 2022, 12(11), 1926; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12111926 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
Food safety is an important basis for promoting economic development, ensuring social stability and maintaining national security. Research on the evaluation of food security is the basis by which to accurately grasp the food security situation and to establish national food security policies [...] Read more.
Food safety is an important basis for promoting economic development, ensuring social stability and maintaining national security. Research on the evaluation of food security is the basis by which to accurately grasp the food security situation and to establish national food security policies in a scientific manner. Based on China’s agricultural economic data from 2001 to 2020, this research uses an entropy weight TOPSIS model to start from the new connotations and goals of food security in the new development stage, takes quantity security, structural security, ecological security of resources, economic security and policy security as the breakthrough points, builds a food security evaluation system containing 25 indicators, and aims to conduct evaluation and research on the evolution and current situation of China’s food security. The results show that China’s food security level drops first and then rises, that China attaches increasing importance to the ecological security and policy security of food resources, and that China’s food security level is restricted by such factors as resources, modes of production, circulation, storage, transportation, trade and structure. This article puts forward some policies and suggestions in terms of resources, technology and foreign trade to safeguard China’s food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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24 pages, 5108 KiB  
Article
Food Systems in Informal Urban Settlements—Exploring Differences in Livelihood Welfare Factors across Kibera, Nairobi
by Katrine Soma, Valerie Cornelia Johanna Janssen, Oscar Ingasia Ayuya and Benson Obwanga
Sustainability 2022, 14(17), 11099; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141711099 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2044
Abstract
The number and sizes of informal settlements are expected to increase drastically in the future, and dramatically so in Sub-Saharan Africa, where migration from rural to urban areas is increasing, and poverty and food insecurity threaten livelihoods. Data sources explaining livelihood factors in [...] Read more.
The number and sizes of informal settlements are expected to increase drastically in the future, and dramatically so in Sub-Saharan Africa, where migration from rural to urban areas is increasing, and poverty and food insecurity threaten livelihoods. Data sources explaining livelihood factors in informal settlements are scarce, and often highly disputed. In this study, Kibera is investigated, one of the largest informal settlements in Africa. The main aim is to analyze differences in livelihood factors across the villages in Kibera, and to explain some of the existing discrepancies in food security levels among its population. In particular, livelihood factors such as tribe, welfare and trust can explain some of the variation in food security across 12 of the 13 villages located in Kibera. The analyses inform of significant differences across the villages when it comes to, among others, income, food insecurity, ownership of land in rural areas, tribal background and trust levels in strangers and community leads. To reach the millions of people living in informal settlements now, and increasingly so in the future, it is advised that research and implementation go hand in hand, with enhanced understanding of the complexities within rural–urban food systems to ensure solutions that are affordable and accessible to low-income groups. On this pathway to fight poverty and hunger in the future, today’s policies and programs must take such complexities into account to positively contribute to strengthening the resiliency and sustainability of rural–urban food systems by ensuring an increase in welfare levels with zero climate impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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13 pages, 597 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Wastewater Irrigation on Soil Properties and Vegetable Productivity in the North China Plain
by Zhenjie Du, Shuang Zhao, Yingjun She, Yan Zhang, Jingjing Yuan, Shafeeq Ur Rahman, Xuebin Qi, Yue Xu and Ping Li
Agriculture 2022, 12(8), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12081106 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
The interest in reusing wastewater for irrigation is being popularized in most countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different wastewater and nitrogen fertilizer on soil fertility and plant quality, as well as to identify the optimal irrigation [...] Read more.
The interest in reusing wastewater for irrigation is being popularized in most countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different wastewater and nitrogen fertilizer on soil fertility and plant quality, as well as to identify the optimal irrigation mode in the North China Plain. A total of nine treatments, including control (groundwater, no fertilizer), piggery wastewater, reclaimed water, and saline water, combined with nitrogen fertilizer (300 kg/ha and 200 kg/ha), were conducted in a greenhouse in 2019 (Xinxiang, Henan Province). Soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, heavy metals contents, and cucumber yield and quality were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) compared with the underground water (control), soil pH value with a decrement of 0.21 units in piggery wastewater (PW), and 0.24 units in saline water treatments (SW). Soil electrical conductivity (EC) value significantly increased by 5.8~20.9% in PW and SW treatments, while there was no significant difference in EC in reclaimed water. The highest EC (770 µS/cm) was recorded in SW treatment. (2) No dramatic difference on the concentrations of soil lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the PW, RW, and SW treatments, compared with the control, but soil organic matter, copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in wastewater treatments were increased by 2.1~43.4%, 24.4~27.0%, and 14.9~21.9%, respectively. (3) There were no significant differences in cucumber yield and quality in RW treatment, while there was a slight decrease by 1.4% in yield in the SW treatment. The highest cucumber yield was observed in PWH treatment, with an increment of 17.5%. In addition, the contents of Vitamin C, soluble sugar, and protein were also improved by PW treatment. In this study, PW treatment showed the strongest ability to promote cucumber yield and quality, thus indicating that piggery wastewater irrigation with 300 kg/ha nitrogen would be the optimal practice in this region. Long-term study is necessary to monitor potential risk of heavy metals on the quality of soil and plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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14 pages, 690 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of the Determinants of Irrigation Farmworkers’ Food Security Status: A Case of Tshiombo Irrigation Scheme, South Africa
by Rudzani Mudzielwana, Paramu Mafongoya and Maxwell Mudhara
Agriculture 2022, 12(7), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12070999 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1823
Abstract
Food insecurity is a comprehensive challenge. Food, being one of the most basic human needs, has become one of the most important concerns in the world, as more people are living in poverty and are vulnerable to food insecurity. Food insecurity levels vary [...] Read more.
Food insecurity is a comprehensive challenge. Food, being one of the most basic human needs, has become one of the most important concerns in the world, as more people are living in poverty and are vulnerable to food insecurity. Food insecurity levels vary across sectors, meaning that policy recommendations to address the problem have to be in specific contexts. Farmworkers in irrigation schemes are a sub-group that has received little attention in research regarding food security outcomes. This paper provides evidence of a study that was carried out to analyze food security among irrigation scheme farmworkers who either rent or do not rent irrigation plots from their employers in the Tshiombo Irrigation Scheme, Limpopo Province. Data were collected from 191 randomly selected farmworkers. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) was utilized to determine the extent of food security among the irrigation scheme farmworkers. Data were analyzed using the ordered probit model. Among the variables considered in the model, land size (p < 0.05), land leasing (p < 0.01), total household expenditure (p < 0.05), and food stored by farmworkers (p < 0.1) were found to significantly influence irrigation farmworkers’ food security status. These findings suggest that policymakers should design policies that encourage stakeholders from NGOs, and private and public sectors to train and provide resources that will enable and develop livelihood skills among farmworkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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17 pages, 1761 KiB  
Article
Climate Change and Food Security Prioritizing Indices: Applying Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Social Network Analysis (SNA)
by Ramesh Allipour Birgani, Amirhossein Takian, Abolghasem Djazayery, Ali Kianirad and Hamed Pouraram
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8494; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148494 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
Food security and climate change are multidimensional issues. Therefore, a lack of knowledge about the most essential variables made these concepts more complex for decision-making and highlighted the need for credible decision support methods. Here, we aim to develop an accurate tool by [...] Read more.
Food security and climate change are multidimensional issues. Therefore, a lack of knowledge about the most essential variables made these concepts more complex for decision-making and highlighted the need for credible decision support methods. Here, we aim to develop an accurate tool by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to explore the priority indicator of food security under climate change in Iran and social network analysis (SNA) to support decisions. The following steps were conducted for the AHP approach: a literature review, a Likert questionnaire and experts’ interviews for variable selection and the variables’ weight determination and prioritization by pairwise comparison questionnaire, designed based on the hierarchy matrix of the criteria and sub-criteria of food security and climate change. The SNA was employed to understand the robustness of the informants’ points of view for indicator selection. After the analysis, 61 criteria were extracted. Sustainability was the important criterion, weighted 0.248. The most important sub-criteria (indicators): groundwater sources, household income, underweight adolescent ratio, food wastage and an annual average of precipitation, weighted 0.095, 0.091, 0.125, 0.227 and 0.236, respectively. The SNA showed that professionals with academic origins focused on the sustainability component. The AHP tool is a credible technique to distinguish the most important criteria. The results might be employed to estimate or predict food security under climate change and simplify decision making in Iran. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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20 pages, 2295 KiB  
Article
Do Village Allocation Funds Contribute towards Alleviating Hunger among the Local Community (SDG#2)? An Insight from Indonesia
by Elizabeth T. Manurung, Sylvia F. E. Maratno, Paulina Permatasari, Arif B. Rahman, Reifa Qisthi and Elvy M. Manurung
Economies 2022, 10(7), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10070155 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2752
Abstract
Using an exclusive data set from Indonesia in 2018–2020, this study aims to prove whether there is a relationship between the allocation of village funds and the level of hunger in the community. In particular, this study tries to find out whether the [...] Read more.
Using an exclusive data set from Indonesia in 2018–2020, this study aims to prove whether there is a relationship between the allocation of village funds and the level of hunger in the community. In particular, this study tries to find out whether the Village Fund allocation policy has an effect on the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG#2). Using a quantitative method with regression analysis, this study found that the allocation of village funds by the Indonesian government supported hunger and poverty alleviation in all areas of Indonesia’s villages. This research result has implications for policymaking on sustainable food inclusion, especially in Indonesian villages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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12 pages, 2250 KiB  
Article
Spatial Evolution, Driving Mechanism, and Patch Prediction of Grain-Producing Cultivated Land in China
by Zhiyuan Zhu, Jiajia Duan, Ruolan Li and Yongzhong Feng
Agriculture 2022, 12(6), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12060860 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
China has implemented strict policies for protecting cultivated land, and the Chinese government has focused on the non-grain production (NGP) of cultivated land. This study aimed to analyze the spatial evolution law of grain-producing cultivated land (GPCL) in China between 2000 and 2018, [...] Read more.
China has implemented strict policies for protecting cultivated land, and the Chinese government has focused on the non-grain production (NGP) of cultivated land. This study aimed to analyze the spatial evolution law of grain-producing cultivated land (GPCL) in China between 2000 and 2018, explore the mechanism of GPCL, and simulate the spatial characteristics of GPCL in 2036. We used the Geographic Information System (GIS) and a patch-generating land-use simulation model, a new model that proposes a land expansion analysis strategy by improving previous rule-mining methods. China’s grain production rate (GPrate) shows a gradual upward trend between 2000 (36.98%) and 2018 (47.18%). The mutual conversion of GPCL and non-grain-producing cultivated land (NGPCL) are the primary transfer types. The evolution of GPCL is driven by climatic, economic, and social factors, of which population density is the most important factor. GPCL expansion patches are distributed in densely populated, economically developed, and warm and humid plain areas. Further, the simulation results showed that the GPrate in 2036 is estimated to be 41.39%, with GPCL transfer-in significantly exceeding the amount transferred out. Our results further cultivated land evolution-associated research and provide a basis for formulating scientific land-use policies for cultivated land protection for other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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10 pages, 1703 KiB  
Article
Socioeconomic Relations of Food Waste in Selected European Countries
by Filip Tkáč, Ingrida Košičiarová, Elena Horská and Kristína Mušinská
Economies 2022, 10(6), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10060144 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2518
Abstract
The present paper deals with the issue of food waste in selected European countries, in which we have tried to analyze the socioeconomic rations. The main aim of our research was to analyze food waste quantity and compare the amount of wasted food [...] Read more.
The present paper deals with the issue of food waste in selected European countries, in which we have tried to analyze the socioeconomic rations. The main aim of our research was to analyze food waste quantity and compare the amount of wasted food in European Union countries (except Cyprus due to the unavailability of food waste data). The analysis was based on a dataset provided through the Food Waste Index Report 2021 by the UN environment program and complemented by socioeconomic variables obtained from EUROSTAT. For a deeper analyses of the obtained results, we formulated three assumptions, which have been tested with the use of several statistical methods—Pearson’s correlation coefficient, linear regression, the distance from a fictitious object method, and hierarchical clustering. Our results show that the amount of food wasted in different sectors (retail, food, households) is not correlated, and any of the analyzed socioeconomic variables do not influence the ranking of countries by the crucial variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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13 pages, 2097 KiB  
Systematic Review
Europe’s Large-Scale Land Acquisitions and Bibliometric Analysis
by Marii Rasva and Evelin Jürgenson
Agriculture 2022, 12(6), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12060850 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
The agricultural sector in the European Union is largely characterized by a declining number of farms and an increasing size of surviving farms. The land is concentrating under the usage of fewer large agricultural producers. Meanwhile, a broad distribution of land ownership is [...] Read more.
The agricultural sector in the European Union is largely characterized by a declining number of farms and an increasing size of surviving farms. The land is concentrating under the usage of fewer large agricultural producers. Meanwhile, a broad distribution of land ownership is the basis for the welfare of local economies and rural communities. Land distribution is one important component that guarantees our right to food, human rights, and sustainability in agriculture. The aim of this paper was to compile a systematic review of the existing literature on large-scale land acquisitions in Europe. The results are based on two different search methods. Firstly, documents and articles on large-scale land acquisitions were studied and, secondly, keyword research from the SCOPUS database and analysis using VOSviewer where performed. This study shows that large-scale land acquisitions are closely related to food security, human rights, global governance and international law, land tenure, biofuel production, and financialization through European Union common agricultural policy subsidies and foreign direct investments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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16 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
The Contribution of Oil Palm Smallholders Farms to the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals-Measurement Attempt
by Ketut Sukiyono, Muhammad Mustopa Romdhon, Gita Mulyasari, M. Zulkarnain Yuliarso, Musriyadi Nabiu, Agung Trisusilo, Reflis, Dompak M. T. Napitupulu, Yoga Nugroho, May Shiska Puspitasari, Sigit Sugiardi, Arifudin and Masliani
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6843; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116843 - 03 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2576
Abstract
Smallholder oil palm plantations play an essential role in the Indonesian economy, both on a national, regional, local, and household scale. However, no data or studies show how much smallholder oil palm plantations contribute to achieving in each sustainable development goals (SDGs). The [...] Read more.
Smallholder oil palm plantations play an essential role in the Indonesian economy, both on a national, regional, local, and household scale. However, no data or studies show how much smallholder oil palm plantations contribute to achieving in each sustainable development goals (SDGs). The development of smallholder oil palm plantations, like other economic developments, wherever conducted needs to provide benefits to the community such that it exceeds the costs incurred, including the costs of preserving and protecting the environment. To assess its contribution, it is essential to examine the Sustainable Development targets in which smallholder oil palm plantations contribute. Therefore, this study is aimed at examining sustainable development goals to which smallholder oil palm plantations can contribute. Based on focus group discussion and the literature review, there are 13 SDGs for smallholder oil palm plantations that contribute and play a role in achieving the targets set by the United Nations in sustainable development. These results are significant as a basis for further studies to prove the presumption concerning the role and positive contribution of smallholder oil palm plantations in each of the existing SDG targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
18 pages, 1032 KiB  
Article
Boom and Bust in China’s Pig Sector during 2018–2021: Recent Recovery from the ASF Shocks and Longer-Term Sustainability Considerations
by Mingxi Han, Wusheng Yu and Francesco Clora
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6784; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116784 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2382
Abstract
China’s African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks, which started in 2018, severely damaged the country’s pig and sow herds and created serious pork supply shortages. This resulted in high domestic market prices and record amounts of imports in both 2019 and 2020, but also [...] Read more.
China’s African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks, which started in 2018, severely damaged the country’s pig and sow herds and created serious pork supply shortages. This resulted in high domestic market prices and record amounts of imports in both 2019 and 2020, but also severely impacted its domestic consumers. It casts doubts on whether China’s long-standing self-sufficiency strategy, including its recently communicated 95% self-sufficiency target, can be sustained. Recent data, however, suggest that China is experiencing a rapid recovery in pig production, leading to depressed domestic market prices. This study characterizes the recovery process and analyzes the underlying drivers, such as active responses to the ASF outbreaks, a multiple-prong government initiative towards supporting the pig producers, de facto relaxations of newly introduced environmental regulations, large increases in domestic investment, and a reorganization of the pig sector, featuring more scale operations. However, the rapid recovery has also resulted in decreasing prices, economic losses of producers, and dampened export opportunities for China’s trade partners. This paper, therefore, also analyzes these unintended consequences and explores supply-side measures that may enable the long-run viability of the self-sufficiency goal in the presence of high dependency on imported feed. Through a model-based numerical simulation analysis, we find that supply-side measures, such as yield improvement, can substantially reduce reliance on import feed but can only increase domestic pork production marginally, while technical efficiency improvement in pork production has the largest potential in boosting domestic pork production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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20 pages, 2830 KiB  
Article
Multi-Scenario Simulation Analysis of Grain Production and Demand in China during the Peak Population Period
by Xiang Wang, Wenli Qiang, Shuwen Niu, Anna Growe, Simin Yan and Nan Tian
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111566 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
The transformation of dietary structure brought about by economic development in populous countries is expected to trigger an increase in grain demand, which will put enormous pressure on the grain supply in these nations and even globally. We simulated nine demand scenarios for [...] Read more.
The transformation of dietary structure brought about by economic development in populous countries is expected to trigger an increase in grain demand, which will put enormous pressure on the grain supply in these nations and even globally. We simulated nine demand scenarios for 2020–2050 based on China’s dataset for 15 kinds of grains from 1961–2018. The results show that the maximum difference between the predicted grain demand is 323.8 Mt, equal to the total grain consumption of approximately 600 million Chinese people in one year. To capture which demand scenarios will be met when grain productivity gradually improves within reasonable ranges, we present three projections from the production side. In particular, Projection 1 (P1), which maintains productivity at the current level, only fulfills the projected demand for Scenarios 1-LL, 2-LM, 4-ML, and 7-HL and falls short of the maximum value (Scenario 9-HH) by 117 Mt, which requires an additional 250,000 ha of arable land resources to fill the gap. After raising the preset value of grain yield, the productivity of Projection 2 in turn satisfies the demand scenario 5-MM. When both set variables (grain yields and arable area) increase simultaneously, the output of Projection 3 increases by 15.3% over P1. However, it still lags behind the demand of 68 million tons in Scenario 9-HH, thus implying uncertainty in China’s vision of meeting the goal of 95% grain self-sufficiency. Rather than pursuing a single outcome, we discuss multiple possibilities for China’s future grain balance and emphasize the adjusting and compensating role of grain trade and storage in the whole system. Ultimately, this paper calls for a better understanding of the supply–demand gap therein and its future trends to support national grain security as well as global sustainable food policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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19 pages, 1073 KiB  
Article
Influence of Agricultural Chains on the Carbon Footprint in the Context of European Green Pact and Crises
by Alina Haller
Agriculture 2022, 12(6), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12060751 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2227
Abstract
Agriculture and related activities generate a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions with environmental and biodiversity implications. Based on the European objectives proposed by the Green Pact, this paper assesses the carbon footprint of agricultural chains for European OECD member countries. The period [...] Read more.
Agriculture and related activities generate a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions with environmental and biodiversity implications. Based on the European objectives proposed by the Green Pact, this paper assesses the carbon footprint of agricultural chains for European OECD member countries. The period analysed is 2000–2019, and the method applied is panel data, specific to OLS models. We opted for three research directions: one is general, one is geographical and one is in temporary dynamics. The general analysis shows that in the European region, the organically cultivated area and economic growth reduce the carbon footprint, while fertilisers, aquaculture production, investments in road infrastructure and agricultural area determine its increase. The geographical analysis outlines the existence of two clusters, one consisting of Member States where agricultural chains reduce their carbon footprint and one consisting of a larger number of Member States, including the major European agricultural powers, where agricultural chains increase the carbon footprint. The temporary analysis reveals that the EU has changed its paradigm since 2008–2009. Economic growth has been slowly decoupling from the carbon footprint since 2016, and the rest of the factors analysed have become more environmental since the late 2010s. The EU has positioned itself towards achieving the objectives set by the Green Pact at a slow pace, justified by the heterogeneity of members’ national characteristics, in addition to its purpose not to harm the food security of the population. In order to achieve the objectives proposed by the Green Pact, it is necessary to focus on more extensive organic farming and traditional production methods, more extensive efforts to reduce nitrogen surplus in fertilizer content, to support short agri-food chains and to identify new production techniques, including the use of nanotechnology and high-performance technologies. Local agricultural chains are crystallizing into a possible solution to the insecurity generated by energy and food crises, political conflicts, pandemics, under the observation that organic products should be excluded from the category of luxury commodity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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28 pages, 3036 KiB  
Review
Rice for Food Security: Revisiting Its Production, Diversity, Rice Milling Process and Nutrient Content
by Nur Atikah Mohidem, Norhashila Hashim, Rosnah Shamsudin and Hasfalina Che Man
Agriculture 2022, 12(6), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12060741 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 19389
Abstract
Rice is food consumed regularly and is vital for the food security of over half the world’s population. Rice production on a global scale is predicted to rise by 58 to 567 million tonnes (Mt) by 2030. Rice contains a significant number of [...] Read more.
Rice is food consumed regularly and is vital for the food security of over half the world’s population. Rice production on a global scale is predicted to rise by 58 to 567 million tonnes (Mt) by 2030. Rice contains a significant number of calories and a wide variety of essential vitamins, minerals, and other nutritional values. Its nutrients are superior to those found in maize, wheat, and potatoes. It is also recognised as a great source of vitamin E and B5 as well as carbohydrates, thiamine, calcium, folate, and iron. Phytic acid and phenols are among the phenolic compounds found in rice, alongside sterols, flavonoids, terpenoids, anthocyanins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and oryzanol. These compounds have been positively linked to antioxidant properties and have been shown to help prevent cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This review examines recent global rice production, selected varieties, consumption, ending stocks, and the composition of rice grains and their nutritional values. This review also includes a new method of paddy storage, drying, and grading of rice. Finally, the environmental impacts concerning rice cultivation are discussed, along with the obstacles that must be overcome and the current policy directions of rice-producing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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23 pages, 792 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Overall Financial Development, Access and Depth on Income Inequality
by Nokulunga Mbona
Economies 2022, 10(5), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10050118 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4493
Abstract
There is dense literature on the relationship between financial sector development (FSD) and income inequality. However, most of these studies employ a depth measure of FSD. This study argues that different components of FSD have a heterogenous impact on income inequality. This study [...] Read more.
There is dense literature on the relationship between financial sector development (FSD) and income inequality. However, most of these studies employ a depth measure of FSD. This study argues that different components of FSD have a heterogenous impact on income inequality. This study first empirically tests the overall impact of FSD on income inequality. Thereafter, I investigate both the linear and nonlinear impact of financial sector development dimensions (depth and access) on income inequality. The study’s novelty lies in using financial access data such as ATM per adult and financial access index and comparing their impact on income inequality versus the impact of financial sector depth (growth in domestic credit) on inequality. Adding to this, fewer studies have investigated the overall impact of FSD. To solve the endogenous problem, the study uses the system General Method of Moments (GMM) on the panel data of 120 countries, from 2004 to 2019. The findings of the study are threefold. Firstly, the study finds that the overall FSD index, individual financial institutions, and market development index all narrow income inequality. Secondly, this study finds that different dimensions of FSD have heterogenous impacts on income inequality, where increased access to financial services reduces income inequality in both linear and nonlinear models. While financial sector depth narrows income inequality in the linear model, the nonlinear model reveals that the Too Much Finance hypothesis holds, as the results confirm a U-shaped relation with income inequality. These results are important for policy decisions concerning financial reforms and income distribution. These results imply that financial sector reforms can be shaped to reduce income inequality by increasing access to credit and through credit policy provisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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18 pages, 1820 KiB  
Article
Food Insecurity in Central-Eastern Europe: Does Gender Matter?
by Hanna Dudek and Joanna Myszkowska-Ryciak
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5435; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095435 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2286
Abstract
Food insecurity (FI) remains a challenge not only in less-developed countries but also worldwide. The literature indicates higher rates of FI for women than men in some regions of the world. Thus, the main objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess differences [...] Read more.
Food insecurity (FI) remains a challenge not only in less-developed countries but also worldwide. The literature indicates higher rates of FI for women than men in some regions of the world. Thus, the main objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess differences in experiencing FI according to gender in Central-Eastern Europe—a region that has been little researched in terms of FI. The study analyzes individual-level data on FI from the Gallup World Poll (GWP) for the years 2018–2019, obtained under a license from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Dataset encompasses representative samples of individuals aged 15 and above for each studied country. Apart from bivariate analysis, the ordered logistic regression, the generalized ordered logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models were used. It was found that women experienced mild FI more often than men. However, gender differences with respect to moderate or severe FI were not confirmed. Moreover, the significant associations of all severity levels of FI with education, employment status, social capital, social network, age, marital status, household composition and income were observed. The research findings can be used to inform policy and to design targeted assistance programs for those in need. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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20 pages, 2180 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Dynamics of Youth Employment and Empowerment in Agriculture and Rural Development in South Africa: A Scoping Review
by Wendy Geza, Mjabuliseni Simon Cloapas Ngidi, Rob Slotow and Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5041; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095041 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 6892
Abstract
Over the years, South Africa has made significant investments aimed at transforming the agricultural sector to deliver on rural economic development and job creation. These investments have had varying levels of success; still, what is worrying is the high youth unemployment rate which [...] Read more.
Over the years, South Africa has made significant investments aimed at transforming the agricultural sector to deliver on rural economic development and job creation. These investments have had varying levels of success; still, what is worrying is the high youth unemployment rate which is amongst the highest globally. We conducted a scoping review using the PRISMA-P guidelines to identify the challenges youth face in accessing sustainable employment in the agriculture sector. Peer-reviewed studies were retrieved from online databases (Web of Science, Cab Direct, and Science Direct) for 1994–2021. The findings showed that youth are still facing significant challenges in the demand and supply side of the labour market and lack of inclusivity in policy formulation and implementation, limiting their involvement in agriculture and rural development initiatives. Policies and strategies responding to these challenges exist, and the spectrum of support services provided are primarily focused on entrepreneurship. Yet, the implementation of programs and initiatives has not been successful. This could be attributed to the obstacles persisting in the sociopolitical environment in SA, causing additional barriers to program implementation. Therefore, to enhance youth involvement in agriculture and rural development, there is a need to connect more rural youth to support services, local employment programmes, and youth inclusion in policy formulation processes. Additionally, the focus of policy and programs should be broadened to cater to different youth knowledge and skill profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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22 pages, 3882 KiB  
Article
Integrated Approach to Achieve a Sustainable Organic Waste Management System in Saudi Arabia
by Nibras Abdullah, Ola A. Al-wesabi, Badiea Abdulkarem Mohammed, Zeyad Ghaleb Al-Mekhlafi, Meshari Alazmi, Mohammad Alsaffar, Mohammed Anbar and Putra Sumari
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091214 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4545
Abstract
Organic waste management (OWM) has always been a fundamental aspect of human populations. Approaches to OWM must be matched to the characteristics of a certain population. In this consideration, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is no exception. Organizations are being aligned to [...] Read more.
Organic waste management (OWM) has always been a fundamental aspect of human populations. Approaches to OWM must be matched to the characteristics of a certain population. In this consideration, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is no exception. Organizations are being aligned to focus on sustainability matters sharing significant features with universal trends, especially the integration of 3Rs (reducing waste, reusing, and recycling resources). However, the degree and nature of advancement in the direction of sustainability vary depending on the economic level of a state. High-income economies can afford to pay a higher price to integrate 3Rs technologies. Most recent endeavors have focused on achieving ‘Zero Waste’, which is costly for low-income developing countries. The expectations of OWM systems in KSA must be estimated. In this work, the situations in KSA and other countries are analyzed, and pertinent aspects are explored. Matters relating to the sustainability of OWM are conceptually assessed. This study proposes an integrated method for an organic waste management system to achieve sustainable OWM in the context of state policy and appropriate frameworks, suitable technology, institutional order, operational and monetary administration, and people consciousness and involvement. A genetic-based waste collection transportation algorithm that enhances the efficiency of waste collection truck management is presented in line with this technology. The selected routes based on the Rfs and IPv are the most efficient among those available for the examined smart bin destinations. The minimum Rfs of selected routes is less than the maximum Rfs of available routes by 2.63%. Also, the minimum IPv of selected routes is less than the maximum IPv of available routes by 27.08%. The proposed integrated approach, including the waste collection transportation algorithm, would be beneficial across a variety of country-specific layouts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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22 pages, 2434 KiB  
Article
Social Life Cycle Assessment of Major Staple Grain Crops in China
by Jianing Wei, Jixiao Cui, Yinan Xu, Jinna Li, Xinyu Lei, Wangsheng Gao and Yuanquan Chen
Agriculture 2022, 12(4), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12040535 - 09 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3061
Abstract
The agricultural sustainable development for human well-being considers food security and ecological health as well as people’s socio-economic conditions. Nowadays, most of the holistic assessments of agricultural sustainability, mainly focus on food production and ecological consequences, relatively lacking analysis from the socio-economic perspective. [...] Read more.
The agricultural sustainable development for human well-being considers food security and ecological health as well as people’s socio-economic conditions. Nowadays, most of the holistic assessments of agricultural sustainability, mainly focus on food production and ecological consequences, relatively lacking analysis from the socio-economic perspective. In this context, this study constructs an agricultural social life cycle assessment model based on the guidelines of UNEP to assess the social and economic impacts on the three major staple grain crops in China, including maize, rice and wheat. The assessment model aims to analyze effects of stakeholders containing farmer, agricultural value chain actors, consumer, rural areas, society, and impact categories including high-quality growth of agriculture, a comfortable life in rural areas, the prosperity of rural people. The data is mainly from national statistical databases and representative industry databases. The impact assessment adopts social risk and social impact as quantitative characterization methods, and Analytical Hierarchical Process to obtain weights. The results show that: among the three major grain crops, farmers are the most important factors for stakeholders, and agricultural industrial development has the greatest potential negative impacts on society; maize has the most positive impacts on agricultural sustainable development in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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13 pages, 436 KiB  
Article
The Role of Live-Streaming E-Commerce on Consumers’ Purchasing Intention regarding Green Agricultural Products
by Xiaoxu Dong, Huawei Zhao and Tiancai Li
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4374; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074374 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 10526
Abstract
Live-streaming e-commerce has boosted the marketing vitality and possibilities of green agricultural products. However, academic research on this emerging marketing method remains insufficient. To fill this literature gap, this paper examines whether live-streaming e-commerce has gained consumers’ trust and strengthened their intention to [...] Read more.
Live-streaming e-commerce has boosted the marketing vitality and possibilities of green agricultural products. However, academic research on this emerging marketing method remains insufficient. To fill this literature gap, this paper examines whether live-streaming e-commerce has gained consumers’ trust and strengthened their intention to purchase green agricultural products. On the basis of a literature review, in this paper, we establish an evaluation system for live-streaming e-commerce which includes information quality, system quality, service quality, telepresence, and social presence and assumes that high-quality live-streaming e-commerce will increase consumers’ green trust and, thus, strengthen green purchase intention. Altogether, 726 valid questionnaires were collected, and structural equation modeling (SEM) and stepwise regression were used to analyze the data. The results demonstrate that the five aforementioned dimensions of live-streaming e-commerce quality that were used as criteria positively impact green trust. The findings provide suggestions for green-product companies on how to improve their live-streaming quality to enhance consumers’ purchase intention to realize economic and social value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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20 pages, 9621 KiB  
Article
Security Risk Level Prediction of Carbofuran Pesticide Residues in Chinese Vegetables Based on Deep Learning
by Tongqiang Jiang, Tianqi Liu, Wei Dong, Yingjie Liu and Qingchuan Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071061 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
The supervision of security risk level of carbofuran pesticide residues can guarantee the food quality and security of residents effectively. In order to predict the potential key risk vegetables and regions, this paper constructs a security risk assessment model, combined with the k-means++ [...] Read more.
The supervision of security risk level of carbofuran pesticide residues can guarantee the food quality and security of residents effectively. In order to predict the potential key risk vegetables and regions, this paper constructs a security risk assessment model, combined with the k-means++ algorithm, to establish the risk security level. Then the evaluation index value of the security risk model is predicted to determine the security risk level based on the deep learning model. The model consists of a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a long short-term memory network (LSTM) optimized by an arithmetic optimization algorithm (AOA), namely, CNN-AOA-LSTM. In this paper, a comparative experiment is conducted on a small sample data set of independently constructed security risk assessment indicators. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the CNN-AOA-LSTM prediction model based on attention mechanism is 6.12% to 18.99% higher than several commonly used deep neural network models (gated recurrent unit, LSTM, and recurrent neural networks). The prediction model proposed in this paper provides scientific reference to establish the priority order of supervision, and provides forward-looking supervision for the government. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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26 pages, 6729 KiB  
Article
Plate Waste in School Catering in Rezekne, Latvia
by Jelena Lonska, Anda Zvaigzne, Inta Kotane, Inese Silicka, Lienite Litavniece, Sergejs Kodors, Juta Deksne and Aija Vonoga
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4046; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074046 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2417
Abstract
This research was conducted within the framework of a research project aimed at detecting patterns of plate waste and developing recommendations for improving catering in seven schools in Rezekne city (Latvia) by a combination of observation, physical weighing, semi-structured interview approaches and statistical [...] Read more.
This research was conducted within the framework of a research project aimed at detecting patterns of plate waste and developing recommendations for improving catering in seven schools in Rezekne city (Latvia) by a combination of observation, physical weighing, semi-structured interview approaches and statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). We identified plate waste (including wasted beverages), which remains after the lunch of schoolchildren in grades 1–7, examining a total of 7064 lunch samples. The originality of the research is due to the fact that a unified menu was designed for the field study, which ensured the same field study conditions in all the schools. The results of the research revealed that the average weight of plate waste per schoolchild reached 178 g, and the total weight of plate waste accounted for 28.75% of the total weight of food served. No significant differences in plate waste weight between various age groups and grades of schoolchildren were found, which was also confirmed by a one-way ANOVA test. An analysis of plate waste by food category showed that beverages accounted for the largest share of total plate waste (42.24%), followed by staple food (28.38%) and meat (11.77%). An analysis of plate waste shares of food served (%) by food category revealed a similar situation: the largest share of food served was made up of beverages (37.56%), followed by staple food (36.48%) and meat (28.77%). An analysis of the monetary value of food waste showed that the average cost of plate waste (excluding beverage) per schoolchild was EUR 0.236, which represented 16.6% of the national and municipal funding of EUR 1.42 per portion. Given the research results, the authors have concluded that in order to reduce the amount of plate waste generated by Rezekne city schools, school menus should be based not only on the requirements prescribed by relevant legal acts but also on cooking processes that meet the requirements of modern consumers (learners), e.g., by following trends in cooking practices in society to make the learners interested in consuming school food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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34 pages, 8862 KiB  
Article
Seed Exchange Networks of Native Maize, Beans, and Squash in San Juan Ixtenco and San Luis Huamantla, Tlaxcala, Mexico
by Luz P. Llamas-Guzmán, Elena Lazos Chavero, Hugo R. Perales Rivera and Alejandro Casas
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 3779; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14073779 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Seed exchange networks among farmers favor circulation of crop varieties and have been discussed as an effective means of crop diversity conservation. This study aims to document the processes and structure of seed exchange networks of native maize, beans, and squash among farmers [...] Read more.
Seed exchange networks among farmers favor circulation of crop varieties and have been discussed as an effective means of crop diversity conservation. This study aims to document the processes and structure of seed exchange networks of native maize, beans, and squash among farmers and other participating sectors (local market or seed banks), analyzing their influence on agrobiodiversity conservation in the municipalities of Ixtenco and Huamantla, in the Mexican state of Tlaxcala. Through interviews, questionnaires, and social network analysis, nodal farmers were identified. In the maize network, five nodal farmers were detected, the blanco maize being the most commonly exchanged seed. In the bean network, three nodal farmers were identified, with amarillo beans as the most exchanged seed. In the squash network, no nodal farmer was identified. For maize and beans, the greater the number of exchanges, the greater the varieties exchanged. The local market of Huamantla and the Vicente Guerrero seed bank are relevant seed sources. The nodal farmers propitiate circulation of a large number of seed varieties in the exchange networks and contribute to maintenance and conservation of agrobiodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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14 pages, 560 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Plate and Decoration Color on Consumer Food Waste in Restaurants: A Case of Four Chinese Cities
by Panpan Zhang, Shaopeng Fu and Xiaojie Liu
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3479; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063479 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3000
Abstract
Food waste hampers global food security, rational use of global resources and environmental sustainability. Food waste is becoming a global problem, especially on restaurants, and it is particularly important to explore more effective measures to reduce food waste. Color psychology studies show that [...] Read more.
Food waste hampers global food security, rational use of global resources and environmental sustainability. Food waste is becoming a global problem, especially on restaurants, and it is particularly important to explore more effective measures to reduce food waste. Color psychology studies show that color can influence human behavior, but how colors may affect consumer food waste behavior has not been thoroughly investigated to date. In this study, we aim to investigate whether food plate colors or restaurant decorations affect food waste behavior using a large-scale field survey in four Chinese cities (2160 samples across Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu, and Lhasa). Our results show that the per capita food waste of all consumers in the surveyed restaurants was 80.21 g per meal, whereas the per capita food waste of those with warm-color plates was 61.83 g per meal. The results suggest that warm plate colors are associated with reduced restaurant consumer food waste. We also show that the restaurant decoration color was found to correlate significantly with the reduced amount of food ordered per capita per meal (both warm and cool colors). Cool colors for plates and decoration have a negative effect on the weight of per capita per meal food eaten. Additionally, other characteristics of consumers, such as their age, education, and income levels, and other factors, such as for the purposes of meals, were found to affect food waste behavior. Our case study suggests that further investigation into the role of color psychology may be warranted to help mitigate consumer food waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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18 pages, 3284 KiB  
Article
The Analysis of Trade Liberalization and Nutrition Intake for Improving Food Security across Districts in Indonesia
by Maya H. Montolalu, Mahjus Ekananda, Teguh Dartanto, Diah Widyawati and Maddaremmeng Panennungi
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3291; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063291 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3074
Abstract
The debate on the effect of trade liberalization on food security poses solid arguments, both in favor as well as against the issue. This study aims to analyze the linkages between trade liberalization (measured using food import tariff exposure) and food security (measured [...] Read more.
The debate on the effect of trade liberalization on food security poses solid arguments, both in favor as well as against the issue. This study aims to analyze the linkages between trade liberalization (measured using food import tariff exposure) and food security (measured using nutrition intake) in the case of Indonesia. The national food import tariff is decomposed into district-level import tariff exposure and is analyzed based on sectoral tariffs such as agriculture tariffs and food manufacture import tariffs. The analysis employs panel data of 496 Indonesian districts and postulates an association between trade and food security by using fixed-effect regression. By analyzing the effects of tariff exposure towards food consumption in all districts and grouping the districts into 5 (five) islands, we can contribute to the literature on trade liberalization and food security. First, it is found that import tariff exposure is negatively impacting nutrition intake and each sector has a different effect on each nutrition intake. Furthermore, the impact of manufacturing tariffs on calorie and protein intake is slightly higher than that of agriculture tariffs. Second, it is shown that both sectoral import tariffs’ effects vary across islands in Indonesia. Furthermore, the research is expected to contribute to and become a reference for the government in regulating tariffs and other trade liberalization schemes to support households to be food secure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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23 pages, 6135 KiB  
Article
Visioning a Food System for an Equitable Transition towards Sustainable Diets—A South African Perspective
by Nafiisa Sobratee, Rashieda Davids, Chuma B. Chinzila, Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi, Pauline Scheelbeek, Albert T. Modi, Alan D. Dangour and Rob Slotow
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3280; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063280 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3133
Abstract
The global goal to end hunger requires the interpretation of problems and change across multiple domains to create the scope for collaboration, learning, and impactful research. We facilitated a workshop aimed at understanding how stakeholders problematize sustainable diet transition (SDT) among a previously [...] Read more.
The global goal to end hunger requires the interpretation of problems and change across multiple domains to create the scope for collaboration, learning, and impactful research. We facilitated a workshop aimed at understanding how stakeholders problematize sustainable diet transition (SDT) among a previously marginalized social group. Using the systems thinking approach, three sub-systems, namely access to dietary diversity, sustainable beneficiation of natural capital, and ‘food choice for well-being’, highlighted the main forces governing the current context, and future interventions of the project. Moreover, when viewed as co-evolving processes within the multi-level perspective, our identified microlevel leverage points—multi-faceted literacy, youth empowerment, deliberative policymaking, and promotion of sustainable diet aspirations—can be linked and developed through existing national macro-level strategies. Thus, co-designing to problematize transformational SDT, centered on an interdisciplinary outlook and informational governance, could streamline research implementation outcomes to re-structure socio-technical sectors and reconnect people to nature-based solutions. Such legitimate aspirations could be relevant in countries bearing complex socio-political legacies and bridge the local–global goals coherently. This work provides a collaborative framework required to develop impact-driven activities needed to inform evidence-based policies on sustainable diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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18 pages, 1299 KiB  
Article
Prosumer Behavior Related to Running a Household in Rural Areas of the Masovian Voivodeship in Poland
by Paulina Trębska, Agnieszka Biernat-Jarka, Marcin Wysokiński, Arkadiusz Gromada and Magdalena Golonko
Energies 2021, 14(23), 7986; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14237986 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
The subject of research is a phenomenon of prosumption, i.e., the intertwining of consumption and production processes, until the differences between them are blurred. When consumers produce goods and services for their use, they become prosumers. The article aimed to assess consumer behavior [...] Read more.
The subject of research is a phenomenon of prosumption, i.e., the intertwining of consumption and production processes, until the differences between them are blurred. When consumers produce goods and services for their use, they become prosumers. The article aimed to assess consumer behavior in terms of various forms of prosumer activity on the market of household-related services. The types of prosumer activity of rural households and their size were determined during the analyses. The article uses primary sources from a survey conducted among residents of rural areas of the Masovian Voivodeship in Poland in 2017. Statistical, descriptive, and comparative methods were used. The research shows that consumers are very active in the field of prosumption, rationally running their households. The study used principal component analysis (PCA) and selected descriptive statistics. The research results showed that the services performed can be grouped into three categories, i.e., the index of basic living self-sufficiency of households, the index of renovation and repair self-sufficiency, and the index of professional self-sufficiency of farms. Consumers usually prepare meals at home and clean, iron, and wash clothes, thus reducing the costs of running a household. It is also popular to carry out repairs oneself or to carry out repairs of equipment at home. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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19 pages, 2037 KiB  
Article
A Greater Share of Organic Agriculture in Relation to Food Security Resulting from the Energy Demand Obtained from Food—Scenarios for Poland until 2030
by Anna Kuczuk and Katarzyna Widera
Energies 2021, 14(21), 6959; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14216959 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2725
Abstract
In line with the assumptions of the European Green Deal, it is planned to allocate 25% of agricultural land to organic farming by 2030. However, the question arises: what share of organic farming and under what additional conditions is it able to feed [...] Read more.
In line with the assumptions of the European Green Deal, it is planned to allocate 25% of agricultural land to organic farming by 2030. However, the question arises: what share of organic farming and under what additional conditions is it able to feed the population of a given country? The aim of the article is to try to answer the above question for the example of Poland. In particular, the authors analyze: the problem of satisfying people’s nutritional needs, reducing food wastage, and finally the relationship between sustainable consumption and increasing the share of organic farming in Poland. Attention was also paid to possible potential changes in the agricultural land area with the growing share of organic farming. The proposed scenarios for the transition to organic farming concern the year 2030. We propose to increase the share in 20%, 40% and 60%, imposing them on changes in sustainable consumption of +/−25%, +/−50% and +/−75%. The available FAOSTAT (Statistic Data of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) and Statistics Poland data from 2008–2018 were used for the analysis. The model scenario analysis showed that the total food demand will be met in most of the scenarios. It has also been shown that with a higher level of transition to organic farming, it becomes necessary to reduce food wastage. Changing the consumption style not only creates opportunities for a wider development of organic farming in Poland but can also generate free areas on arable land (e.g., even more than 26% of free area in the +/−75% scenario). This may create potential opportunities for their use in the production of consumer crops, but also in the protection of the natural and agricultural environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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19 pages, 1472 KiB  
Article
Profiles of Food Insecurity: Similarities and Differences across Selected CEE Countries
by Hanna Dudek, Joanna Myszkowska-Ryciak and Agnieszka Wojewódzka-Wiewiórska
Energies 2021, 14(16), 5070; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165070 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
Food security (FS) is influenced by primarily financial but also sociodemographic factors. Identification of correlates of food insecurity (FI) is a crucial issue in the context of achieving sustainable development goals. The aims of the study were: (1) to recognize FI in the [...] Read more.
Food security (FS) is influenced by primarily financial but also sociodemographic factors. Identification of correlates of food insecurity (FI) is a crucial issue in the context of achieving sustainable development goals. The aims of the study were: (1) to recognize FI in the selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, (2) to examine common socioeconomic and demographic characteristics for FI. The analysis used the set of eight-item FI indicators adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization, applying the Gallup World Poll survey data from 2017 to 2019. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine FI at mild and moderate or severe levels compared with FS. Differences in the profiles of FI were observed in analyzed countries: Poland, Lithuania and Slovakia. Lithuanians experienced the lowest FS, and Slovaks the highest. The FI status was associated with education, gender, age, household composition and income. It was found that the impact of these factors was not the same in the examined countries. Differences in profiles of FI in CEE countries indicate the need to analyze the problem individually for each country. Identifying groups particularly vulnerable to FI may allow appropriate targeting of instruments counteracting FI and adapt them to people with different characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
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