Topic Editors

Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
MIT Photovoltaic Research Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA

Challenges towards Upscaling and Stabilization of Perovskite Solar Cells

Abstract submission deadline
31 August 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 October 2024
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Almost 10 years after their first use in the photovoltaic field, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are now hybrid devices that, in addition to having reached silicon performance, can accelerate energy transition and boost the use of abundant elements for their manufacturing process. However, use of precious metals, scarcity of large-scale fabrication processes able to prepare modules with reproducible performances, and a worldwide accepted aging protocol still slow down the industrialization of this technology.

The aim of this Topic is to collect high-profile articles and reviews proposing novel strategies towards upscaling and stabilization of PSCs. Novel front- and back-electrode solutions, emerging solar cells’ fabrication at large scale, integration of PV units with energy-storage technologies, replacement of costly metals, and significant long-term stability tests will be welcomed and diffused in the widespread Molecules scientific community.

Prof. Dr. Federico Bella
Dr. Shijing Sun
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • perovskite solar cells
  • au-free back-electrodes
  • large-scale fabrication
  • long-term stability
  • carbon-based devices
  • integrated energy conversion and storage
  • aging protocols
  • low-cost HTMs
  • blade-coating
  • screen-printing
  • PV modules
  • circular economy
  • biosourced components
  • in-depth characterization

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Molecules
molecules
4.6 6.7 1996 14.6 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Nanoenergy Advances
nanoenergyadv
- - 2021 31 Days CHF 1000 Submit

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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10 pages, 1627 KiB  
Article
The Defect Passivation of Tin Halide Perovskites Using a Cesium Iodide Modification
by Linfeng He, Jin Cheng, Longjiang Zhao, Xinyao Chen, Xiaoping Zou, Chunqian Zhang and Junming Li
Molecules 2023, 28(17), 6414; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28176414 - 03 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Tin-based perovskites are promising for realizing lead-free perovskite solar cells; however, there remains a significant challenge to achieving high-performance tin-based perovskite solar cells. In particular, the device fill factor was much lower than that of other photovoltaic cells. Therefore, understanding how the fill [...] Read more.
Tin-based perovskites are promising for realizing lead-free perovskite solar cells; however, there remains a significant challenge to achieving high-performance tin-based perovskite solar cells. In particular, the device fill factor was much lower than that of other photovoltaic cells. Therefore, understanding how the fill factor was influenced by device physical mechanisms is meaningful. In this study, we reported a method to improve the device fill factor using a thin cesium iodide layer modification in tin-based perovskite cells. With the thin passivation layer, a high-quality perovskite film with larger crystals and lower charge carrier densities was obtained. As a result, the series resistance of devices was decreased; the shunt resistance of devices was increased; and the non-radiative recombination of devices was suppressed. Consequently, the fill factor, and the device efficiency and stability were greatly enhanced. The champion tin-based perovskite cells showed a fill factor of 63%, an efficiency of 6.1% and excellent stability. Our study reveals that, with a moderate thin layer modification strategy, the long-term stability of tin-based PSCs can be developed. Full article
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14 pages, 3243 KiB  
Article
IR Spectroscopic Degradation Study of Thin Organometal Halide Perovskite Films
by Darkhan Yerezhep, Zhansaya Omarova, Abdurakhman Aldiyarov, Ainura Shinbayeva and Nurlan Tokmoldin
Molecules 2023, 28(3), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28031288 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3009
Abstract
The advantages of IR spectroscopy include relatively fast analysis and sensitivity, which facilitate its wide application in the pharmaceutical, chemical and polymer sectors. Thus, IR spectroscopy provides an excellent opportunity to monitor the degradation and concomitant evolution of the molecular structure within a [...] Read more.
The advantages of IR spectroscopy include relatively fast analysis and sensitivity, which facilitate its wide application in the pharmaceutical, chemical and polymer sectors. Thus, IR spectroscopy provides an excellent opportunity to monitor the degradation and concomitant evolution of the molecular structure within a perovskite layer. As is well-known, one of the main limitations preventing the industrialization of perovskite solar cells is the relatively low resistance to various degradation factors. The aim of this work was to study the degradation of the surface of a perovskite thin film CH3NH3PbI3-xClx caused by atmosphere and light. To study the surface of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx, a scanning electron microscope, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and optical absorption were used. It is shown that the degradation of the functional layer of perovskite proceeds differently depending on the acting factor present in the surrounding atmosphere, whilst the chemical bonds are maintained within the perovskite crystal structure under nitrogen. However, when exposed to an ambient atmosphere, an expansion of the NH3+ band is observed, which is accompanied by a shift in the N–H stretching mode toward higher frequencies; this can be explained by the degradation of the perovskite surface due to hydration. This paper shows that the dissociation of H2O molecules under the influence of sunlight can adversely affect the efficiency and stability of the absorbing layer. This work presents an approach to the study of perovskite structural stability with the aim of developing alternative concepts to the fabrication of stable and sustainable perovskite solar cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges towards Upscaling and Stabilization of Perovskite Solar Cells)
(This article belongs to the Section Electrochemistry)
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16 pages, 1879 KiB  
Article
Design Principles of Large Cation Incorporation in Halide Perovskites
by Heesoo Park, Syam Kumar, Sanjay Chawla and Fedwa El-Mellouhi
Molecules 2021, 26(20), 6184; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206184 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2236
Abstract
Perovskites have stood out as excellent photoactive materials with high efficiencies and stabilities, achieved via cation mixing techniques. Overcoming challenges to the stabilization of Perovskite solar cells calls for the development of design principles of large cation incorporation in halide perovskite to accelerate [...] Read more.
Perovskites have stood out as excellent photoactive materials with high efficiencies and stabilities, achieved via cation mixing techniques. Overcoming challenges to the stabilization of Perovskite solar cells calls for the development of design principles of large cation incorporation in halide perovskite to accelerate the discovery of optimal stable compositions. Large fluorinated organic cations incorporation is an attractive method for enhancing the intrinsic stability of halide perovskites due to their high dipole moment and moisture-resistant nature. However, a fluorinated cation has a larger ionic size than its non-fluorinated counterpart, falling within the upper boundary of the mixed-cation incorporation. Here, we report on the intrinsic stability of mixed Methylammonium (MA) lead halides at different concentrations of large cation incorporation, namely, ehtylammonium (EA; [CH3CH2NH3]+) and 2-fluoroethylammonium (FEA; [CH2FCH2NH3]+). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the enthalpy of the mixing and analysis of the perovskite structural features enable us to narrow down the compositional search domain for EA and FEA cations around concentrations that preserve the perovskite structure while pointing towards the maximal stability. This work paves the way to developing design principles of a large cation mixture guided by data analysis of DFT data. Finally, we present the automated search of the minimum enthalpy of mixing by implementing Bayesian optimization over the compositional search domain. We introduce and validate an automated workflow designed to accelerate the compositional search, enabling researchers to cut down the computational expense and bias to search for optimal compositions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges towards Upscaling and Stabilization of Perovskite Solar Cells)
(This article belongs to the Section Electrochemistry)
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14 pages, 2149 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Stability Analysis of 3D and 2D/3D Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
by Sumayya M. Abdulrahim, Zubair Ahmad, Jolly Bhadra and Noora Jabor Al-Thani
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5794; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245794 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3332
Abstract
Despite the remarkable progress in perovskite solar cells (PSCs), their instability and rapid degradation over time still restrict their commercialization. A 2D capping layer has been proved to overcome the stability issues; however, an in-depth understanding of the complex degradation processes over a [...] Read more.
Despite the remarkable progress in perovskite solar cells (PSCs), their instability and rapid degradation over time still restrict their commercialization. A 2D capping layer has been proved to overcome the stability issues; however, an in-depth understanding of the complex degradation processes over a prolonged time at PSC interfaces is crucial for improving their stability. In the current work, we investigated the stability of a triple cation 3D ([(FA0.83MA0.17)Cs0.05]Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3) and 2D/3D PSC fabricated by a layer-by-layer deposition technique (PEAI-based 2D layer over triple cation 3D perovskite) using a state-of-art characterization technique: electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A long-term stability test over 24 months was performed on the 3D and 2D/3D PSCs with an initial PCE of 18.87% and 20.21%, respectively, to suggest a more practical scenario. The current-voltage (J-V) and EIS results showed degradation in both the solar cell types; however, a slower degradation rate was observed in 2D/3D PSCs. Finally, the quantitative analysis of the key EIS parameters affected by the degradation in 3D and 2D/3D PSCs were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges towards Upscaling and Stabilization of Perovskite Solar Cells)
(This article belongs to the Section Electrochemistry)
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10 pages, 2687 KiB  
Article
Impact of Perovskite Composition on Film Formation Quality and Photophysical Properties for Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells
by Guangdong Li, Xiaoping Zou, Jin Cheng, Dan Chen, Yujun Yao, Chuangchuang Chang, Xing Yu, Zixiao Zhou, Junqi Wang and Baoyu Liu
Molecules 2020, 25(3), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030732 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3570
Abstract
In recent years, flexible perovskite solar cells have drawn tremendous attention in the field of wearable devices, and optimization of perovskite composition plays an important role in improving film quality and photophysical properties. At present, some researchers have only studied A-site organic cations [...] Read more.
In recent years, flexible perovskite solar cells have drawn tremendous attention in the field of wearable devices, and optimization of perovskite composition plays an important role in improving film quality and photophysical properties. At present, some researchers have only studied A-site organic cations mixing or X-site halide anions mixing in the ABX3 structure of perovskite, but there are few reports on co-mixing of A-site and X-site ions in flexible perovskite solar cells. In this paper, we mainly try to study the effects of different concentrations of mixed formamidine methylamine halide (FAxMA1-xBrxClyI1-x-y) precursor solutions on the quality and photophysical properties of perovskite films under low temperature process. We conclude that the film quality and photophysical properties reached the best results when the optimized precursor solution concentration was 60:6:6. The investigation on composition optimization in this experiment laid the foundation for the improvement of the performance of flexible perovskite solar cells. We also use the results of this experiment to prepare flexible perovskite solar cells based on carbon electrodes, which are expected to be applied in other flexible optoelectronic or electro-optical devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges towards Upscaling and Stabilization of Perovskite Solar Cells)
(This article belongs to the Section Electrochemistry)
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13 pages, 4279 KiB  
Article
Applied Trace Alkali Metal Elements for Semiconductor Property Modulation of Perovskite Thin Films
by Chuangchuang Chang, Xiaoping Zou, Jin Cheng, Tao Ling, Yujun Yao and Dan Chen
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4039; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224039 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
With the rapid consumption of energy, clean solar energy has become a key study and development subject, especially the when new renewable energy perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are involved. The doping method is a common means to modulate the properties of perovskite film. [...] Read more.
With the rapid consumption of energy, clean solar energy has become a key study and development subject, especially the when new renewable energy perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are involved. The doping method is a common means to modulate the properties of perovskite film. The main work of this paper is to incorporate trace amounts of alkali metal elements into the perovskite layer and observe the effects on the properties of the perovskite device and the majority carrier type of the perovskite film. Comparative analysis was performed by doping with Na+, K+, and Rb+ or using undoped devices in the perovskite layer. The results show that the incorporation of alkali metal ions into the perovskite layer has an important effect on the majority carrier type of the perovskite film. The majority carrier type of the undoped perovskite layer is N-type, and the majority carrier type of the perovskite layer doped with the alkali metal element is P-type. The carrier concentration of perovskite films is increased by at least two orders of magnitude after doping. That is to say, we can control the majority of the carrier type of the perovskite layer by controlling the doping subjectively. This will provide strong support for the development of future homojunction perovskite solar cells. This is of great help to improve the performance of PSC devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges towards Upscaling and Stabilization of Perovskite Solar Cells)
(This article belongs to the Section Electrochemistry)
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