Topic Editors

Clinical Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
Clinical Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
Clinical Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
Elias University Hospital, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

Toxins in Medical Toxicology

Abstract submission deadline
closed (28 April 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
9 August 2024
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1594

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The care of poisoned patients is always a challenge considering the lack of proper randomized controlled trials and guideline recommendations. Considering the variety of exposures, a continuous update regarding pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic measurements is mandatory. We expect papers focused on natural toxins, such as heavy metals, plant toxins, mushrooms, venoms, as well as analgesics, anticoagulants, cardiovascular drugs, carbon monoxide, cyanide, methemoglobinemia, cholinergic agents, psychoactive medications, sedative-hypnotics, alcohols, and withdrawal states.

This Topic aims to offer the possibility to present and discuss novel issues in the field of medical toxicology including papers with both stable and critically ill patients. We hope that new published papers will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of different types of intoxication and secondary organ damage. We look forward to receiving papers dedicated to new therapeutic and intensive care management approaches for these patients.

Prof. Dr. Ioana Marina Grinţescu
Dr. Liliana Mirea
Dr. Radu Ciprian Ţincu
Prof. Dr. Dan E. Corneci
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • medical toxicology
  • poisoned patients
  • natural toxins
  • pathogenesis
  • intoxication
  • secondary organ damage

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Journal of Xenobiotics
jox
6.0 4.6 2011 21.7 Days CHF 1600 Submit
Toxins
toxins
4.2 7.5 2009 18.4 Days CHF 2700 Submit

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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11 pages, 725 KiB  
Article
Unexpected Amanita phalloides-Induced Hematotoxicity—Results from a Retrospective Study
Toxins 2024, 16(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins16020067 - 29 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Introduction: Amanita phalloides poisoning is a serious health problem with a mortality rate of 10–40%. Poisonings are characterized by severe liver and kidney toxicity. The effect of Amanita phalloides poisonings on hematological parameters has not been systematically evaluated thus far. Methods: Patients with [...] Read more.
Introduction: Amanita phalloides poisoning is a serious health problem with a mortality rate of 10–40%. Poisonings are characterized by severe liver and kidney toxicity. The effect of Amanita phalloides poisonings on hematological parameters has not been systematically evaluated thus far. Methods: Patients with suspected Amanita phalloides poisonings were retrospectively selected from the hospital database of the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG). Medical data—including demographics; liver, kidney, and blood parameters; treatment; and outcomes—were collected. The severity of the poisoning was scored using the poison severity score. Results: Twenty-eight patients were identified who were admitted to the UMCG with suspected Amanita phalloides poisoning between 1994 and 2022. A time-dependent decrease was observed for hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations, leukocytes, and platelets. Six out of twenty-eight patients developed acute liver failure (ALF). Patients with ALF showed a higher increase in liver enzymes, international normalized ratios, and PSS compared to patients without ALF. Conversely, hemoglobin and platelet numbers were decreased even further in these patients. Three out of six patients with ALF died and one patient received a liver transplant. Conclusion: Our study shows that Amanita phalloides poisonings may be associated with hematotoxicity in patients. The quantification of hematological parameters is of relevance in intoxicated patients, especially in those with ALF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Toxins in Medical Toxicology)
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13 pages, 1938 KiB  
Article
Unraveling Hematotoxicity of α-Amanitin in Cultured Hematopoietic Cells
Toxins 2024, 16(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins16010061 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Amanita phalloides poisonings account for the majority of fatal mushroom poisonings. Recently, we identified hematotoxicity as a relevant aspect of Amanita poisonings. In this study, we investigated the effects of the main toxins of Amanita phalloides, α- and β-amanitin, on hematopoietic cell [...] Read more.
Amanita phalloides poisonings account for the majority of fatal mushroom poisonings. Recently, we identified hematotoxicity as a relevant aspect of Amanita poisonings. In this study, we investigated the effects of the main toxins of Amanita phalloides, α- and β-amanitin, on hematopoietic cell viability in vitro. Hematopoietic cell lines were exposed to α-amanitin or β-amanitin for up to 72 h with or without the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD(OH)-FMK, antidotes N-acetylcysteine, silibinin, and benzylpenicillin, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) inhibitors rifampicin and cyclosporin. Cell viability was established by trypan blue exclusion, annexin V staining, and a MTS assay. Caspase-3/7 activity was determined with Caspase-Glo assay, and cleaved caspase-3 was quantified by Western analysis. Cell number and colony-forming units were quantified after exposure to α-amanitin in primary CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. In all cell lines, α-amanitin concentration-dependently decreased viability and mitochondrial activity. β-Amanitin was less toxic, but still significantly reduced viability. α-Amanitin increased caspase-3/7 activity by 2.8-fold and cleaved caspase-3 by 2.3-fold. Z-VAD(OH)-FMK significantly reduced α-amanitin-induced toxicity. In CD34+ stem cells, α-amanitin decreased the number of colonies and cells. The antidotes and OATP1B3 inhibitors did not reverse α-amanitin-induced toxicity. In conclusion, α-amanitin induces apoptosis in hematopoietic cells via a caspase-dependent mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Toxins in Medical Toxicology)
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