Topic Editors

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, Laboratory of Agri-Food Microbiology and Food Technologies, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce, Italy
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Food Investigation and Innovation Group, Food Technology Department, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain

Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 September 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing production of agri-food waste is becoming a major environmental issue. The search for new functional compounds through the reuse of bio-wastes is increasingly important for humanity; these bio-wastes are often discarded due to a lack of knowledge regarding their possible use/beneficial properties for human beings. In this sense, the sustainable utilization of agri-food wastes and by-products for producing value-added products provides an opportunity for cosmetic, pharmaceutical or food industrial applications. Bioactive ingredients provide some physiological benefits, which direct the industry to focus its research on products of this nature. On the other hand, the paradigm of a circular economy encourages waste exploitation in order to reduce waste disposal and increase the resilience of the agri-food system. This Topic on “Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes” intends to present innovative solutions to add value to agri-food wastes and by-products with a focus on natural bioactive compounds and provide novel examples of innovative applications. Agri-food waste valorization, green process optimization, the extraction/purification/encapsulation of compounds of interests from agri-food waste and applications of the compounds obtained from agri-food waste are the main topics of this Topic. Therefore, we cordially invite authors to contribute original research articles and reviews.

Prof. Dr. Vito Michele Paradiso
Dr. Ângela Fernandes
Dr. Marta Igual Ramo
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • agri-food waste
  • waste valorization
  • bioactive ingredients
  • extraction/purification/encapsulation
  • innovative applications
  • circular economy

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agronomy
agronomy
3.7 5.2 2011 15.8 Days CHF 2600
Foods
foods
5.2 5.8 2012 13.1 Days CHF 2900
Molecules
molecules
4.6 6.7 1996 14.6 Days CHF 2700
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400
Crops
crops
- - 2021 30.5 Days CHF 1000

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Published Papers (25 papers)

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12 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Biochar Influences Phytochemical Concentrations of Viola cornuta Flowers
by Abishkar Regmi, Shital Poudyal, Sukhbir Singh, Cade Coldren, Naima Moustaid-Moussa and Catherine Simpson
Sustainability 2023, 15(5), 3882; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15053882 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Edible flowers are a rich source of phytochemicals with potential health benefits. Yet, changes in production practices can influence the phytochemical composition of edible flowers. Practices such as the addition of biochar have been used to affect growing media properties as well as [...] Read more.
Edible flowers are a rich source of phytochemicals with potential health benefits. Yet, changes in production practices can influence the phytochemical composition of edible flowers. Practices such as the addition of biochar have been used to affect growing media properties as well as to conserve peat resources. However, there is little known about how biochar affects the phytochemical composition of edible flowers. To determine if biochar affects phytochemicals in Viola cornuta, four cultivars were subjected to different rates of biochar, with and without fertilizer. At the rate of 10% biochar and without fertilizer application, flower polyphenol and flavonoid concentrations were decreased by 10–20% in two cultivars. However, at 25% biochar, flower polyphenol concentrations varied widely. When fertilizer was added, no effects of biochar were seen. Phytochemical characterization of unfertilized plants further revealed that while increased rates of biochar reduced concentrations of certain antioxidant compounds, these compounds were increased when fertilizer was added. Overall, fertilization can counteract some of the negative effects of biochar on Viola cultivars, resulting in higher nutritional quality and an increase in bioactive compounds produced, providing an ability to replace the peat moss with biochar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
18 pages, 5554 KiB  
Article
Potential of Tamarind Shell Extract against Oxidative Stress In Vivo and In Vitro
by Weixi Li, Rongping Huang, Shaocong Han, Xiyou Li, Haibiao Gong, Qiongyi Zhang, Changyu Yan, Yifang Li and Rongrong He
Molecules 2023, 28(4), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28041885 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2123
Abstract
Tamarind shell is rich in flavonoids and exhibits good biological activities. In this study, we aimed to analyze the chemical composition of tamarind shell extract (TSE), and to investigate antioxidant capacity of TSE in vitro and in vivo. The tamarind shells were extracted [...] Read more.
Tamarind shell is rich in flavonoids and exhibits good biological activities. In this study, we aimed to analyze the chemical composition of tamarind shell extract (TSE), and to investigate antioxidant capacity of TSE in vitro and in vivo. The tamarind shells were extracted with 95% ethanol refluxing extraction, and chemical constituents were determined by ultra-performance chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The free radical scavenging activity of TSE in vitro was evaluated using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The antioxidative effects of TSE were further assessed in 2,2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-stimulated ADTC5 cells and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-exposed zebrafish. A total of eight flavonoids were detected in TSE, including (+)-catechin, taxifolin, myricetin, eriodictyol, luteolin, morin, apigenin, and naringenin, with the contents of 5.287, 8.419, 4.042, 6.583, 3.421, 4.651, 0.2027, and 0.6234 mg/g, respectively. The ORAC assay revealed TSE and these flavonoids had strong free radical scavenging activity in vitro. In addition, TSE significantly decreased the ROS and MDA levels but restored the SOD activity in AAPH-treated ATDC5 cells and t-BHP-exposed zebrafish. The flavonoids also showed excellent antioxidative activities against oxidative damage in ATDC5 cells and zebrafish. Overall, the study suggests the free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant potential of TSE and its primary flavonoids in vitro and in vivo and will provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of tamarind shell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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14 pages, 2055 KiB  
Article
Optimization of an Aqueous Enzymatic Method and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction for Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. Seed Oil Production Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
by Hongwei Qin, Yanying Hu, Dongdong Cheng, Fujia Li, Xiaolong Han and Jinyue Sun
Agronomy 2023, 13(2), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13020555 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Peony seed oil, a type of tree nut oil, has attracted the attention of nutritionists for its rich nutritional content. The aim of this study was to extract oil from the peony seed utilizing green and efficient methods. Specifically, aqueous enzymatic extraction was [...] Read more.
Peony seed oil, a type of tree nut oil, has attracted the attention of nutritionists for its rich nutritional content. The aim of this study was to extract oil from the peony seed utilizing green and efficient methods. Specifically, aqueous enzymatic extraction was optimized using the Plackett–Burman design combined with the mixture design to extract the optimal enzyme ratio of peony seed oil. When the dosage of enzymes was 10 mg protein/g peony seed, the optimal ratios of the dosages of papain, cellulase, and pectinase were 16.15%, 31.33%, and 52.53%, respectively. Subsequently, central composite design was adopted to optimize supercritical CO2 extraction to identify the process parameters of extracting residual oil from the residue of the aqueous enzymatic extraction. Almost 6.30% of peony seed oil could be obtained from the residue using continuous extraction for 1.58 h at 49.41 °C and 59.75 Mpa. After mixing the peony seed oil extracted by the two processes, its physicochemical indices were measured. Compared with commercial peony seed oil extracted based on the organic solvent leaching method, the elative density and iodine value were higher based on our approach, whereas the other indices showed no significant differences. Thus, the two-step strategy combining the aqueous enzymatic method and supercritical CO2 extraction can be effectively applied to peony seed oil production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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20 pages, 2104 KiB  
Review
Citrus Waste as Source of Bioactive Compounds: Extraction and Utilization in Health and Food Industry
by Zahra Maqbool, Waseem Khalid, Hafiz Taimoor Atiq, Hyrije Koraqi, Zaryab Javaid, Sadeq K. Alhag, Laila A. Al-Shuraym, D. M. D. Bader, Mohammed Almarzuq, Mohamed Afifi and Ammar AL-Farga
Molecules 2023, 28(4), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28041636 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 7357
Abstract
The current research was conducted to extract the bioactive compounds from citrus waste and assess their role in the development of functional foods to treat different disorders. The scientific name of citrus is Citrus L. and it belongs to the Rutaceae family. It [...] Read more.
The current research was conducted to extract the bioactive compounds from citrus waste and assess their role in the development of functional foods to treat different disorders. The scientific name of citrus is Citrus L. and it belongs to the Rutaceae family. It is one of the most important fruit crops that is grown throughout the world. During processing, a large amount of waste is produced from citrus fruits in the form of peel, seeds, and pomace. Every year, the citrus processing industry creates a large amount of waste. The citrus waste is composed of highly bioactive substances and phytochemicals, including essential oils (EOs), ascorbic acid, sugars, carotenoids, flavonoids, dietary fiber, polyphenols, and a range of trace elements. These valuable compounds are used to develop functional foods, including baked products, beverages, meat products, and dairy products. Moreover, these functional foods play an important role in treating various disorders, including anti-aging, anti-mutagenic, antidiabetic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-allergenic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and cardiovascular-protective activity. EOs are complex and contain several naturally occurring bioactive compounds that are frequently used as the best substitutes in the food industry. Citrus essential oils have many uses in the packaging and food safety industries. They can also be used as an alternative preservative to extend the shelf lives of different food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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21 pages, 3316 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Beetroot By-Products for Producing Value-Added Third Generation Snacks
by Marta Igual, Faustine Moreau, Purificación García-Segovia and Javier Martínez-Monzó
Foods 2023, 12(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010176 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
Food waste is becoming a growing and important concern at both local and global levels. One-third of all food production is lost or wasted globally. It is necessary to look for alternatives that allow the use of agri-food waste or byproducts and that [...] Read more.
Food waste is becoming a growing and important concern at both local and global levels. One-third of all food production is lost or wasted globally. It is necessary to look for alternatives that allow the use of agri-food waste or byproducts and that can provide value to other foodstuffs. The utilization of beetroot byproducts for producing value-added third generation (3G) snacks was the main aim of this work. These snacks are obtained by indirect expansion by extrusion and later heat expansion. In order to achieve this aim, a corn grits base was used and the influence of water content and beetroot byproduct content effect was studied on expansion kinetics by microwave energy and on texture, colour, extrusion parameters and bioactive compounds of expanded 3G snacks. The microwave expansion kinetics study determined the appropriate time to expand the formulations studied. Samples with higher water content in the mixtures needed more expansion time. In terms of expansion, all samples presented acceptable values; however, samples with 25% water in the mixtures showed better results. Furthermore, these snacks showed more crunchiness and less hardness. Beetroot byproduct incorporation provided additional functional value to the snacks. The betalains and phenols contained in the beetroot byproduct were presented in the expanded snacks and increased the antioxidant capacity of the snacks. With this study, it can be recommended to use 25% water content and 10% beetroot byproduct in corn mixture to obtain a third-generation snack with added value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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16 pages, 6896 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Naringin-Rich Flavonoid Extracts from Agroresidues with Anxiolytic- and Antidepressant-like Effects in Mice
by Liliana Hernández-Vázquez, Julia Cassani, Ivo Heyerdahl-Viau, Rubria M. Martínez-Casares, Héctor Luna, Ana María Dorantes-Barrón, Daniel Arrieta-Báez and Rosa Estrada-Reyes
Molecules 2022, 27(23), 8507; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27238507 - 3 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Citrus paradisi species belong to the Rutaceae family, and it is commonly known as grapefruit. Grapefruit consumption involves a large amount of waste that goes to landfills and produces significant pollution affecting the human health. To examine this phenomenon, we designed an efficient [...] Read more.
Citrus paradisi species belong to the Rutaceae family, and it is commonly known as grapefruit. Grapefruit consumption involves a large amount of waste that goes to landfills and produces significant pollution affecting the human health. To examine this phenomenon, we designed an efficient chemical method that recovers naringin-rich flavonoid extracts from the fresh waste of grapefruits, by using the solvent impregnation resin method (SIR) with XAD-4 amberlite and either methanol or water as elution systems. Additionally, we focused on evaluating these extracts’ anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in behavioral predictive paradigms in mice. According to direct Principal Component Analysis (PCA) by NMR, and Direct Injection Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (DIESI-MS), methanol extracts obtained after resin treatment were free of coumarin compounds and evinced had a high content of naringin. Poncirin, phenylalanine, chrysin 5,7-dimethyl ether, 5,7-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxyflavanone, 2,3-dihydro-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, tetrahydrocurcumin, corchoionoside C, 6′-coumaroyl-1′-O-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside were also detected. Naringin-rich methanol extract caused a clear anxiolytic-like effect in the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and the Hole-Board (HBT) Tests, increasing oral doses of this extract did not produce a sedative effect. A single oral dose caused an antidepressant-like effect in the Tail Suspension Test (TST), while repeated administrations of the methanol extract elicited a robust antidepressant effect in the Forced Swimming Test (FST) in mice. Our evidence highlights the importance of bioprospecting studies of organic waste with therapeutic potentials, such as anxiety and depression disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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11 pages, 2150 KiB  
Article
Consumers Respond Positively to the Sensory, Health, and Sustainability Benefits of the Rare Sugar Allulose in Yogurt Formulations
by Margaux R. Mora, Zhixin Wang, Julie M. Goddard and Robin Dando
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3718; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223718 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2942
Abstract
Increased added sugar consumption is associated with type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Low and no-calorie alternative sweeteners have long been used as an aid in the reduction of added sugar. Unfortunately, these alternative sweeteners often have notable sensory deficits when [...] Read more.
Increased added sugar consumption is associated with type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Low and no-calorie alternative sweeteners have long been used as an aid in the reduction of added sugar. Unfortunately, these alternative sweeteners often have notable sensory deficits when compared to sucrose. Furthermore, many alternative sweeteners have synthetic origins, while consumers are increasingly turning to foods from natural origins, and from more sustainable sources. Such sweeteners include the rare sugar allulose, which can be manufactured from common agricultural waste and dairy co-product streams, and is reported to have a sensory profile similar to sucrose. This study aimed to determine the influence of the rare sugar allulose on consumer perception of sweetened vanilla yogurt. Participants were recruited to evaluate 4 vanilla yogurts sweetened with either sucrose, allulose, stevia or sucralose, and to rate their liking of the samples overall, and for flavor, texture, and their purchase intent. Statistical analysis of hedonic data from 100 consumers suggested that allulose performed similarly to sucrose in liking and purchase intent, and superior to other sweeteners tested in this study, with fewer off-flavors. Moreover, when consumers were queried on their purchase intent after learning details on the sweetener for each formulation, allulose scored significantly higher than all other formulations in purchase intent. This study highlights the potential of the rare sugar allulose as a low calorie, zero glycemic index, natural and better tasting sugar replacement in sweetened yogurt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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19 pages, 1518 KiB  
Article
Impact of Disruption and Drying Conditions on Physicochemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Powdered Ingredients Obtained from Brassica Vegetable By-Products
by Claudia Bas-Bellver, Cristina Barrera, Noelia Betoret and Lucía Seguí
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3663; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223663 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2151
Abstract
Reintroducing waste products into the food chain, thus contributing to circular economy, is a key goal towards sustainable food systems. Fruit and vegetable processing generates large amounts of residual organic matter, rich in bioactive compounds. In Brassicaceae, glucosinolates are present as secondary metabolites [...] Read more.
Reintroducing waste products into the food chain, thus contributing to circular economy, is a key goal towards sustainable food systems. Fruit and vegetable processing generates large amounts of residual organic matter, rich in bioactive compounds. In Brassicaceae, glucosinolates are present as secondary metabolites involved in the biotic stress response. They are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase when plant tissue is damaged, releasing new products (isothiocyanates) of great interest to human health. In this work, the process for obtaining powdered products from broccoli and white cabbage by-products, to be used as food ingredients, was developed. Residues produced during primary processing of these vegetables were transformed into powders by a process consisting of disruption (chopping or grinding), drying (hot-air drying at 50, 60 or 70 °C, or freeze drying) and final milling. The impact of processing on powders’ physicochemical and functional properties was assessed in terms of their physicochemical, technological and antioxidant properties. The matrix response to drying conditions (drying kinetics), as well as the isothiocyanate (sulforaphane) content of the powders obtained were also evaluated. The different combinations applied produced powdered products, the properties of which were determined by the techniques and conditions used. Freeze drying better preserved the characteristics of the raw materials; nevertheless, antioxidant characteristics were favoured by air drying at higher temperatures and by applying a lower intensity of disruption prior to drying. Sulforaphane was identified in all samples, although processing implied a reduction in this bioactive compound. The results of the present work suggest Brassica residues may be transformed into powdered ingredients that might be used to provide additional nutritional value while contributing to sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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11 pages, 1662 KiB  
Article
Crab Apple (Malus spp.) Seed Tocopherol Profile: Impact of Genotype, Species, Purpose and Rootstock
by Paweł Górnaś, Inga Mišina and Laila Ikase
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2736; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112736 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Apples are one of the most popular crops in the world, grown for fresh consumption, processing, and ornamental purposes. In the present study, the seeds of thirty crab apple (Malus spp.) genotypes were analyzed to evaluate the tocopherol composition and find a [...] Read more.
Apples are one of the most popular crops in the world, grown for fresh consumption, processing, and ornamental purposes. In the present study, the seeds of thirty crab apple (Malus spp.) genotypes were analyzed to evaluate the tocopherol composition and find a crop-specific profile. The mean proportion (%) of tocopherol (T) homologues (α, β, γ, and δ) was as follows: α-T (45.8%), β-T (21.8%), γ-T (24.3%), δ-T (8.1%) with a mean content of 22.41, 10.89, 12.35, and 4.08 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively. The coefficient of variation was higher in γ-T (0.748), δ-T (0.648) and β-T (0.540), and about two times lower for α-T (0.320). The total content of tocopherols varied much less in studied genotypes (coefficient of variation 0.164). α-T was the predominant tocopherol homologue in twenty-four genotypes (33.4–79.0%), while γ-T (36.4–64.9%) was the predominant in the remaining six studied genotypes. Principal component analysis identified six groups based on the tocopherol profile. Variety, purpose (ornamental vs. edible), and species appear to be associated with tocopherol profile. Most Malus sp., M. × prunifolia, and edible genotypes were located in two groups characterized by twice the content of α-T over β-T, and similar content of both (α-T and β-T), respectively. In both cases the sum of α-T and β-T constituted about 80% of total tocopherols. Significant correlations among tocopherol homologues were obtained: positive between α-T vs. β-T and γ-T vs. δ-T, and negative between α-T vs. γ-T, α-T vs. δ-T, and γ-T vs. β-T. These can be explained by the biosynthetic pathway of those lipophilic bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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18 pages, 744 KiB  
Article
Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Soil Properties, Growth Yield, and Physiochemical Properties of Sunflower Seeds and Oils
by Nurah M. Alzamel, Eman M. M. Taha, Abeer A. A. Bakr and Naglaa Loutfy
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12928; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912928 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5322
Abstract
Sunflower is the most important source of edible oil and fourth-largest oilseed crop in the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using two organic fertilizers from various sources (compost coupled with biofertilizer (CCB), filter mud cake (FMC)) [...] Read more.
Sunflower is the most important source of edible oil and fourth-largest oilseed crop in the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using two organic fertilizers from various sources (compost coupled with biofertilizer (CCB), filter mud cake (FMC)) and comparing them to conventional inorganic fertilizers in their effect on the quality of sunflower seeds, sunflower oil, and soil properties. The data showed that the highest value of dry weight, plant height, disk dry weight in addition to chlorophyll content, and phenolic secondary metabolites in oil was measured after the application of inorganic fertilizer, while the use of organic fertilizer contributed to a substantial increase in the production yield of sunflower seeds, oil, and a high stalk yield compared with inorganic treatment. Oils produced from organic fertilizer (CCB and FMC) gave higher blue color values than inorganic ones and the most transparent oil was inorganic while the organic treatments produced darkest oils. The results for chemical composition of sunflower seeds showed nonsignificant differences for protein and ash among all treatments while a significant difference with regard to oil content was recorded, in which the FMC recorded the highest oil content followed by compost (CCB), and finally came the inorganic treatment. Organic fertilizers are a valuable source of organic material and nutrients essential for plants and can be safely used for soil, crops, and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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30 pages, 1337 KiB  
Review
Increasing Value of Winery Residues through Integrated Biorefinery Processes: A Review
by Rafaela P. Rodrigues, Licínio M. Gando-Ferreira and Margarida J. Quina
Molecules 2022, 27(15), 4709; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27154709 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2420
Abstract
The wine industry is one of the most relevant socio-economic activities in Europe. However, this industry represents a growing problem with negative effects on the environment since it produces large quantities of residues that need appropriate valorization or management. From the perspective of [...] Read more.
The wine industry is one of the most relevant socio-economic activities in Europe. However, this industry represents a growing problem with negative effects on the environment since it produces large quantities of residues that need appropriate valorization or management. From the perspective of biorefinery and circular economy, the winery residues show high potential to be used for the formulation of new products. Due to the substantial quantities of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins with high antioxidant potential in their matrix, these residues can be exploited by extracting bioactive compounds before using the remaining biomass for energy purposes or for producing fertilizers. Currently, there is an emphasis on the use of new and greener technologies in order to recover bioactive molecules from solid and liquid winery residues. Once the bio compounds are recovered, the remaining residues can be used for the production of energy through bioprocesses (biogas, bioethanol, bio-oil), thermal processes (pyrolysis, gasification combustion), or biofertilizers (compost), according to the biorefinery concept. This review mainly focuses on the discussion of the feasibility of the application of the biorefinery concept for winery residues. The transition from the lab-scale to the industrial-scale of the different technologies is still lacking and urgent in this sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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14 pages, 2141 KiB  
Article
Brassica carinata Seed Meal as Soil Amendment and Potential Biofumigant
by Elga Monaci, Cristiano Casucci, Arianna De Bernardi, Enrica Marini, Lucia Landi, Giuseppe Toscano, Gianfranco Romanazzi and Costantino Vischetti
Crops 2022, 2(3), 233-246; https://doi.org/10.3390/crops2030017 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2017
Abstract
Brassicaceae products have been extensively studied for their biofumigant activity; despite this, few investigate their effect on soil proprieties. This paper aims to describe the effect on soil fertility by adding the seed meal of Brassica carinata at three different doses corresponding to [...] Read more.
Brassicaceae products have been extensively studied for their biofumigant activity; despite this, few investigate their effect on soil proprieties. This paper aims to describe the effect on soil fertility by adding the seed meal of Brassica carinata at three different doses corresponding to field dose (3 tons/ha), 10 and 100 fold this dose in organic soil. The organic carbon balance was evaluated by analysing the oxidisable, humified and mineralised carbon fractions. Microbial activity was measured by enzymes linked to the carbon, phosphorous and sulphur cycles—β-glucosidase, phosphatase and arylsulphatase, respectively. The amount corresponding to 30 t/ha was the best solution for the mineralised carbon and humic carbon ratio. In contrast, there was a substantial increase in the organic substance’s mineralisation level at the maximum dose, not offset by a relative rise in humification. No repression was observed in the metabolic activity of the microorganisms, their abundance or the main enzymatic activities and, in the conditions tested, a release of only a volatile isothiocyanate occurred, limiting the biofumigant effect. Therefore, these combined factors allow us to assert that the amendment with this type of material at the intermediate dose could positively affect the phosphorus cycle, the soil structure, and fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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16 pages, 3101 KiB  
Article
Microalgae Strain Porphyridium purpureum for Nutrient Reduction in Dairy Wastewaters
by Ana-Maria Gălan, Alexandru Vlaicu, Alin Cristian Nicolae Vintilă, Mihaela Cîlţea-Udrescu, Georgiana Cerchezan, Adriana Nicoleta Frone, Gabriel Vasilievici and Anca Paulenco
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8545; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148545 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
This paper has approached the study of dairy wastewater treatment and the simultaneous biocompound production by Porphyridium purpureum under continuous light and under a day–night cycle. The main goals were to achieve a reduction in the lactose content of the cheese wastewater that [...] Read more.
This paper has approached the study of dairy wastewater treatment and the simultaneous biocompound production by Porphyridium purpureum under continuous light and under a day–night cycle. The main goals were to achieve a reduction in the lactose content of the cheese wastewater that was tested and, at the same time, to obtain added value from the produced compounds, so as to increase the economic value of the process. The results show that biomass production increases proportionally with the concentration of lactose for both of the illumination options. The lactose concentration in the waste stream was reduced over 90% in just 7 days. The exopolysaccharide concentration in the growth medium increased with lactose availability. For the samples that were under constant light stress, the concentration of phycobiliproteins was highest when there was small amounts of lactose in the medium. The content of pigments was higher in the case of the day–night cycle of illumination; these being affected by stress factors such as continuous light and high lactose concentration. The results that were obtained prove that dairy wastewaters that are rich in lactose can be used efficiently for the growth of Porphyridium purpureum, achieving an increase in the biomass concentration and a large reduction of the lactose from this waste stream while obtaining a microalgae biomass that is rich in valuable compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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16 pages, 2484 KiB  
Article
Grape Pomace as Innovative Flour for the Formulation of Functional Muffins: How Particle Size Affects the Nutritional, Textural and Sensory Properties
by Marica Troilo, Graziana Difonzo, Vito Michele Paradiso, Antonella Pasqualone and Francesco Caponio
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121799 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3594
Abstract
Every year, the winemaking process generates large quantities of waste and by-products, the management of which is critical due to the large production in a limited period. Grape pomace is a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and antimicrobial properties. Its [...] Read more.
Every year, the winemaking process generates large quantities of waste and by-products, the management of which is critical due to the large production in a limited period. Grape pomace is a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and antimicrobial properties. Its chemical composition makes it potentially suitable for preparing high-value food products. The aim of this research was to study the effect of adding grape pomace powder with different particle size fractions (600–425, 425–300, 300–212 and 212–150 µm) to the chemical, technological and sensorial characteristics of muffins. The addition of 15% of grape pomace powder, regardless of particle size, led to muffins rich in antioxidant compounds and total dietary fiber (>3/100 g), which could be labelled with the “source of fiber” nutritional claim according to the EC Regulation 1924/2006. As particle size decreased, total anthocyanins, total phenol content and antioxidant activity (evaluated by ABTS and DPPH assays) increased, while muffin hardness and lightness were negatively influenced. The latter observation was confirmed by the sensory evaluation, which also showed that a smaller particle size led to the presence of irregular crumb pores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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15 pages, 3680 KiB  
Article
Modification of Artichoke Dietary Fiber by Superfine Grinding and High-Pressure Homogenization and Its Protection against Cadmium Poisoning in Rats
by Renwei Zhu, Tianhui Xu, Bian He, Yayi Wang, Linwei Zhang and Liang Huang
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1716; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121716 - 12 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of superfine grinding (SP) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) on the structural and physicochemical properties of artichoke dietary fiber (ADF), as well as the protective effects against cadmium poisoning in rats. The structural characteristics and [...] Read more.
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of superfine grinding (SP) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) on the structural and physicochemical properties of artichoke dietary fiber (ADF), as well as the protective effects against cadmium poisoning in rats. The structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of ADF, HPH-ADF (ADF treated by HPH) and CM-ADF (ADF treated by SP and HPH) were determined, and cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was induced by exposing rats for 7 weeks. The amounts of creatinine and urea; the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum; the quantity of red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells and neutrophil proportion in blood samples; and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in liver tissue were analyzed. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed to analyze the tissue structure and pathology of the liver and testis. The results showed that ADF subjected to HPH and SP-HPH exhibited increased content of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) (p < 0.05). HPH and SP-HPH treatments increased oil-holding capacity (OHC), total negative charge (TNC) and heavy metal adsorption capacity (p < 0.05). The CdCl2 intervention led to a significant increase in AST, ALT, creatinine, urea, neutrophil proportion and white blood cell count, as well as a significant decrease in GSH-Px activity, red blood cell count and hemoglobin (HGB) (p < 0.05). In rats fed with ADF, HPH-ADF and CM-ADF significantly reduced creatinine, urea amounts, ALT, AST activity in serum, leukocyte count and the neutrophil ratio in blood and increased GSH-Px activity in the liver, in addition to increasing the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin count in blood (p < 0.05). H&E staining results showed that steatosis in the liver was significantly reduced, whereas testicular tissue edema was improved. These results indicate that ADF exhibited positive activity against cadmium poisoning in rats and that CM-ADF had a better protective effect than ADF and HPH-ADF. ADF has specific potential to be used in health foods or therapeutic drugs, providing a reference for the development and utilization of artichoke waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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19 pages, 4482 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Characterization of Phytochemicals and Polysaccharides in Diverse Coffee Cascara Samples: Identification, Quantification and Discovery of Novel Compounds
by Jiarong Zhang, Xuequan Sun, Pinhe Liu, Tongze Zhang, Joel A. Jelderks and Harold Corke
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121710 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2598
Abstract
Coffee cascara is the first and most significant by-product of the coffee processing industry, whose valorization has become an urgent priority to reduce harmful environmental impacts. This work aimed to provide an improved understanding of phytochemicals and polysaccharides in coffee cascara in order [...] Read more.
Coffee cascara is the first and most significant by-product of the coffee processing industry, whose valorization has become an urgent priority to reduce harmful environmental impacts. This work aimed to provide an improved understanding of phytochemicals and polysaccharides in coffee cascara in order to offer information for the better evaluation of potential applications. Phytochemicals in 20 different coffee cascara samples were ultrasonically extracted and analyzed by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS/MS. Four novel compounds were isolated for the first time from coffee cascara, including two still unknown tautomers (337 Da), and two dihydroflavonol glycosides (dihydromyricetin glycoside and dihydromyricetin rhamnosylglycoside). Their presence can contribute to the design of new value-added applications of coffee cascara. Chemical characterization of two polysaccharides from two of the coffee cascara pulp samples showed that they were mainly composed of homogalacturonan, with rhamnose and arabinose as minor neutral sugars. In addition, principal component analysis results indicated that coffee cultivar and/or country significantly impacted the phytochemical composition of coffee cascara, although differences may be reduced by the external environment and processing method. It is suggested that processing method should be carefully designed when generating coffee cascara from the same cultivar and country/farm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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13 pages, 2656 KiB  
Article
The Comprehensive Utilization of Bean Dregs in High-Fiber Tofu
by Wenjing Lu, Yue Zhang, Chaogeng Xiao, Di Chen, Qin Ye, Cen Zhang, Xianghe Meng and Shengjian Wang
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101475 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
A large quantity of bean dregs is produced by the production of tofu and treated as animal feed or plant fertilizer, which could cause environmental pollution. The purpose of this study was to use commercially available lactone tofu to compare the effects of [...] Read more.
A large quantity of bean dregs is produced by the production of tofu and treated as animal feed or plant fertilizer, which could cause environmental pollution. The purpose of this study was to use commercially available lactone tofu to compare the effects of innovative preparation methods of high-fiber tofu, where the innovative methods used partial de-slagging followed by the addition of soybean residue cellulose to prepare high-fiber tofu. The results showed that there were no significant differences among lactone tofu samples made with 5% cellulose, 10% cellulose, or 15% cellulose and the commercially available lactone tofu during the water-holding capacity and chroma analysis. Texture indices showed that lactone tofu with 10% cellulose was similar to the commercially available lactone tofu in chewiness and hardness, and lactone tofu with 15% cellulose was similar to the commercially available lactone tofu in adhesiveness and chewiness. Magnetic resonance imaging displayed that lactone tofu with 10% cellulose had better water retention and higher moisture content. Gel electron microscopy showed that lactone tofu with 10% cellulose achieved a better gel network, and the bean dreg cellulose had less influence to a certain extent. Volatile organic compound testing by GC-IMS method indicated that the lactone tofu with 10% cellulose had more volatile organic compound content. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that lactone tofu with 10% cellulose had the best market competitiveness in ensuring the quality of high-fiber tofu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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16 pages, 1972 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Hydrolysis and Methanolysis of Bidesmosidic Chenopodium quinoa Saponins on Their Hemolytic Activity
by Philippe Savarino, Carolina Contino, Emmanuel Colson, Gustavo Cabrera-Barjas, Julien De Winter and Pascal Gerbaux
Molecules 2022, 27(10), 3211; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27103211 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
Saponins are specific metabolites abundantly present in plants and several marine animals. Their high cytotoxicity is associated with their membranolytic properties, i.e., their propensity to disrupt cell membranes upon incorporation. As such, saponins are highly attractive for numerous applications, provided the relation between [...] Read more.
Saponins are specific metabolites abundantly present in plants and several marine animals. Their high cytotoxicity is associated with their membranolytic properties, i.e., their propensity to disrupt cell membranes upon incorporation. As such, saponins are highly attractive for numerous applications, provided the relation between their molecular structures and their biological activities is understood at the molecular level. In the present investigation, we focused on the bidesmosidic saponins extracted from the quinoa husk, whose saccharidic chains are appended on the aglycone via two different linkages, a glycosidic bond, and an ester function. The later position is sensitive to chemical modifications, such as hydrolysis and methanolysis. We prepared and characterized three sets of saponins using mass spectrometry: (i) bidesmosidic saponins directly extracted from the ground husk, (ii) monodesmosidic saponins with a carboxylic acid group, and (iii) monodesmosidic saponins with a methyl ester function. The impact of the structural modifications on the membranolytic activity of the saponins was assayed based on the determination of their hemolytic activity. The natural bidesmosidic saponins do not present any hemolytic activity even at the highest tested concentration (500 µg·mL−1). Hydrolyzed saponins already degrade erythrocytes at 20 µg·mL−1, whereas 100 µg·mL−1 of transesterified saponins is needed to induce detectable activity. The observation that monodesmosidic saponins, hydrolyzed or transesterified, are much more active against erythrocytes than the bidesmosidic ones confirms that bidesmosidic saponins are likely to be the dormant form of saponins in plants. Additionally, the observation that negatively charged saponins, i.e., the hydrolyzed ones, are more hemolytic than the neutral ones could be related to the red blood cell membrane structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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14 pages, 2311 KiB  
Article
Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) Phytochemical Profile: Impact of Pre/Post-Harvest Processing and Extractive Recovery
by Karina Sierra, Laura Naranjo, Luis Carrillo-Hormaza, German Franco and Edison Osorio
Molecules 2022, 27(7), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27072243 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to chemically compare samples of Mentha spicata (marketing byproducts, production byproducts, and export material), cultivated in the open field and under greenhouse, using an integrated approach by HPLC/DAD and GC/MS analysis. The presence of phenolic compounds was [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to chemically compare samples of Mentha spicata (marketing byproducts, production byproducts, and export material), cultivated in the open field and under greenhouse, using an integrated approach by HPLC/DAD and GC/MS analysis. The presence of phenolic compounds was higher in the marketing byproducts cultivated in the open field. Marketing byproducts also had the highest amount of carvone. For this reason, this byproduct was selected as a candidate for the development of natural ingredients. With the best selected material, the optimization of simultaneous high-intensity ultrasound-assisted extraction processes was proposed for the recovery of the compounds of interest. This extraction was defined by Peleg’s equation and polynomial regression analysis. Modeling showed that the factors amplitude, time, and solvent were found to be significant in the recovery process (p < 0.005). The maximum amount of compounds was obtained using 90% amplitude for 5 min and ethanol/water mixture (80:20) for extraction to simultaneously obtain phenolic and terpenoid compounds. This system obtained the highest amount of monoterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid compounds from the essential oil of M. spicata (64.93% vs. 84.55%). Thus, with an efficient and eco-friendly method, it was possible to optimize the extraction of compounds in M. spicata as a starting point for the use of its byproducts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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14 pages, 2414 KiB  
Article
Innovative Recovery of Winemaking Waste for Effective Lead Removal from Wastewater
by Gabriela Ungureanu, Antoanela Patras, Irina Gabriela Cara, Rodica Sturza and Aliona Ghendov-Mosanu
Agronomy 2022, 12(3), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12030604 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2218
Abstract
Every year, important quantities of winemaking waste create problems for wine producers. These problems arise from the difficulty of disposing of grape marc, which can pollute the environment and affect nearby agricultural crops. The present research proposes a new direction for the valorization [...] Read more.
Every year, important quantities of winemaking waste create problems for wine producers. These problems arise from the difficulty of disposing of grape marc, which can pollute the environment and affect nearby agricultural crops. The present research proposes a new direction for the valorization of this agri-food waste in residual water depollution. Four biomaterials obtained from winemaking waste were tested for Pb removal: raw Merlot grape marc (MR), raw Sauvignon Blanc grape marc (SbR), Merlot grape marc biorefined (ME) and Sauvignon Blanc grape marc biorefined (SbE). The effects of biosorbent mass and initial Pb concentration, adsorption kinetic, equilibrium isotherms and the matrix influence from a mine effluent were assessed. Very good perspectives for the practical application in lead uptake from wastewaters arise, with better results for biorefined grape marc compared to raw material. The lead removal percentage from an initial solution containing 20 mg Pb/L, at optimum pH (5.5 ± 0.5) was 71%—MR, 78%—SbR, 80%—ME, and 97%—SbE. A Langmuir model revealed a very good removal capacity for ME (40 mg/g) and SbE (64 mg/g). Thus, the grape marc, a polluting waste, can turn into a low-cost and easy-to-prepare sorbent for the bioremediation of contaminated water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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11 pages, 3609 KiB  
Article
Potential Value of Wood Tar as a Natural Fungicide against Valsa mali
by Yue Chen, Mengjing Lv, Juan Zhou, Ke Huang, Yubo Sun and Juntao Feng
Molecules 2022, 27(5), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27051531 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
The Valsa canker caused by Valsa mali seriously harmed the production of East Asian apples and caused very significant economic losses. Considering the chemical residues and the improvement of people’s awareness of environmental protection, there is a need for screening new green pesticides [...] Read more.
The Valsa canker caused by Valsa mali seriously harmed the production of East Asian apples and caused very significant economic losses. Considering the chemical residues and the improvement of people’s awareness of environmental protection, there is a need for screening new green pesticides for the control of Valsa canker. Therefore, we conducted systematic evaluations on the antifungal activity of wood tar. In this research, the effective concentration (EC50) of six strains of V. mali to wood tar was determined, and the EC50 ranged from 69.54 to 92.81 μg/mL. After treatment with wood tar, the hyphae of V. mali broke, swelled, and deformed; the permeability of the cell membrane increased; and the activity of pectinase reduced. Moreover, the expression levels of five genes related to pectinase also decreased significantly. In addition, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (POD) of apple leaves treated with wood tar also increased. On detached apple branches, wood tar also showed therapeutic and protective activities. In the 2016–2019 field experiments, wood tar also showed good efficacy against Valsa canker and promoted the formation of callus. (In the experiments from 2016 to 2019, it can be seen that the control effect of 50% wood tar and 100% wood tar in the field is above 75% and promoted the formation of callus.) This study is the first to report the bidirectional efficacy of wood tar against Valsa mali and for trunk wound healing. The above results evidenced that wood tar has great potential to be developed as a natural alternative to commercial fungicides for the management of apple Valsa canker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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15 pages, 914 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Re-Use of Brewer’s Spent Grain for the Production of High Protein and Fibre Pasta
by Francesca Cuomo, Maria Carmela Trivisonno, Silvio Iacovino, Maria Cristina Messia and Emanuele Marconi
Foods 2022, 11(5), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050642 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2777
Abstract
Brewer’s spent grains are one of the principal by-products of the brewing industry. For protein and fibre content, this by-product represents an interesting raw material to be reused for manufacturing many other products. To maximize the nutritional characteristics of this by-product, in this [...] Read more.
Brewer’s spent grains are one of the principal by-products of the brewing industry. For protein and fibre content, this by-product represents an interesting raw material to be reused for manufacturing many other products. To maximize the nutritional characteristics of this by-product, in this study, ingredients derived from brewer’s spent grains were included in the design of innovative dry pasta. Two brewer’s spent grains derivative ingredients, one enriched in proteins and the other in fibre were blended with semolina. Based on the rheological evaluation, the optimal amount of the two ingredients for producing pasta was determined. In particular, pasta responding to the claims “High Protein” and “High Fibre” was realized using the formulation enriched with 15% of protein-rich ingredient and the claim “High Fibre” and “Source of proteins” using the formulation enriched with 10% of fibre-rich ingredient. The final products were compared to 100% semolina and 100% wholegrain semolina pasta for composition, color, texture, and cooking quality, revealing excellent quality characteristics. The newly formulated pasta represents a successful match of technological aptitude, nutritional/sensorial quality, and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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14 pages, 15984 KiB  
Article
Functional Properties of Collagen Extracted from Catfish (Silurus triostegus) Waste
by Ayat A. Abbas, Khalida A. Shakir and Marie K. Walsh
Foods 2022, 11(5), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050633 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3204
Abstract
Collagen is used for a variety of biomedical and pharmaceutical uses, such as osteoarthritis-related pain management, hypertension, tissue engineering, and human implants, and is generally derived from porcine or bovine. Collagen from these animals has limitations due to the risk of disease transmission [...] Read more.
Collagen is used for a variety of biomedical and pharmaceutical uses, such as osteoarthritis-related pain management, hypertension, tissue engineering, and human implants, and is generally derived from porcine or bovine. Collagen from these animals has limitations due to the risk of disease transmission and religious constraints. Therefore, this study investigated the extraction of collagen from catfish (Silurus triostegus) waste. Acid-solubilized collagen and pepsin-solubilized collagen were extracted from catfish skin, fin, head, bone, and muscle. SDS-PAGE patterns of the extracted collagen showed that the protein molecular weights ranged from 97 to 200 kDa and skin, bone, and fin collagen consisted of 2 distinct α chains, which is typical of type 1 collagen. The proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash) and yield of the obtained extracts were determined. Skin collagen extracts were selected for further investigation due to the high collagen yield. The effects of the pH and salt concentration on solubility, and the denaturation temperature, FTIR spectra, reverse-phase HPLC, and SEM analysis were investigated to characterize the collagen samples. Based on the characterization of catfish skin collagen, this waste material has potential for use in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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31 pages, 10712 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Acidic Tea Polysaccharides from Yellow Leaves of Wuyi Rock Tea and Their Hypoglycemic Activity via Intestinal Flora Regulation in Rats
by Zhong Wu, Wenzhi Zeng, Xun Zhang and Jiangfan Yang
Foods 2022, 11(4), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040617 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2932
Abstract
A bioactive acidic tea polysaccharide from yellow leaves of Wuyi rock tea was successively prepared via DEAE-52 and Superdex-200 columns. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis showed that the main glycosidic bonds were composed of α-l-Araf-(1→, →5)-α-l-Araf-(1→, →4)-α-d-Glcp-(1→, [...] Read more.
A bioactive acidic tea polysaccharide from yellow leaves of Wuyi rock tea was successively prepared via DEAE-52 and Superdex-200 columns. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis showed that the main glycosidic bonds were composed of α-l-Araf-(1→, →5)-α-l-Araf-(1→, →4)-α-d-Glcp-(1→, Arap-(1→, →6)-α-d-Glcp-(1→, →2,4)-α-l-Rhap-(1→, →3,4)-α-d-Glcp-(1→, →4)-α-d-GalAp-(1→, →4)-α-d-GalAp-(1→, α-d-Galp-(1→, →6)-β-d-Galp-(1→ and →4)-β-d-Galp-(1→. The molecular weight was 3.9285 × 104 Da. The hypoglycemic effect of acidic tea polysaccharides on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus rats was evaluated through histopathology and biochemistry analysis. The acidic tea polysaccharide could improve plasma and liver lipid metabolism. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the composition of the intestinal flora changed drastically after treatment, namely, blooms of Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Dorea, and Oscillospira, and a strong reduction in Desulfovibrio and Lactobacillus. The above results illustrated that tea polysaccharides might serve as an effective ingredient to ameliorate glucose metabolism disorders and intestinal flora in hyperglycemic rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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13 pages, 2140 KiB  
Article
Effect of Anti-Obesity and Antioxidant Activity through the Additional Consumption of Peel from ‘Fuji’ Pre-Washed Apple
by Da-Yeong Ko and Kang-Mo Ku
Foods 2022, 11(4), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040497 - 9 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2331
Abstract
There is limited information on the health effects of apple peel taken from ‘Fuji’ (Malus pumila Mill) apples washed with ozonated water. To clarify the health-promoting effects of peel, the triterpenoids (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid) were quantified with gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry. [...] Read more.
There is limited information on the health effects of apple peel taken from ‘Fuji’ (Malus pumila Mill) apples washed with ozonated water. To clarify the health-promoting effects of peel, the triterpenoids (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid) were quantified with gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry. Anti-obesity effects of apple peel extract on the 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell were compared with apple flesh, whole apple, and ursolic acid. The peel extract treatment with 3.30 ± 1.05 μM of ursolic acid significantly suppressed (p < 0.05) the lipid accumulation compared with the content in flesh, and a similar level was reached in the 5 μM ursolic acid positive control group. In the peel extract and ursolic acid treatment groups, the C16:0 concentration was significantly inhibited (p < 0.05), implying the anti-obesity effect of ursolic acid on the 3T3-L1 cell. Moreover, apple peel contributed 41% of the total flavonoids content and 31% of the phenolic contents of the whole apple, but only accounted for less than 10% of the whole apple (weight basis). This study’s results offer basic data on pre-washed apple as a health functional food, offering information about the health benefits of apple peel, calculated based on the partial ratio in the whole apple. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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