Topic Editors

Informatics Building School of Informatics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics and Communications, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain

Post COVID-19: Latest Advances, Challenges and Methodologies

Abstract submission deadline
4 July 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
4 September 2024
Viewed by
8534

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are currently experiencing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with the COVID-19 pandemic having been declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and characterized as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. The impact of COVID-19 has extended across numerous nations, resulting in over 351 million confirmed cases and 5.5 million fatalities worldwide.

In this crucial time, the responsibility falls upon the scientific community to take a leading role in combatting COVID-19. It is our duty to step up and contribute toward the eradication of this virus. To achieve this goal, it is imperative to identify mechanisms, methodologies, models, techniques, and systems capable of aiding in various stages of the pandemic, including during its progression, early detection, containment, and preventive measures.

One significant contributor to our efforts is Artificial Intelligence (AI), which plays a pivotal role in addressing the challenges posed by COVID-19. For instance, AI techniques offer the potential to develop vaccines and targeted treatments for the virus. In the field of epidemiology, AI can assist in tracking and predicting the spread of infections, thereby aiding policymakers in making informed decisions. Utilizing visualization technology, AI provides a comprehensive global perspective that informs policy formulation. Moreover, AI's ability to rapidly and accurately diagnose COVID-19 using trained models based on routine CT scans or X-rays is noteworthy. Additionally, wearable sensors equipped with AI can monitor patients with mild COVID-19 in home-based settings. AI's analysis of human behavioral data can enhance individual and community quarantine measures, as well as social control policies. Furthermore, AI-driven predictions of coronavirus protein structures hold promise. Emotional data can be harnessed to support the mental health of COVID-19 patients enduring self-quarantine. AI also proves valuable in managing the supply chain of medical resources such as face masks and ventilators.

We invite contributions that highlight the Latest Advances, Challenges, and Methodologies in the battle against COVID-19. We welcome research that centers on mathematical models grounded in pandemic prevalence and incidence data. Submissions should elucidate significant advancements in ongoing work, including pieces that have been published, accepted for publication, or simultaneously submitted to other conferences or journals.

The scope of the topics of interest encompasses, but is not confined to, the following:

  • AI-driven data analysis to combat COVID-19;
  • Ensuring transparency and explainability of AI in the fight against COVID-19;
  • Developing trustworthy AI solutions for addressing COVID-19 challenges;
  • Utilizing evolutionary AI techniques to fight against COVID-19;
  • Harnessing deep learning methodologies in the fight against COVID-19;
  • Collaborative multi-agent approaches for combating COVID-19;
  • Integrating multi-modal data for enhanced COVID-19 strategies;
  • Exploring techniques for feature extraction, selection, reduction, and optimization;
  • Predictive modeling and forecasting for tackling COVID-19;
  • Deploying wearable systems in the fight against COVID-19;
  • Statistical assessments of future COVID-19 trends;
  • Analyzing medical images to combat COVID-19;
  • Computer-aided systems for addressing the challenges of COVID-19;
  • Machine learning models, methodologies, and theoretical contributions.

Prof. Dr. Yudong Zhang
Prof. Dr. Juan Manuel Gorriz
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • artificial intelligence
  • COVID-19
  • computed tomography
  • prevention and control
  • diagnostic test
  • epidemic dynamics
  • healthcare and infection
  • mathematical modeling
  • gene mutation
  • pandemic
  • pattern recognition
  • precision medicine
  • public health
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • vaccine
  • rehabilitation
  • risk and survival
  • social distancing
  • socioeconomic impacts
  • antiviral strategy
  • targeted drug
  • therapeutics
  • trustworthy AI
  • respiratory virus

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Diagnostics
diagnostics
3.6 3.6 2011 20.7 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Diseases
diseases
3.7 - 2013 18.8 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Healthcare
healthcare
2.8 2.7 2013 19.5 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Infectious Disease Reports
idr
3.2 3.2 2009 27.2 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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27 pages, 571 KiB  
Review
Narrative Review Explaining the Role of HLA-A, -B, and -C Molecules in COVID-19 Disease in and around Africa
by Lisa Naidoo, Thilona Arumugam and Veron Ramsuran
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 380-406; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr16020029 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 269
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has left a devasting effect on various regions globally. Africa has exceptionally high rates of other infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and malaria, and was not impacted by COVID-19 to the extent of [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has left a devasting effect on various regions globally. Africa has exceptionally high rates of other infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and malaria, and was not impacted by COVID-19 to the extent of other continents Globally, COVID-19 has caused approximately 7 million deaths and 700 million infections thus far. COVID-19 disease severity and susceptibility vary among individuals and populations, which could be attributed to various factors, including the viral strain, host genetics, environment, lifespan, and co-existing conditions. Host genetics play a substantial part in COVID-19 disease severity among individuals. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) was previously been shown to be very important across host immune responses against viruses. HLA has been a widely studied gene region for various disease associations that have been identified. HLA proteins present peptides to the cytotoxic lymphocytes, which causes an immune response to kill infected cells. The HLA molecule serves as the central region for infectious disease association; therefore, we expect HLA disease association with COVID-19. Therefore, in this narrative review, we look at the HLA gene region, particularly, HLA class I, to understand its role in COVID-19 disease. Full article
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11 pages, 1865 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Binding and Neutralizing Antibodies for Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Immunization
by Heng Zhao, Guorun Jiang, Cong Li, Yanchun Che, Runxiang Long, Jing Pu, Ying Zhang, Dandan Li, Yun Liao, Li Yu, Yong Zhao, Mei Yuan, Yadong Li, Shengtao Fan, Longding Liu and Qihan Li
Diseases 2024, 12(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases12040067 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 586
Abstract
The circulating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant presents an ongoing challenge for surveillance and detection. It is important to establish an assay for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in vaccinated individuals. Numerous studies have demonstrated that binding antibodies (such as S-IgG and N-IgG) and [...] Read more.
The circulating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant presents an ongoing challenge for surveillance and detection. It is important to establish an assay for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in vaccinated individuals. Numerous studies have demonstrated that binding antibodies (such as S-IgG and N-IgG) and neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) can be detected in vaccinated individuals. However, it is still unclear how to evaluate the consistency and correlation between binding antibodies and Nabs induced by inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. In this study, serum samples from humans, rhesus macaques, and hamsters immunized with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were analyzed for S-IgG, N-IgG, and Nabs. The results showed that the titer and seroconversion rate of S-IgG were significantly higher than those of N-IgG. The correlation between S-IgG and Nabs was higher compared to that of N-IgG. Based on this analysis, we further investigated the titer thresholds of S-IgG and N-IgG in predicting the seroconversion of Nabs. According to the threshold, we can quickly determine the positive and negative effects of the SARS-CoV-2 variant neutralizing antibody in individuals. These findings suggest that the S-IgG antibody is a better supplement to and confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunization. Full article
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11 pages, 665 KiB  
Article
Delayed Antibody Response in the Acute Phase of Infection Is Associated with a Lower Mental Component of Quality of Life in Survivors of Severe and Critical COVID-19
by Mohammad Mahmud Otman Dababseh, Peter Sabaka, Oľga Duraníková, Simona Horváthová, Peter Valkovič, Igor Straka, Anna Nagyová, Vladimír Boža, Marián Kravec, Ján Jurenka, Alena Koščálová, Peter Mihalov, Eliška Marešová, Matej Bendžala, Alice Kušnírová and Igor Stankovič
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(7), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13071938 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Background: The long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) significantly affects quality of life (QoL) in disease survivors. Delayed development of the adaptive immune response is associated with more severe disease and a worse prognosis in COVID-19. The effects of delayed immune response [...] Read more.
Background: The long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) significantly affects quality of life (QoL) in disease survivors. Delayed development of the adaptive immune response is associated with more severe disease and a worse prognosis in COVID-19. The effects of delayed immune response on COVID-19 sequelae and QoL are unknown. Methods: We conducted a prospective study to assess the relationship between the delayed antibody response in the acute phase of infection in naïve unvaccinated patients suffering from severe or critical COVID-19 and their QoL 12 months after hospital discharge. The 12-item Short Form Survey (SF-12) questionnaire was used for assessment of QoL. The SF-12 evaluates both mental and physical components of QoL, incorporating a mental component score (MCS-12) and a physical component score (PCS-12). A delayed antibody response was defined as testing negative for anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at the time of hospital admission. Results: The study included 274 patients (154 men and 120 women). Of the enrolled patients, 144 had a delayed immune response. These patients had a significantly lower MCS-12 (p = 0.002), but PCS-12 (p = 0.397) was not significantly different at the 12-month follow-up compared to patients with positive anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The MCS-12 at the time of follow-up was negatively associated with delayed antibody response irrespective of possible confounders (p = 0.006; B = 3.609; ηp2 = 0.035; 95% CI = 1.069–6.150). An MSC-12 below 50 points at the time of follow-up was positively associated with delayed antibody response (p = 0.001; B = 1.092; OR = 2.979; 95% CI = 1.554–5.711). Conclusions: This study confirmed that, in patients with severe and critical COVID-19, a negative result for anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at the time of hospital admission is associated with a lower mental component of QoL in unvaccinated patients naïve to COVID-19 one year after hospital discharge. Full article
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12 pages, 2204 KiB  
Article
Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as a Biomarker in Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
by Karol Żmudka, Alicja Gałeczka-Turkiewicz, Aleksandra Wroniecka, Aleksandra Włosowicz, Barbara Sobala-Szczygieł, Jolanta Mrochem-Kwarciak, Zenon P. Czuba and Jerzy Jaroszewicz
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(7), 1851; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13071851 - 23 Mar 2024
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Background: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is part of the innate immune system and acute-phase protein. Current data state that acute COVID-19 patients have higher levels of serum NGAL (sNGAL), but it is not known if higher protein levels are maintained in the [...] Read more.
Background: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is part of the innate immune system and acute-phase protein. Current data state that acute COVID-19 patients have higher levels of serum NGAL (sNGAL), but it is not known if higher protein levels are maintained in the convalescents. As post-COVID complications are currently the most important aspect of the disease, further research into metabolic and immunological consequences of the disease is needed. Methods: We aimed to determine the levels of sNGAL in a patient population 3 months after the acute phase of the disease and to identify the factors that may be related to the elevation of sNGAL levels in the mentioned cohort. The study included 146 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in different stages of the disease. Three months after COVID-19 diagnosis, patients’ sera were sampled and tested. Results: We demonstrate an association between the severity of the disease in the acute phase and elevated sNGAL levels three months after recovery, with the exception of the most severe hospitalized patients, who received early treatment. Moreover, we establish that sNGAL levels could be associated with prolonged dyspnea and the regulation of hunger and satiety in COVID-19 convalescents. Conclusions: These observations support the view that the introduction of antiviral treatment, steroids, and intense oxygen therapy reduces post-COVID immune-associated complications. Full article
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16 pages, 7293 KiB  
Article
Isolated Depo-Medrol Administration under Tenon’s Capsule for Post-COVID-19 Uveitis in a Child: A Case Report and Literature Review
by Monika Modrzejewska, Joanna Cyrankiewicz, Oliwia Zdanowska and Wiktoria Bosy-Gąsior
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(5), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13051341 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest with ocular symptoms. These symptoms can be divided into isolated events attributed to COVID-19, and those occurring in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a newly diagnosed disease entity associated with COVID-19 infection. Currently, the literature lacks [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest with ocular symptoms. These symptoms can be divided into isolated events attributed to COVID-19, and those occurring in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a newly diagnosed disease entity associated with COVID-19 infection. Currently, the literature lacks specific guidelines and treatment regimens for COVID-19 ocular symptoms, especially in children. The authors present the case of a 14-and-a-half-year-old boy with bilateral uveitis of the anterior and posterior segments along with vasculitis and optic neuritis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The authors also perform an up-to-date review of all available publications on the treatment of post-COVID-19 uveitis in children described in the literature between 2020 and 2023. In the case described by the authors, the treatment involved a Depo-Medrol 40 mg/mL injection uder the Tenon capsule, with two subconjunctival injections of epinephrine, topical steroid therapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: dexamethasone 0.1%; diclofenac eye drops. In addition, acetylsalicylic acid (150 mg) and pentoxifylline (100 mg, orally) were administered throughout the course of the disease as well as up to 12 months after its termination, until a complete improvement in visual acuity and the withdrawal of ocular lesions were achieved. It can be assumed that this type of treatment is far more beneficial for pediatric patients, with an effect comparable to systemic steroid administration with a preserved improvement in retinal-vascular circulation, without exposing the child to systemic post-steroid complications. Full article
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13 pages, 989 KiB  
Article
Persistence of Diffusion Capacity Impairment and Its Relationship with Dyspnea 12 Months after Hospitalization for COVID-19
by Alice Kang, Binaya Regmi, Christian Cornelissen, Judith Smith, Ayham Daher, Michael Dreher and Jens Spiesshoefer
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(5), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13051234 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Background: Dyspnea is a common persistent symptom after acute coronavirus disease 2019 illness (COVID-19). One potential explanation for post-COVID-19 dyspnea is a reduction in diffusion capacity. This longitudinal study investigated diffusion capacity and its relationship with dyspnea on exertion in individuals previously [...] Read more.
Background: Dyspnea is a common persistent symptom after acute coronavirus disease 2019 illness (COVID-19). One potential explanation for post-COVID-19 dyspnea is a reduction in diffusion capacity. This longitudinal study investigated diffusion capacity and its relationship with dyspnea on exertion in individuals previously hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: Eligible participants had been hospitalized for the treatment of acute COVID-19 and were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after discharge. Pulmonary function testing, diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO), blood gas analysis and the level of dyspnea (Borg scale; before and after a 6 min walk test [6 MWT]) were performed. Participants were divided into subgroups based on the presence or absence of dyspnea during the 6 MWT at 12 months after hospitalization. Results: Seventy-two participants (twenty-two female, mean age 59.8 ± 13.5 years) were included. At 12 months after discharge, 41/72 participants (57%) had DLCO below the lower limit of normal and 56/72 (78%) had DLCO < 80% of the predicted value. Individuals with exertional dyspnea had significantly lower DLCO than those without exertional dyspnea (p = 0.001). In participants with DLCO data being available at three timepoints over 12 months (baseline, 6 months, and 12 months) after discharge (n = 25), DLCO improved between 6 weeks and 6 months after hospital discharge, but not thereafter (p = 0.017). Conclusions: About 2/3 of the post-COVID individuals in this study had impaired diffusion capacity at 12 months after hospital discharge. There was an association between persisting dyspnea on exertion and significantly reduced DLCO. Impaired diffusion capacity improved over the first 6 months after hospitalization but not thereafter. Full article
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12 pages, 558 KiB  
Article
Gender-Related Effectiveness of Personalized Post-COVID-19 Rehabilitation
by Alicja Rzepka-Cholasińska, Jakub Ratajczak, Piotr Michalski, Michał Kasprzak, Agata Kosobucka-Ozdoba, Łukasz Pietrzykowski, Klaudyna Grzelakowska, Jacek Kubica, Jacek Kryś and Aldona Kubica
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(4), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13040938 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Background: Post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) may affect a substantial proportion of patients who have had COVID-19. The rehabilitation program might improve the physical capacity, functioning of the cardiopulmonary system, and mental conditions of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of personalized [...] Read more.
Background: Post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) may affect a substantial proportion of patients who have had COVID-19. The rehabilitation program might improve the physical capacity, functioning of the cardiopulmonary system, and mental conditions of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of personalized rehabilitation in patients with PCS according to gender. Methods: Adults who underwent a 6-week personalized PCS rehabilitation program were enrolled in a prospective post-COVID-19 Rehabilitation (PCR-SIRIO 8) study. The initial visit and the final visit included the hand-grip strength test, the bioimpedance analysis of body composition, and the following scales: modified Borg’s scale, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Functioning in Chronic Illness Scale (FCIS), modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale, and tests: 30 s chair stand test (30 CST), Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Short Physical Performance Battery test (SPPB)e. Results: A total of 90 patients (54% female) underwent the rehabilitation program. Rehabilitation was associated with an increase in skeletal muscle mass (24.11 kg vs. 24.37 kg, p = 0.001) and phase angle (4.89° vs. 5.01°, p = 0.001) and with a reduction in abdominal fat tissue volume (3.03 L vs. 2.85 L, p = 0.01), waist circumference (0.96 m vs. 0.95 m, p = 0.001), and hydration level (83.54% vs. 82.72%, p = 0.001). A decrease in fat tissue volume and an increase in skeletal muscle mass were observed only in females, while an increase in grip strength was noticed selectively in males. Patients’ fatigue (modified Borg’s scale, MFIS), physical capacity (30 CST, 6MWT), balance (SPPB), dyspnea (mMRC), and functioning (FICS) were significantly improved after the rehabilitation regardless of gender. Conclusions: Personalized rehabilitation improved the body composition, muscle strength, and functioning of patients diagnosed with PCS. The beneficial effect of rehabilitation on body composition, hydration, and phase angle was observed regardless of gender. Full article
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11 pages, 1489 KiB  
Article
A Simple Risk Formula for the Prediction of COVID-19 Hospital Mortality
by Jiří Plášek, Jozef Dodulík, Petr Gai, Barbora Hrstková, Jan Škrha, Jr., Lukáš Zlatohlávek, Renata Vlasáková, Peter Danko, Petr Ondráček, Eva Čubová, Bronislav Čapek, Marie Kollárová, Tomáš Fürst and Jan Václavík
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 105-115; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr16010008 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 715
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. We aimed to assess the risk factors for hospital mortality in non-vaccinated patients during the 2021 spring wave in the Czech Republic. A total of 991 patients hospitalized between January [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. We aimed to assess the risk factors for hospital mortality in non-vaccinated patients during the 2021 spring wave in the Czech Republic. A total of 991 patients hospitalized between January 2021 and March 2021 with a PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory infection in two university hospitals and five rural hospitals were included in this analysis. After excluding patients with unknown outcomes, 790 patients entered the final analyses. Out of 790 patients included in the analysis, 282/790 (35.7%) patients died in the hospital; 162/790 (20.5) were male and 120/790 (15.2%) were female. There were 141/790 (18%) patients with mild, 461/790 (58.3%) with moderate, and 187/790 (23.7%) with severe courses of the disease based mainly on the oxygenation status. The best-performing multivariate regression model contains only two predictors—age and the patient’s state; both predictors were rendered significant (p < 0.0001). Both age and disease state are very significant predictors of hospital mortality. An increase in age by 10 years raises the risk of hospital mortality by a factor of 2.5, and a unit increase in the oxygenation status raises the risk of hospital mortality by a factor of 20. Full article
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12 pages, 638 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Long-COVID and Chronic Impairment of Exercise Tolerance in Spiroergometry in Patients after 15 Months of COVID-19 Recovery
by Katarzyna Gryglewska-Wawrzak, Agata Sakowicz, Maciej Banach and Agata Bielecka-Dabrowa
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7689; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247689 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Background: The aim of the study was to identify factors that may cause the presence of long COVID and to assess factors that affect chronic limited exercise tolerance in spiroergometry after one-year follow-up in patients who had recovered from COVID-19. Methods: Of 146 [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the study was to identify factors that may cause the presence of long COVID and to assess factors that affect chronic limited exercise tolerance in spiroergometry after one-year follow-up in patients who had recovered from COVID-19. Methods: Of 146 patients hospitalised in the Cardiology Department, 82 completed a one-year follow-up (at least 15 months post-COVID-19 recovery). We compared their conditions at initial screening and follow-up to analyse the course of long COVID and exercise intolerance mechanisms. Clinical examinations, laboratory tests, echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and body composition analysis were performed. Results: The patients, after one-year follow-up, had significantly higher levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) (p = 0.03), left atrium diameter (LA) (p = 0.03), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (p = 0.008), and total body water content percentage (TBW%) (p < 0.0001) compared to the 3-month assessment. They also had lower forced vital capacity in litres (FVC) (p = 0.02) and percentage (FVC%) (p = 0.001). The factors independently associated with a decline in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) after one-year follow-up included the percentage of fat (OR 2.16, 95% CI: 0.51–0.77; p = 0.03), end-diastolic volume (EDV) (OR 2.38, 95% CI 0.53–0.78; p = 0.02), and end-systolic volume (ESV) (OR 2.3, 95% CI: 0.52–0.78; p = 0.02). Conclusions: Higher left ventricular volumes and fat content (%) were associated with a reduced peak VO2max when assessed 15 months after COVID-19 recovery. Full article
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11 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Tracheostomy between COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 Patients
by Sung Ha Jung, Joo Hyun Park, HeeJun Yi, Heejung Kim, Gil Joon Lee and Nayeon Choi
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(23), 7461; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12237461 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Background and Objectives: We compared decannulation-related factors between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients who underwent tracheostomy. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients who underwent a tracheostomy. The clinical factors were compared between the successful (decannulation within 3 months) and failed [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: We compared decannulation-related factors between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients who underwent tracheostomy. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients who underwent a tracheostomy. The clinical factors were compared between the successful (decannulation within 3 months) and failed decannulation (decannulation over 3 months) groups in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. Results: The successful decannulation rates were 41.1% in COVID-19 and 45.1% in non-COVID-19 patients, with no significant differences in demographic and clinical factors between the two groups. In the non-COVID-19 patients, the failed decannulation group had a higher proportion of cerebrovascular and pulmonary diseases. Ventilator dependency or increased oxygen demand was the primary cause of decannulation failure in both groups, with no significant differences except for a higher prevalence of swallowing problems in the COVID-19 group (42.4% vs. 20.0%). Conclusions: The predominant cause of decannulation failure was ventilator and oxygen demand in both the non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 patients. In the non-COVID-19 patients, underlying cerebrovascular diseases were considered to have a significant impact on the decannulation process. On the other hand, swallowing problems significantly influenced decannulation among the COVID-19 patients. Therefore, we should consider early and active respiratory and swallowing rehabilitation to facilitate successful decannulation in COVID-19 patients. Full article
10 pages, 539 KiB  
Case Report
Ramsay Hunt Syndrome in Asymptomatic COVID-19 Infection: A Case Report and a Literature Review
by Wissam Al Rida Ayoub, Dina Lizzeik, Jana Berro, Sami Faddoul, Mohamad El Dassouki, Abdul Rahman Shatila, Moussa A. Chalah and Samar S. Ayache
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(23), 7407; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12237407 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 903
Abstract
(1) Background: COVID-19 infection has affected almost 6 million people worldwide. Geniculate Ganglion Zoster resulting in Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS) has been rarely described in this context. (2) Methods: Here, a case of RHS in the context of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection is reported [...] Read more.
(1) Background: COVID-19 infection has affected almost 6 million people worldwide. Geniculate Ganglion Zoster resulting in Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS) has been rarely described in this context. (2) Methods: Here, a case of RHS in the context of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection is reported followed by a literature review of the previously published cases (PubMed research combining “COVID-19” and “Ramsay Hunt Syndrome” or their abbreviations/synonyms, searching for data published at any time till October 2023). (3) Results: Five cases have been previously published (age range: 25–67 years; n = 3 males). Three patients were known to be immunocompetent prior to infection, one was receiving corticotherapy for lung disease, and one had an unspecified immune status. RHS predominantly involved both facial and vestibulocochlear nerves, with one case exclusively involving the facial nerve as the presented case. Regarding facial nerve palsy, three were right-sided (like the current report) and two were left-sided. Two cases were asymptomatic to COVID-19 (like the present patient), one had mild fatigue, and two had classical COVID-19 symptoms preceding RHS symptoms. Workup included serological testing against Varicella Zoster Virus and PCR assays that can detect the viral DNA in saliva, blood, tears, exudates, and cerebrospinal fluid. The treatment combined antiviral and corticosteroid therapies which yielded heterogeneous outcomes that might be related to some demographic and clinical data. (4) Conclusions: RHS rarely occurs in the context of COVID-19. Early recognition is important. Management seems to be similar to the classical condition. Some data may help predict facial nerve recovery. Full article
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15 pages, 696 KiB  
Article
Patterns of Opioid and Non-Opioid Analgesic Consumption in Patients with Post-COVID-19 Conditions
by Pilar Carrasco-Garrido, Domingo Palacios-Ceña, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Isabel Jiménez-Trujillo, Carmen Gallardo-Pino and Cesar Fernández-de-las-Peñas
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(20), 6586; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12206586 - 18 Oct 2023
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Pain is a major health issue for healthcare systems, and access to pain treatment is a fundamental human right. Pain is a common symptom experienced in the post-COVID phase by a significant percentage of patients. This study describes the prevalence and associated factors [...] Read more.
Pain is a major health issue for healthcare systems, and access to pain treatment is a fundamental human right. Pain is a common symptom experienced in the post-COVID phase by a significant percentage of patients. This study describes the prevalence and associated factors associated with the use of opioid and non-opioid analgesics in subjects with post-COVID-19 condition. Sociodemographic data, post-COVID symptoms, health profile, and opioid and non-opioid analgesic consumption were collected in 390 subjects with post-COVID-19 condition. We analyzed the independent effect of all variables on opioid/non-opioid analgesic consumption by using logistic multivariate regressions. The prevalence of opioid and non-opioid analgesic consumption was 24.1% and 82.3%, respectively. Tramadol (17.18%) and codeine (7.95%) were the most commonly used opioid analgesics, and Paracetamol (70%) and ibuprofen (45.4%) were the most commonly used non-opioid analgesics. Females were more likely to consume non-opioid analgesics (aOR2.20, 95%CI 1.15, 4.22) than males. Marital status of married/partner vs. single (aOR2.96; 95% CI 1.43, 6.12), monthly income < EUR 1000 VS. > EUR 2000 (aOR3.81; 95% CI 1.37, 10.61), number of post-COVID symptoms < 5 (aOR2.64, 95%CI 1.18, 5.87), and anxiolytics consumption (aOR 1.85, 95%CI 1.05, 3.25) were associated with a greater likelihood of opioid analgesic consumption. Age > 55 years (aOR3.30, 95%CI 1.34, 8.09) and anxiolytics consumption (aOR2.61, 95%CI 1.36, 4.98) were associated with a greater likelihood of non-opioid analgesic consumption. Opioid analgesic consumption was highly associated (aOR 3.41, 95%CI 1.27, 6.11) with non-opioid analgesic consumption. The prevalence of opioid analgesic and non-opioid analgesic consumption in individuals with post-COVID-19 condition was 24.1% and 82.3%. Females with post-COVID-19 condition showed higher non-opioid analgesic consumption than men. Predictors of opioid consumption were marital status, lower monthly income, number of post-COVID symptoms, and anxiolytic consumption. Older age and anxiolytic consumption were predictors of non-opioid consumption. Full article
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