Effects of Hydrology on Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2024 | Viewed by 8345

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, China
Interests: soil erosion; soil organic carbon; water quality; soil and water conservation; landscape

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China
Interests: soil greenhouse gas emissions; acid soil amelioration; biochar; biowaste management; plant invasions; litter decomposition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although considerable efforts have been made worldwide, soil erosion and conservation under the effect of hydrology has not been fully recognized, in which process greatly affected soil quality and health and thus productivity of land, biodiversity of ecosystems, and others, influencing human survival and development. Understanding the effects of hydrology on soil erosion and soil conservation will more effectively help us to protect soil from erosion through conservation measures.

This Special Issue will mainly address new findings and better understanding of the processes, mechanisms of soil erosion and conservation induced by hydrology, and interrelationships between soil erosion and rainfall and water flow. The research about any one of the process that soil, soil parent material and other ground components being destroyed, eroded, transported or deposited will be considered for publication. Of cause, this includes rainfall interception, raindrop splashing capacity, rainwater and runoff infiltrations, preferential flow, runoff path, hydrological connectivity, etc., and raindrop splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion and underground leakage, and biological-, agrotechnical-, engineering measures, etc.

Dr. Xiaojun Liu
Prof. Dr. Ling Zhang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • soil erosion
  • conservation measures
  • runoff
  • biological
  • agricultural
  • engineering
  • splash
  • gully

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 20041 KiB  
Article
Rainfall Runoff and Nitrogen Loss Characteristics on the Miyun Reservoir Slope
by Na Wang, Lei Wang, Liang Jin, Jiajun Wu, Min Pang, Dan Wei, Yan Li, Junqiang Wang, Ting Xu, Zhixin Yang and Jianzhi Xie
Water 2024, 16(5), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050786 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Rainfall intensity and slope gradient are the main drivers of slope surface runoff and nitrogen loss. To explore the distribution of rainfall runoff and nitrogen loss on the Miyun Reservoir slopes, we used artificial indoor simulated rainfall experiments to determine the distribution characteristics [...] Read more.
Rainfall intensity and slope gradient are the main drivers of slope surface runoff and nitrogen loss. To explore the distribution of rainfall runoff and nitrogen loss on the Miyun Reservoir slopes, we used artificial indoor simulated rainfall experiments to determine the distribution characteristics and nitrogen migration paths of surface and subsurface runoff under different rainfall intensities and slope gradients. The initial runoff generation time of subsurface runoff lagged that of surface runoff, and the lag time under different rainfall intensity and slope conditions ranges from 3.97 to 12.62 min. Surface runoff rate increased with increasing rainfall intensity and slope gradient; compared with a rainfall intensity of 40 mm/h, at a slope of 15°, average surface runoff rate at 60 and 80 mm/h increased by 2.38 and 3.60 times, respectively. Meanwhile, the subsurface runoff rate trended upwards with increasing rainfall intensity, in the order 5 > 15 > 10°. It initially increased and then decreased with increasing slope gradient, in the order 5 > 10 > 15°. Total nitrogen (TN) loss concentration of surface runoff shows a decrease followed by a stabilization trend; the concentration of TN loss decreases with decreasing rainfall intensity, and the stabilization time becomes earlier and is most obvious in 5° slope conditions. TN loss concentration in subsurface runoff decreased with increasing rainfall intensity, i.e., 40 > 60 > 80 mm/h. The surface runoff rainfall coefficient was mainly affected by rainfall intensity, a correlation between αs and slope gradients S was not obvious, and the fitting effect was poor. The subsurface runoff rainfall coefficient was mainly affected by slope gradient, the R2 of all rainfall intensities was <0.60, and the fitting effect was poor. The main runoff loss pathway from the Miyun Reservoir slopes was surface runoff, which was more than 62.57%. At the same time, nitrogen loss was subsurface runoff, more than 51.14%. The proportion of surface runoff to total runoff increases with the increase of rainfall intensity and slope, with a minimum of 62.57%, and the proportion of nitrogen loss from subsurface runoff also decreases with increasing rainfall intensity but does not change with slope gradient. The order of different runoff modulus types was mixed runoff (surface and subsurface runoff occur simultaneously) > surface runoff > subsurface runoff. The surface and mixed runoff modulus increased significantly with increasing rain intensity under different rain intensities and slope gradients. Overall, rainfall intensity significantly affected slope surface runoff, and slope gradient significantly affected nitrogen loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Hydrology on Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation)
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17 pages, 7547 KiB  
Article
Operational Risk Assessment of Check Dams in Ningxia Considering the Impact of Extreme Precipitation in the Future
by Yujie Yang, Shengdong Cheng, Zongping Ren, Zhanbin Li and Lu Jia
Water 2024, 16(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020258 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 624
Abstract
To analyze the operation risk of check dams under extreme precipitation conditions, taking Ningxia area as an example, this paper carried out a risk assessment of check dams under extreme precipitation conditions in Ningxia through data collection, hydrological statistics, numerical simulation, and other [...] Read more.
To analyze the operation risk of check dams under extreme precipitation conditions, taking Ningxia area as an example, this paper carried out a risk assessment of check dams under extreme precipitation conditions in Ningxia through data collection, hydrological statistics, numerical simulation, and other methods. The conclusions are the following: (1) By the end of 2020, about 40% of the silt reservoir capacity of check dams in various water and soil conservation zones in Ningxia has been accumulated. During 1966–2020, the extreme precipitation and frequency of extreme precipitation in Ningxia increased while the intensity of extreme precipitation decreased. The extreme precipitation in Ningxia increased year by year and lasted longer. (2) Under two future scenarios of RCP4.5 (the full name of RCP is Representative Concentration Pathway) and RCP8.5, the extreme precipitation threshold in Ningxia is gradually decreasing from south to north. Extreme precipitation in the future will bring high risk to the operation of check dams in Ningxia. The results of this paper can provide a scientific basis for the operation and management of check dams in Ningxia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Hydrology on Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation)
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15 pages, 2421 KiB  
Article
Response of Sap Flow Trends of Conifer and Broad-Leaved Trees to Rainfall Types in Sub-Humid Climate Region of China
by Yongxiang Cao, Yushi Wang, Naichang Zhang, Chendong Ning, Yu Bai and Jianbo Jia
Water 2024, 16(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010095 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 859
Abstract
Sap flow is one of the most important physiological water transport processes of trees, and the characteristics of sap flow are greatly affected by the spatial and temporal distribution of water in the SPAC (soil–plant–atmosphere continuum). However, different precipitation characteristics have great influence [...] Read more.
Sap flow is one of the most important physiological water transport processes of trees, and the characteristics of sap flow are greatly affected by the spatial and temporal distribution of water in the SPAC (soil–plant–atmosphere continuum). However, different precipitation characteristics have great influence on the water environment of forest trees, which causes considerable differences in sap flow. Therefore, researching the response of sap flow to precipitation type is the key to accurately determining plant transpiration in semi-arid areas. We used K-means clustering analysis to divide the rainfall during the study period into three rainfall types (the highest rainfall amount and intensity (types I), medium rainfall amount and intensity, with a long duration (types II); and the lowest rainfall amount and intensity (types III)) based on the rainfall amount and intensity in order to compare the differences in the response of sap flow trends and influencing factors of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia under different rainfall types. The results showed that, under the daily scale average sap flow of P. tabulaeformis and R. pseudoacacia, rainfall type II decreased significantly relatively to rainfall types I and III (p < 0.05). In rainfall type II, The sap flow characteristics of R. pseudoacacia were positively correlated with solar radiation (p < 0.05), while those of P. tabulaeformis were positively correlated with temperature, solar radiation, and VPD (p < 0.01). The sap flow of P. tabulaeformis and R. pseudoacacia were significantly positively correlated with temperature, solar radiation, VPD, and soil moisture content (p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with relative humidity (p < 0.05) in rainfall type III. The hourly sap flow of P. tabulaeformis and R. pseudoacacia on rainfall days was higher than before the rainfall. Rainfall type I promoted the daily sap flow of both species, and the proportion of the sap flow in daytime was also higher. On rainy days, the sap flow rates of rainfall type I and III showed a “midday depression”. In type I rainfall events, the sap flow “midday depression” after rainfall occurred an hour ahead compared to the sap flow “midday depression” before rainfall. In type II rainfall events, the daytime sap flow rates of P. tabulaeformis and R. pseudoacacia were obviously inhibited, but the nighttime sap flow rate increased. In type III rainfall events, the sap flow before rainfall presented a unimodal curve versus time. The daily average sap flow of R. pseudoacacia was more susceptible to rainfall type II, while P. tabulaeformis was more susceptible to rainfall types I and III. The sap flow rate of R. pseudoacacia decreased on rainy days. The results show that the effects of different rainfall types on the sap flow trends of P. tabulaeformis and R. pseudoacacia were different. They revealed the responses of their sap flow trends to meteorological factors under different rainfall types, which provided basic data and theoretical support for further predicting the sap flow trends on rainy days, clarifying the effects of rainfall amount, rainfall duration, and rainfall intensity on sap flow trends and accurately estimating the transpiration water consumption of typical tree species in the sub-humid climate regions of China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Hydrology on Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation)
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20 pages, 3085 KiB  
Article
Transformative Trends in Runoff and Sediment Dynamics and Their Influential Drivers in the Wuding River Basin of the Yellow River: A Comprehensive Analysis from 1960 to 2020
by Jingwei Yao, Zhanbin Li, Biao Zhu, Pan Zhang, Jingshu Wang, Weiying Sun, Shasha Mei, Yaqiang Zhang and Peiqing Xiao
Water 2024, 16(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010026 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 696
Abstract
The correlation between runoff and sediment challenges ecological preservation and sustainable development in the Yellow River Basin. An understanding of the key factors influencing variations in runoff and sediment transport in crucial river basins is essential for effective soil erosion management within the [...] Read more.
The correlation between runoff and sediment challenges ecological preservation and sustainable development in the Yellow River Basin. An understanding of the key factors influencing variations in runoff and sediment transport in crucial river basins is essential for effective soil erosion management within the context of ecological and economic development. The Mann–Kendall test, Pettitt test, and Morlet wavelet analysis were employed in the Wuding River Basin to analyze the trends in runoff and sediment changes from 1960 to 2020. We explored the double cumulative curve method to assess the contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to the variability of runoff and sediment transport. We explored the primary factors driving the changes in runoff and sediment transport through random forest regression analysis. (1) From 1960 to 2020, annual precipitation in the Wuding River Basin increased minimally, while annual runoff and sediment transport decreased strongly with abrupt changes. Abrupt changes in annual runoff and sediment transport occurred in 1971 and 1979, respectively. (2) The relationship between runoff and sediment transport changed in approximately 1972 and 2000. The distribution of monthly runoff became more uniform during Periods II (1973–2001) and III (2002–2020) compared to that during the baseline period (1960–1972, Period I), while sediment transport became increasingly concentrated in the flood season. (3) During Period II, the contribution rates of climate and human activities to runoff and sediment transport were 11.94% and −14.5%, respectively, compared to the baseline period. During Period III, the contribution rates of climate and human activities to runoff and sediment transport were −11.9% and −17.7%, respectively. Human activities substantially reduced runoff and sediment, with greater impacts on sediment reduction. Climate weakly influenced basin sediment transport variations. (4) The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and grassland area extent had the greatest impact on runoff, while the NDVI and forest area extent affected sediment transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Hydrology on Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation)
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17 pages, 3321 KiB  
Article
Transpiration Water Consumption by Salix matsudana and Populus simonii and Water Use Patterns at Different Developmental Stages on Sandy Land
by Qiaoting Zhai, Li Xu, Tiegang Zhang, Jianying Guo, Haibo Gao, Rui Jiao and Bo Yang
Water 2023, 15(24), 4255; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15244255 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Moisture plays a pivotal role in the establishment of vegetation in sandy areas, underscoring the need to comprehend the water utilization strategies employed by established trees for the judicious use of water resources. Despite this significance, there exists a research gap concerning the [...] Read more.
Moisture plays a pivotal role in the establishment of vegetation in sandy areas, underscoring the need to comprehend the water utilization strategies employed by established trees for the judicious use of water resources. Despite this significance, there exists a research gap concerning the water uptake patterns and consumption disparities between the dominant trees, namely the dry willow (Salix matsudana) and small-leafed poplar (Populus simonii), in the Mu Us sandy region. Consequently, our study sought to investigate the water utilization patterns and transpiration water consumption of these two plants. This was achieved through the analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions in xylem water, soil water, and groundwater, coupled with the assessment of stem flow rates of tree trunks. The findings reveal that both Salix matsudana and Populus simonii exhibited variations in soil water content with soil depth, characterized by an initial increase followed by a subsequent decrease. During the months of July, August, and September, both species demonstrated the ability to absorb water from multiple sources concurrently. Specifically, Salix matsudana and Populus simonii predominantly utilized middle and shallow soil water sources in July and September, respectively. However, in August, both species primarily relied on shallow soil water for absorption. Over the period from July to September, the sap flow rate of Salix matsudana surpassed that of Populus simonii by 1888.2 mL·h−1 to 2499.04 mL·h−1, representing a 1.5 to 2.2 times increase. This underscores the necessity for Salix matsudana to draw water from middle and deep soil layers to compensate for shallow water deficits. In summary, schemes for the establishment of vegetation in sandy areas should consider the dynamic nature of water uptake and evapotranspiration, emphasizing the importance of regulating these processes for efficient water conservation and utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Hydrology on Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation)
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12 pages, 2467 KiB  
Article
The Lag Effect of Riverine Flow-Discharge and Sediment-Load Response to Antecedent Rainfall with Different Cumulative Durations in Red Hilly Area in China
by Lixiang Zhao, Xiaofei Nie, Haijin Zheng, Kaitao Liao and Jinjuan Zhang
Water 2023, 15(23), 4048; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234048 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 666
Abstract
Rainfall is an important factor that causes riverine flow and sediment transport, and extreme rainfall has a particularly significant effect on the fluctuations of riverine flow and sediment load. Based on the daily rainfall from 1990 to 2020, in the upper watershed of [...] Read more.
Rainfall is an important factor that causes riverine flow and sediment transport, and extreme rainfall has a particularly significant effect on the fluctuations of riverine flow and sediment load. Based on the daily rainfall from 1990 to 2020, in the upper watershed of the Lianjiang River, which is one of the source tributaries of China’s largest freshwater lake (Poyang Lake), the 95th percentile method and minimum event interval time were employed to identify extreme rainfall events. Mann–Kendall test was used to check for abrupt changes in annual rainfall, riverine flow discharge, and riverine sediment loads, and to identify abrupt-change years; thus, different periods were divided via the abrupt change years. Multiple linear regression was applied to explore the lag effect of riverine flow-discharge and sediment-load response to antecedent rainfall, with different cumulative durations for each period. The results of the study indicated that (1) the expansion of garden land in 1995 caused a significant and abrupt change in sediment load. (2) Extreme rainfall events had a greater impact on riverine flow and sediment load as compared to ordinary rainfall. These events were found to explain more variations in riverine flow and sediment load, which led to longer lag times for both riverine flow and sediment transport. (3) The expansion of garden land under extreme rainfall conditions resulted in longer lag times for riverine flow and sediment transport, and reduced the need for antecedent rainfall with a longer pre-event time. Therefore, the analysis of antecedent rainfall and the lag response of riverine flow discharge and sediment load can help in understanding the response mechanism of riverine flow discharge and sediment load for the current era of increasing extreme rainfall. This analysis is crucial for improving the accuracy of simulating riverine flow and sediment under extreme rainfall conditions. Ultimately, it can contribute to effective watershed management during extreme rainfall events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Hydrology on Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation)
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14 pages, 2219 KiB  
Article
Study on the Coupling Relationship between Carbon Emission from Sewage Treatment and Economic Development in Industrial Parks
by Xiaoping Liu, Shengdong Cheng, Zhanbin Li, Peng Li, Tian Wang, Xingyue Guo, Ziyao Miao, Naichang Zhang and Yongxiang Cao
Water 2023, 15(19), 3358; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15193358 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Sewage treatment carbon emissions are one of the notable sources of total carbon emission in industrial parks. In order to explore the evolutionary characteristics of sewage treatment carbon emission in industrial parks and its coupling relationship with industrial economic development, based on the [...] Read more.
Sewage treatment carbon emissions are one of the notable sources of total carbon emission in industrial parks. In order to explore the evolutionary characteristics of sewage treatment carbon emission in industrial parks and its coupling relationship with industrial economic development, based on the quarterly sewage quality monitoring data and regional economic development data of an energy and chemical industry park in Northern Shaanxi from 2016 to 2020, this paper analyzes the evolutionary characteristics of sewage treatment carbon emissions and the coupling relationship between economic development in the industrial parks by using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change carbon emission accounting method and the coupling coordination degree model. The results show that the total carbon emission of sewage treatment in the industrial parks is increasing year by year, and the indirect carbon emissions occupy the dominant position. In 2020, the direct and indirect carbon emissions in the sewage treatment process accounted for 2.4% and 97.6% of the total carbon emission, respectively. It was found that the coupling and coordination relationship between sewage treatment carbon emissions and the economy has experienced the transformation process of serious imbalance—lagging economic development, lagging carbon emission and lagging economic development. In the past five years, the coordinated development degree of the two systems has increased year by year, and the benign mutual feedback mechanism between the two systems has gradually formed. However, regional economic development has lagged due to the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic, so speeding up regional economic development while protecting the environment is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Hydrology on Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation)
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13 pages, 2116 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Coupling Relationship between Water Quality and Economic Development in Hongjiannao Basin, China
by Xiaoping Liu, Shengdong Cheng, Ziyao Miao, Zhanbin Li, Peng Li, Tong Liu, Hegang Zhi, Shen Zhang, Yifan Wang and Xing Zheng
Water 2023, 15(16), 2965; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162965 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
Hongjiannao is the largest inland lake in China’s deserts. In recent years, the water quality and area of the Hongjiannao Lake have continued to decline, which is closely associated with the economic development in the Hongjiannao basin. To explore the coupling relationship between [...] Read more.
Hongjiannao is the largest inland lake in China’s deserts. In recent years, the water quality and area of the Hongjiannao Lake have continued to decline, which is closely associated with the economic development in the Hongjiannao basin. To explore the coupling relationship between the water quality and economic development in the Hongjiannao basin, the water quality and economic development index of the basin has been analyzed in terms of the monthly water quality and socio-economic development from 2013 to 2020. The coupling relationship and interaction mechanism between water quality and regional economic development has been studied by coupling coordination degree model. The results show that the water pollution increased and then decreased with the seasons, while the water quality was the worst in the summer. The coordinated degree between the water quality and economic development in Hongjiannao shows an upward trend from 2013 to 2020, which has transformed from the process of lagging economic development to the process of primary coordination, finally to the process of lagging water environment. The coupling relationship between water quality and economic development changed from a state of nearly un-coordination to primary coordination from 2013 to 2016, with economic development lagging behind. The coupling relationship between the two systems changed from barely coordinated to the primary coordinated from 2017 to 2018, with the rapid development of economy and slight decline in water quality. After 2018, those two systems gradually stepped into a virtuous cycle during 2019–2020, but the phenomenon of lagging water quality still existed. Therefore, in order to maintain the stable economic development of resource-based cities, it is necessary to keep improving the current situation of water environment and water shortage in Hongjiannao, which will promote the coordinated and sustainable development of water environment and economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Hydrology on Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation)
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18 pages, 9297 KiB  
Article
Composite Factors during Snowmelt Erosion of Farmland in Black Soil Region of Northeast China: Temperature, Snowmelt Runoff, Thaw Depths and Contour Ridge Culture
by Haoming Fan, Yunqing Hou, Xiuquan Xu, Caihong Mi and Hao Shi
Water 2023, 15(16), 2918; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162918 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Snowmelt erosion could cause serious damage to soil quality and agricultural production conditions of slope farmland in the black soil region of northeast China. Contour ridge tillage is a traditional and effective measure to mitigate soil loss on slope farmland. However, the characteristics [...] Read more.
Snowmelt erosion could cause serious damage to soil quality and agricultural production conditions of slope farmland in the black soil region of northeast China. Contour ridge tillage is a traditional and effective measure to mitigate soil loss on slope farmland. However, the characteristics and influence factors of snowmelt erosion of slope farmland with contour ridge culture and the effect of this measure on the snowmelt process have not been comprehensively investigated, especially at the field scale. To bridge the gap, in situ observation was conducted on the snowmelt erosion process of a typical farmland in Baiquan County, Heilongjiang Province, China. The results revealed that during the snowmelt erosion period, the average daily snowmelt runoff volume and sediment concentration exhibited a trend of first increase and then a subsequent decrease. In the early stage, although the sediment concentration was large, limited discharge and soil thaw depths led to minimal soil loss. In the following stage, due to increased runoff and thaw depths, 94% of the total soil loss amount was obtained with an obvious erosion path formed. For each event, when soil thaw depths were shallow, sediment concentration had a high and early peak, whereas a reverse trend was observed when thaw depths increased. The hysteresis relationship of discharge–sediment indicated that the location where snowmelt erosion primarily occurred would change, under the influence of variations in runoff, freeze and thaw action, thaw depths, and micro-topography. The results could provide a guide in the control of soil erosion in seasonal snowmelt-erosion-prone areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Hydrology on Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation)
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14 pages, 2415 KiB  
Article
Photogrammetric Technique-Based Quantitative Measuring of Gravity Erosion on Steep Slopes in Laboratory: Accuracy and Application
by Jinwen Xia, Lichao Zhang, Xuhua Huang, Xianghui Lu, Peilin Ge, Yujie Wei and Chongfa Cai
Water 2023, 15(14), 2584; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142584 - 15 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Quantitative measuring of gravity erosion contributes to a better understanding of soil-mass failure occurrence and prediction. However, the measurement of gravity erosion requires the continuous monitoring of the objective terrain, due to its occurrence, usually within seconds, and combination with hydraulic erosion. The [...] Read more.
Quantitative measuring of gravity erosion contributes to a better understanding of soil-mass failure occurrence and prediction. However, the measurement of gravity erosion requires the continuous monitoring of the objective terrain, due to its occurrence, usually within seconds, and combination with hydraulic erosion. The photogrammetric technique can quickly obtain terrain data and provide a new method for measuring gravity erosion. Based on a continuous high-overlapping image-acquisition equipment, a Structure-from-Motion-Multi-View-Stereo (SfM-MVS)-integrated workflow, and volume calculation, a new working methodology was established for measuring gravity erosion on steep granitic slopes in the laboratory. The results showed a good match between the digital point clouds derived from SfM-MVS-integrated workflow and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), achieving millimeter-scale accuracy. The mean distance between the point clouds derived from TLS and SfM-MVS was 1.13 mm, with a standard deviation of 0.93 mm. The relative errors among the volumes calculated by SfM-MVS and TLS or the conventional oven-drying method were all within 10%, with a maximum error of 9.3% and a minimum error of 0.2%. A total of 213 gravitational erosion events were measured in the laboratory by using the SfM-MVS method, further confirming its feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Hydrology on Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation)
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