Soil Carbon, Nitrogen Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation under Global Change

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Diversity and Ecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 26723

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College of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China
Interests: soil greenhouse gas emissions; acid soil amelioration; biochar; biowaste management; plant invasions; litter decomposition
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global change induced extreme climate events are becoming more common than ever. Soil carbon and nitrogen pools correlated significantly with changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas. Large increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases, majorly carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4), can enhance the heating of atmosphere and Earth's surface, which will be generally followed by global warming. Global warming or other global change induced by greenhouse gas emissions has been increasingly common and serious. The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from all kinds of sources will be therefore crucial in mitigation of global climate change. Among all emission sources, agriculture, forests and other land uses are the second largest source of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Agro-forestry ecosystems and the associated management practices, including fertilization, soil disturbance, soil acidification and amelioration, harvesting, etc., play important roles in emission and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Soil greenhouse gas emissions as affected by management practices or other kinds of global change factors, such as extreme climate events, species invasions, etc., are vital components of these sources. The measurement and mitigation of soil greenhouse gases will profoundly impact the mitigation of global climate change. However, mitigation of greenhouse gases associated with climate change remain a challenge to human society due to inaccurate measurement and budget, and inefficient mitigation of greenhouse gases, limiting our ability to increase soil carbon/nitrogen pools and mitigate climate change.

This Special Issue will gather latest case studies and methodologies, including, but not limited to long-term in situ monitor studies, isotope labeling, and microbial examinations, on measurement and mitigation strategies of soil carbon and nitrogen pools, and soil greenhouse gas emissions, which will substantially improve our understanding of the potential, ability, and capacity of ecosystems in mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and hence global climate change.

Dr. Ling Zhang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration
  • greenhouse gas mitigation
  • microbial mechanisms
  • agriculture practices
  • climate change
  • global warming
  • global change related factors

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2601 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Changes of Endogenous Hormones in Different Seasons of Idesia polycarpa Maxim
by Song Huang, Wei Zheng, Yanmei Wang, Huiping Yan, Chenbo Zhou and Tianxiao Ma
Life 2023, 13(3), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030788 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Idesia polycarpa Maxim is a native dioecious tree from East Asia cultivated for its fruits and as an ornamental plant throughout temperate regions. Given the economic potential, comparative studies on cultivated genotypes are of current interest. This study aims to discover the dynamic [...] Read more.
Idesia polycarpa Maxim is a native dioecious tree from East Asia cultivated for its fruits and as an ornamental plant throughout temperate regions. Given the economic potential, comparative studies on cultivated genotypes are of current interest. This study aims to discover the dynamic changes and potential functions of endogenous hormones in I. polycarpa, as well as the differences in endogenous hormone contents in different growth stages among different I. polycarpa provenances. We used High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to measure and compare the levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A3 (GA3), and trans-Zeatin-riboside (tZR) in the leaves, flowers, and fruits of I. polycarpa from various provenances between April and October. Our findings indicated that changes in the ABA and GA3 content of plants from Jiyuan and Tokyo were minimal from April to October. However, the levels of these two hormones in Chengdu plants vary greatly at different stages of development. The peak of IAA content in the three plant materials occurred primarily during the early fruit stage and the fruit expansion stage. The concentration of tZR in the three plant materials varies greatly. Furthermore, we discovered that the contents of endogenous hormones in I. polycarpa leaves, flowers, and fruits from Chengdu provenances were slightly higher than those from Tokyo and Jiyuan provenances. The content of IAA was higher in male flowers than in female flowers, and the content of ABA, GA3, and tZR was higher in female flowers than in male flowers. According to the findings, the contents of these four endogenous hormones in I. polycarpa are primarily determined by the genetic characteristics of the trees and are less affected by cultivation conditions. The gender of I. polycarpa had a great influence on these four endogenous hormones. The findings of this study will provide a theoretical foundation and practical guidance for artificially regulating the flowering and fruiting of I. polycarpa. Full article
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15 pages, 2801 KiB  
Article
Foliar Fertilizer Application Alters the Effect of Girdling on the Nutrient Contents and Yield of Camellia oleifera
by Shuangling Xie, Dongmei Li, Zhouying Liu, Yuman Wang, Zhihua Ren, Cheng Li, Qinhua Cheng, Juan Liu, Ling Zhang, Linping Zhang and Dongnan Hu
Life 2023, 13(2), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020591 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Improving the economic benefits of Camellia oleifera is a major problem for C. oleifera growers, and girdling and foliar fertilizer have significant effects on improving the economic benefits of plants. This study explains the effects of girdling, girdling + foliar fertilizer on nutrient [...] Read more.
Improving the economic benefits of Camellia oleifera is a major problem for C. oleifera growers, and girdling and foliar fertilizer have significant effects on improving the economic benefits of plants. This study explains the effects of girdling, girdling + foliar fertilizer on nutrient distribution, and the economic benefits of C. oleifera at different times. It also explains the N, P, and K contents of roots, leaves, fruits, and flower buds (sampled in March, May, August, and October 2021) and their economic benefits. The results showed girdling promoted the accumulation of N and K in leaves in March 2021 (before spring shoot emergence) but inhibited the accumulation of P, which led to the accumulation of P in roots and that of N in fruits in August 2021 (fruit expansion period). Foliar fertilizer application after girdling replenished the P content of leaves in March 2021, and P continued to accumulate in large quantities at the subsequent sampling time points. The N and P contents of the root system decreased in March. In October (fruit ripening stage), girdled shrubs showed higher contents of N and K in fruits and flower buds, and consequently lower relative contents of N and K in roots and leaves but higher content of P in leaves. Foliar fertilizer application slowed down the effects of girdling on nutrient accumulation in fruits and flower buds. Spraying foliar fertilizer decreased the N:P ratio in the flower buds and fruits of girdled plants. Thus, foliar fertilizer spray weakened the effects of girdling on the nutrient content and economic benefits of C. oleifera. In conclusion, girdling changed the nutrient accumulation pattern in various organs of C. oleifera at different stages, increased leaf N:K ratio before shoot emergence, reduced root K content at the fruit expansion stage and the N:K ratio of mature fruit, and promoted economic benefits. Full article
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19 pages, 4110 KiB  
Article
Diversity Analysis of Leaf Nutrient Endophytes and Metabolites in Dioecious Idesia polycarpa Maxim Leaves during Reproductive Stages
by Jian Feng, Sohel Rana, Zhen Liu, Yanmei Wang, Qifei Cai, Xiaodong Geng, Huina Zhou, Tao Zhang, Shasha Wang, Xiaoyan Xue, Mingwan Li, Razia Sultana Jemim and Zhi Li
Life 2022, 12(12), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12122041 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Leaves are essential vegetative organs of plants. Studying the variations in leaf nutrient content and microbial communities of male and female plants at reproductive stages helps us understand allocation and adaptation strategies. This study aimed to determine the nutrient characteristics and microbial differences [...] Read more.
Leaves are essential vegetative organs of plants. Studying the variations in leaf nutrient content and microbial communities of male and female plants at reproductive stages helps us understand allocation and adaptation strategies. This study aimed to determine the nutrient characteristics and microbial differences in the leaves of male and female Idesia polycarpa at reproductive stages. Seven-year-old female and male plants were used as test materials in this experiment. The samples were collected at three stages: flowering (May), fruit matter accumulation (July), and fruit ripening (October). The nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (TP), potassium (TK), carbon (TC), and the pH of the female and male leaves were analyzed. In addition, the leaf microbial diversity and differential metabolites were determined using the Illumina high-throughput sequencing method and the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method at the reproductive developmental stages. This study found that male and female plant leaves had different TN and TK contents over time but no difference in TC and TP content. The significant differences in bacterial diversity between male and female plants and the richness of the fungi of male plants at the flowering and fruit maturity stages were observed. Proteobacteria, Pseudomonadaceae, Ascomycota, and Aspergillus were the dominant bacteria and fungi in the Idesia polycarpa leaves. The presence of microorganisms differed in the two sexes in different periods. Alphaproteobacteria and Sordariomycetes were the indicator groups for male leaves, and Pseudomonas and Sordariomycetes were the indicator groups for female leaves. Significant differences in phenolic acid were found between male and female leaves. A KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that differential metabolites were enriched in metabolic pathways, amino acid biosynthesis, and the nucleotide metabolism. According to a correlation analysis, leaf TK and TP were strongly correlated with endophytic bacteria abundance and differential metabolite composition. This study revealed the changes in substances and microorganisms in the leaves of male and female plants in their reproductive stages. It provides a theoretical basis for developing and utilizing the leaves of Idesia polycarpa and for field management. Full article
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13 pages, 2938 KiB  
Article
Landscape Analysis of Runoff and Sedimentation Based on Land Use/Cover Change in Two Typical Watersheds on the Loess Plateau, China
by Xiaojun Liu and Yi Zhang
Life 2022, 12(11), 1688; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111688 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Understanding sedimentation and runoff variations caused by land use change have emerged as important research areas, due to the ecological functions of landscape patterns. The aims of this study were to determine the relationship between landscape metrics (LMs), runoff, and sedimentation and explore [...] Read more.
Understanding sedimentation and runoff variations caused by land use change have emerged as important research areas, due to the ecological functions of landscape patterns. The aims of this study were to determine the relationship between landscape metrics (LMs), runoff, and sedimentation and explore the crucial LMs in the watersheds on the Loess Plateau. From 1985 to 2010, grassland was the dominant landscape in the Tuweihe (TU) and Gushanchuan (GU) watersheds. Unused land and cropland experienced the greatest transformations. The landscape in the study area tended to become regular, connected, and aggregated, represented by increasing of the Shannon’s diversity index and the largest patch index, and decreasing landscape division over time. The landscape stability of the TU watershed was higher than that of the GU watershed. Annual runoff and sedimentation gradually decreased and a significant relationship was found between water and soil loss. Due to larger cropland area and lower landscape stability in the GU watershed, the sedimentation of the two watersheds were similar, even though the runoff in the TU watershed was greater. There were stronger effects of LMs on runoff than that on sedimentation yield. The Shannon’s evenness and the patch cohesion index was identified as the key factors of influencing water and soil loss, which had the greatest effects on runoff and sedimentation. Results indicated that regional water and soil loss is sensitive to landscape regulation, which could provide a scientific understanding for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion at landscape level. Full article
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11 pages, 977 KiB  
Article
Determining the Effects of Compost Substitution on Carbon Sequestration, Greenhouse Gas Emission, Soil Microbial Community Changes, and Crop Yield in a Wheat Field
by Hongzhi Min, Xingchen Huang, Daoqing Xu, Qingqin Shao, Qing Li, Hong Wang and Lantian Ren
Life 2022, 12(9), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12091382 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Compost produced by straw and livestock and poultry manure under the action of micro-organisms is one of the main forms of organic alternative fertilizers at present. The present study explored the effects of compost substitution on soil greenhouse gas emissions, soil microbial community [...] Read more.
Compost produced by straw and livestock and poultry manure under the action of micro-organisms is one of the main forms of organic alternative fertilizers at present. The present study explored the effects of compost substitution on soil greenhouse gas emissions, soil microbial community changes, and wheat yield to determine the best substitution ratio for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and soil microbial community changes and increasing wheat yield. Using the single-factor randomized block trial design, four treatments were employed, the characteristics of greenhouse gas emission, yield and yield components, and the changes of soil microbial community under different compost substitution ratio in the whole wheat growing season were determined by static box-gas chromatography. During the wheat season, both CO2 and N2O emissions were reduced, whereas CH4 emission was increased. That all treatments reduced the Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Greenhouse gas emission intensity (GHGI) in wheat season compared with T0. Compost substitution can alleviate the global warming potential to some extent. Under the condition of compost substitution, the wheat yield under T2 and T3 increased significantly compared with that under the control; however, the spike number and 1000-grain weight did not differ significantly among the treatments. When compost replacement was 30%, the yield was the highest. Under different ratios of compost substitution, the microbial communities mainly comprised Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Patescibacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia. The soil microbial community structure differed mainly due to the difference in the compost substitution ratio and was clustered into different groups. In conclusion, to achieve high wheat yield and low greenhouse gas emissions, compost replacement of 30% is the most reasonable means for soil improvement and fertilization. Full article
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16 pages, 6553 KiB  
Article
Epidemic of Wheat Stripe Rust Detected by Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Its Potential Correlation with Soil Nitrogen during Latent Period
by Jing Chen, Ainisai Saimi, Minghao Zhang, Qi Liu and Zhanhong Ma
Life 2022, 12(9), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12091377 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Climate change affects crops development, pathogens survival rates and pathogenicity, leading to more severe disease epidemics. There are few reports on early, simple, large-scale quantitative detection technology for wheat diseases against climate change. A new technique for detecting wheat stripe rust (WSR) during [...] Read more.
Climate change affects crops development, pathogens survival rates and pathogenicity, leading to more severe disease epidemics. There are few reports on early, simple, large-scale quantitative detection technology for wheat diseases against climate change. A new technique for detecting wheat stripe rust (WSR) during the latent period based on hyperspectral technology is proposed. Canopy hyperspectral data of WSR was obtained; meanwhile, duplex PCR was used to measure the content of Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst) in the same canopy section. The content of Pst corresponded to its spectrum as the classification label of the model, which is established by discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. In the spectral region of 325–1075 nm, the model’s average recognition accuracy was between 75% and 80%. In the sub-band of 325–1075 nm, the average recognition accuracy of the DPLS was 80% within the 325–474 nm. The average recognition accuracy of the SVM was 83% within the 475–624 nm. Correlation analysis showed that the disease index of WSR was positively correlated with soil nitrogen nutrition, indicating that the soil nitrogen nutrition would affect the severity of WSR during the latent period. Full article
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14 pages, 797 KiB  
Article
Soil Quality Assessment in Tourism-Disturbed Subtropical Mountain Meadow Areas of Wugong Mountain, Central Southeast China
by Sohel Rana, Ziheng Xu, Razia Sultana Jemim, Zhen Liu, Yanmei Wang, Xiaodong Geng, Qifei Cai, Jian Feng, Huina Zhou, Tao Zhang, Mingwan Li, Xiaomin Guo and Zhi Li
Life 2022, 12(8), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12081136 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
Meadow soil is a vital ecosystem component and can be influenced by meadow vegetation. Evaluating soil quality in mountain meadows subjected to different levels of tourism disturbance is essential for scientific research, ecological restoration, and sustainable management. This study aimed to evaluate meadow [...] Read more.
Meadow soil is a vital ecosystem component and can be influenced by meadow vegetation. Evaluating soil quality in mountain meadows subjected to different levels of tourism disturbance is essential for scientific research, ecological restoration, and sustainable management. This study aimed to evaluate meadow soil quality at different tourism-disturbance levels and attempted to establish a minimum data set (MDS) with compatible indicators for soil quality assessment of subtropical mountain meadows. We analyzed fifteen soil physical, chemical, and biological indicators in control check (CK), light disturbance (LD), medium disturbance (MD), and severe disturbance (SD) meadow areas in Wugong Mountain, west of Jiangxi, China. In addition, a soil quality index (SQI) was determined using the established MDS based on the integrated soil quality index. Average soil permeability, soil pH, available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and number of fungal OTUs were finally introduced into the MDS to evaluate meadow soil quality at different tourism-disturbance levels. The study found that the soil of the Wugong Mountain meadow was acidic, the bulk density was loose, and the nutrient content was rich. Additionally, SQI decreased with increase in tourism-disturbance level. The mean SQI values of the Wugong Mountain meadow areas were: CK, 0.612; LD, 0.493; MD, 0.448; and SD, 0.416. Our results demonstrate that the SQI based on the MDS method could be a valuable tool with which to indicate the soil quality of mountain meadow areas, and the SQI can be regarded as a primary indicator of ecological restoration and sustainable management. Full article
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10 pages, 720 KiB  
Article
Soil Organic Carbon Mineralization and Its Temperature Sensitivity under Different Substrate Levels in the Mollisols of Northeast China
by He Yu, Yueyu Sui, Yimin Chen, Tianli Bao and Xiaoguang Jiao
Life 2022, 12(5), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12050712 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
Soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization plays an important role in global climate change. Temperature affects SOC mineralization, and its effect can be limited by the substrate available. However, knowledge of the effects of temperature and substrate quality on SOC mineralization in the Mollisols [...] Read more.
Soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization plays an important role in global climate change. Temperature affects SOC mineralization, and its effect can be limited by the substrate available. However, knowledge of the effects of temperature and substrate quality on SOC mineralization in the Mollisols of Northeast China is still lacking. In this study, based on a spatial transplant experiment, we conducted a 73-day incubation to examine the effects of temperature on SOC mineralization and its temperature sensitivity under different carbon levels. We found that the SOC content, incubation temperature and their interaction had significant effects on SOC mineralization. A higher SOC content and higher incubation temperature resulted in higher SOC mineralization. The temperature sensitivity of SOC mineralization was affected by the substrate quality. The temperature sensitivity of SOC mineralization, showed a downward trend during the incubation period, and the range of variation in the Q10 declined with the increment in the SOC content. The study suggested that there was a higher SOC mineralization in high levels of substrate carbon when the temperature increased. Further, SOC mineralization under higher SOC contents was more sensitive to temperature changes. Our study provides vital information for SOC turnover and the CO2 sequestration capacity under global warming in the Mollisols of Northeast China and other black soil regions of the world. Full article
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11 pages, 1368 KiB  
Article
Effects of Partial Blackwater Substitution on Soil Potential NI-Trogen Leaching in a Summer Maize Field on the North China Plain
by Tao Zhang, Hao Peng, Bo Yang, Haoyu Cao, Bo Liu and Xiangqun Zheng
Life 2022, 12(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12010053 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
In China, promoting harmless blackwater treatment and resource utilization in rural areas is a priority of the “toilet revolution”. Exploring the effects of blackwater application in arid areas on soil nitrogen losses can provide a basis for more effective water and fertilizer management. [...] Read more.
In China, promoting harmless blackwater treatment and resource utilization in rural areas is a priority of the “toilet revolution”. Exploring the effects of blackwater application in arid areas on soil nitrogen losses can provide a basis for more effective water and fertilizer management. This study analyzed nitrogen leaching and maize yield under blackwater application in the summer maize season of 2020. A total of 5 treatments were used: no fertilizer, single chemical fertilizer application (CF), single blackwater application (HH), and combined chemical fertilizer and blackwater application ratios of 1:1 (CH1) and 2:1 (CH2). The total nitrogen leached from the fertilization treatments was 53.14–60.95 kg·ha−1 and the leached nitrate nitrogen was 34.10–40.62 kg·ha−1. Nitrate nitrogen accounted for 50–62% of the total leached nitrogen. Compared with blackwater treatments, nitrate nitrogen moved into deeper soil layers (80–100 cm depth) during the CF treatment. Compared with CF, HH significantly reduced the maize yield by 24.39%. The nitrogen surplus of HH was higher than that of other fertilizer treatments. Considering nitrogen leaching, maize yield, and economic benefits, the CH2 treatment presented the optimal results. These findings address knowledge gaps and assist in guiding policy-makers to effectively promote China’s “toilet revolution”. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

12 pages, 1157 KiB  
Review
Effects of Biofuel Crop Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Cultivation on Soil Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Review
by Jian Bai, Laicong Luo, Aixin Li, Xiaoqin Lai, Xi Zhang, Yadi Yu, Hao Wang, Nansheng Wu and Ling Zhang
Life 2022, 12(12), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12122105 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
Under the macroenvironmental background of global warming, all countries are working to limit climate change. Internationally, biofuel plants are considered to have great potential in carbon neutralization. Several countries have begun using biofuel crops as energy sources to neutralize carbon emissions. Switchgrass ( [...] Read more.
Under the macroenvironmental background of global warming, all countries are working to limit climate change. Internationally, biofuel plants are considered to have great potential in carbon neutralization. Several countries have begun using biofuel crops as energy sources to neutralize carbon emissions. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is considered a resource-efficient low-input crop that produces bioenergy. In this paper, we reviewed the effects of switchgrass cultivation on carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, the future application and research of switchgrass are discussed and prospected. Switchgrass has huge aboveground and underground biomass, manifesting its huge carbon sequestration potential. The net change of soil surface 30 cm soil organic carbon in 15 years is predicted to be 6.49 Mg ha−1, significantly higher than that of other crops. In addition, its net ecosystem CO2 exchange is about −485 to −118 g C m−2 yr−1, which greatly affects the annual CO2 flux of the cultivation environment. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is the main source of N2O emission in the switchgrass field. Nitrogen addition increases the yield of switchgrass and also increases the N2O flux of switchgrass soil. It is necessary to formulate the most appropriate N fertilizer application strategy. CH4 emissions are also an important indicator of carbon debt. The effects of switchgrass cultivation on CH4 emissions may be significant but are often ignored. Future studies on GHG emissions by switchgrass should also focus on CH4. In conclusion, as a biofuel crop, switchgrass can well balance the effects of climate change. It is necessary to conduct studies of switchgrass globally with the long-term dimension of climate change effects. Full article
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13 pages, 1983 KiB  
Review
Carbon Pool in Mexican Wetland Soils: Importance of the Environmental Service
by Sergio Zamora, Irma Zitácuaro-Contreras, Erick Arturo Betanzo-Torres, Luis Carlos Sandoval Herazo, Mayerlin Sandoval-Herazo, Monserrat Vidal-Álvarez and José Luis Marín-Muñiz
Life 2022, 12(7), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12071032 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
Mexican wetlands are not included in Earth system models around the world, despite being an important carbon store in the wetland soils in the tropics. In this review, five different types of wetlands were observed (marshes, swamps, flooded grasslands, flooded palms and mangroves) [...] Read more.
Mexican wetlands are not included in Earth system models around the world, despite being an important carbon store in the wetland soils in the tropics. In this review, five different types of wetlands were observed (marshes, swamps, flooded grasslands, flooded palms and mangroves) in which their carbon pool/carbon sequestrations in Mexican zones were studied. In addition, it was shown that swamps (forested freshwater wetlands) sequestered more carbon in the soil (86.17 ± 35.9 Kg C m−2) than other types of wetlands (p = 0.011); however, these ecosystems are not taken into consideration by the Mexican laws on protection compared with mangroves (34.1 ± 5.2 Kg C m−2). The carbon pool detected for mangrove was statistically similar (p > 0.05) to data of carbon observed in marshes (34.1 ± 5.2 Kg C m−2) and flooded grassland (28.57 ± 1.04 Kg C m−2) ecosystems. The value of carbon in flooded palms (8.0 ± 4.2 Kg C m−2) was lower compared to the other wetland types, but no significant differences were found compared with flooded grasslands (p = 0.99). Thus, the carbon deposits detected in the different wetland types should be taken into account by policy makers and agents of change when making laws for environmental protection, as systematic data on carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands is needed in order to allow their incorporation into global carbon budgets. Full article
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33 pages, 9513 KiB  
Review
Management Strategies to Mitigate N2O Emissions in Agriculture
by Muhammad Umair Hassan, Muhammad Aamer, Athar Mahmood, Masood Iqbal Awan, Lorenzo Barbanti, Mahmoud F. Seleiman, Ghous Bakhsh, Hiba M. Alkharabsheh, Emre Babur, Jinhua Shao, Adnan Rasheed and Guoqin Huang
Life 2022, 12(3), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12030439 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 8505
Abstract
The concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere has been increasing since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the mightiest GHGs, and agriculture is one of the main sources of N2O emissions. [...] Read more.
The concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere has been increasing since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the mightiest GHGs, and agriculture is one of the main sources of N2O emissions. In this paper, we reviewed the mechanisms triggering N2O emissions and the role of agricultural practices in their mitigation. The amount of N2O produced from the soil through the combined processes of nitrification and denitrification is profoundly influenced by temperature, moisture, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen contents. These factors can be manipulated to a significant extent through field management practices, influencing N2O emission. The relationships between N2O occurrence and factors regulating it are an important premise for devising mitigation strategies. Here, we evaluated various options in the literature and found that N2O emissions can be effectively reduced by intervening on time and through the method of N supply (30–40%, with peaks up to 80%), tillage and irrigation practices (both in non-univocal way), use of amendments, such as biochar and lime (up to 80%), use of slow-release fertilizers and/or nitrification inhibitors (up to 50%), plant treatment with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (up to 75%), appropriate crop rotations and schemes (up to 50%), and integrated nutrient management (in a non-univocal way). In conclusion, acting on N supply (fertilizer type, dose, time, method, etc.) is the most straightforward way to achieve significant N2O reductions without compromising crop yields. However, tuning the rest of crop management (tillage, irrigation, rotation, etc.) to principles of good agricultural practices is also advisable, as it can fetch significant N2O abatement vs. the risk of unexpected rise, which can be incurred by unwary management. Full article
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