Emerging Infectious Disease: Viral Enteric Pathogens with Zoonosis Potential in Domestic and Wild Animals

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 June 2024 | Viewed by 11101

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Università degli Studi di Teramo, 64100 Teramo, Italy
Interests: zoonoses; infectious disease; emerging; viruses; emerging infectious diseases; viral enteric pathogens; domestic animals; wildlife animals; diagnostics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

It is estimated that, globally, about one billion cases of illness and millions of deaths occur every year from zoonoses. About 60% of emerging infectious diseases that are reported globally are zoonoses. Over 30 new human pathogens have been detected in the last three decades, 75% of which have originated in animals. In the last few years, much progress has been achieved in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in wildlife, but additional information and studies are necessary to improve the identification and characterization of old and new pathogens in wild species, including zoonotic agents. The aim of this Special Issue is to publish original research work or reviews on these topics in order to give an effective improvement of the current knowledge with a One Health approach of infectious diseases.

Dr. Vittorio Sarchese
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Veterinary Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • zoonoses
  • emerging viruses
  • emerging infectious diseases
  • viral enteric pathogens
  • domestic animals
  • wildlife animals

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

20 pages, 2160 KiB  
Article
A Multifaceted Approach for Evaluating Hepatitis E Virus Infectivity In Vitro: Cell Culture and Innovative Molecular Methods for Integrity Assessment
by Tatjana Locus, Ellen Lambrecht, Sophie Lamoral, Sjarlotte Willems, Steven Van Gucht, Thomas Vanwolleghem and Michael Peeters
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(12), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10120676 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus is a prominent cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. In Western countries, most infections are asymptomatic. However, acute self-limiting hepatitis and chronic cases in immunocompromised individuals can occur. Studying HEV is challenging due to its difficulty to grow in cell culture. [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus is a prominent cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. In Western countries, most infections are asymptomatic. However, acute self-limiting hepatitis and chronic cases in immunocompromised individuals can occur. Studying HEV is challenging due to its difficulty to grow in cell culture. Consequently, the detection of the virus mainly relies on RT-qPCR, which cannot differentiate between infectious and non-infectious particles. To overcome this problem, methods assessing viral integrity offer a possible solution to differentiate between intact and damaged viruses. This study aims at optimizing existing HEV cell culture models and RT-qPCR-based assays for selectively detecting intact virions to establish a reliable model for assessing HEV infectivity. In conclusion, these newly developed methods hold promise for enhancing food safety by identifying approaches for inactivating HEV in food processing, thereby increasing food safety measures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1210 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Enteric Virome of Cats with Acute Gastroenteritis
by Federica Di Profio, Vittorio Sarchese, Paola Fruci, Giovanni Aste, Vito Martella, Andrea Palombieri and Barbara Di Martino
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050362 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Viruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in cats, chiefly in younger animals. Enteric specimens collected from 29 cats with acute enteritis and 33 non-diarrhoeic cats were screened in PCRs and reverse transcription (RT) PCR for a large panel of enteric [...] Read more.
Viruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in cats, chiefly in younger animals. Enteric specimens collected from 29 cats with acute enteritis and 33 non-diarrhoeic cats were screened in PCRs and reverse transcription (RT) PCR for a large panel of enteric viruses, including also orphan viruses of recent identification. At least one viral species, including feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline enteric coronavirus (FCoV), feline chaphamaparvovirus, calicivirus (vesivirus and novovirus), feline kobuvirus, feline sakobuvirus A and Lyon IARC polyomaviruses, was detected in 66.1% of the samples.. Co-infections were mainly accounted for by FPV and FCoV and were detected in 24.2% of the samples. The virome composition was further assessed in eight diarrhoeic samples, through the construction of sequencing libraries using a sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) protocol. The libraries were sequenced on Oxford Nanopore Technologies sequencing platform. A total of 41 contigs (>100 nt) were detected from seven viral families infecting mammals, included Parvoviridae, Caliciviridae, Picornaviridae, Polyomaviridae, Anelloviridae, Papillomaviridae and Paramyxoviridae, revealing a broad variety in the composition of the feline enteric virome. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1183 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Astrovirome of Shellfish Matrices Using Nanopore Sequencing
by Farzad Beikpour, Francesco Pellegrini, Gianvito Lanave, Michele Camero, Cristiana Catella, Barbara Di Martino, Federica Di Profio, Chiara Masotti, Roberta Battistini, Laura Serracca, Giuseppina La Rosa, Vito Martella and Elisabetta Suffredini
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(3), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10030175 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Astroviruses are important human enteric pathogens transmissible with contaminated food and water. Astroviruses have also been identified in mammals, birds, lower vertebrates and invertebrates. The genetic diversity of human and animal astroviruses poses a challenge for diagnostics and taxonomy. As a proof of [...] Read more.
Astroviruses are important human enteric pathogens transmissible with contaminated food and water. Astroviruses have also been identified in mammals, birds, lower vertebrates and invertebrates. The genetic diversity of human and animal astroviruses poses a challenge for diagnostics and taxonomy. As a proof of concept, we used a panastrovirus consensus primer set, able to amplify in a nested RT-PCR protocol a 400-nt-long fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of most members of the Astroviridae family, in conjunction with a nanopore sequencing platform, to generate information on the astrovirome in filter-feeding mollusks. Amplicons generated from bivalve samples were used to generate libraries for deep sequencing. In three samples, only one unique RdRp sequence type was obtained. However, in seven samples and in three barcodes with eleven pooled samples, we identified a variety of known and unknown RdRp sequence types, in most cases distantly related to astrovirus sequences available in the databases. In total, 37 different sequence contigs were generated. Avian-origin astrovirus sequences were predominant, likely due to contamination of shellfish harvesting waters by marine birds. Astroviruses of the aquatic eco-system were also identified, whereas human astroviruses were not detected. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
Detection of Porcine Deltacoronavirus RNA in the Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract and Biliary Fluid and the Effect of Infection on Serum Cholesterol Levels and Blood T Cell Population Frequencies in Gnotobiotic Piglets
by Amalie Ehlers Bedsted, Kwonil Jung and Linda J. Saif
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020117 - 04 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first identified approximately a decade ago, but much is still obscure in terms of its pathogenesis. We aimed to further characterize PDCoV infection by investigating the presence of virus in respiratory and biliary tissues or fluids; T cell population [...] Read more.
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first identified approximately a decade ago, but much is still obscure in terms of its pathogenesis. We aimed to further characterize PDCoV infection by investigating the presence of virus in respiratory and biliary tissues or fluids; T cell population frequencies in blood; and altered serum cholesterol levels. Twelve, 6-day-old, gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated oronasally with PDCoV OH-FD22 (2.6 × 107 FFU/pig). Six control piglets were not inoculated. Rectal swab (RS), nasal swab (NS), nasal wash (NW), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and biliary fluid (BF) samples were collected at 2, 4, and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI) and tested for PDCoV RNA by RT-qPCR. Blood T cell populations and serum cholesterol levels were determined by flow cytometry and a colorimetric assay, respectively. Moderate to high, and low to moderate titers of PDCoV RNA were detected in RS and in NS, NW, BAL, and BF samples, respectively, of inoculated piglets. There were trends toward decreased CD4+CD8−, CD4−CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ blood T cell frequencies in inoculated piglets. Furthermore, serum cholesterol levels were increased in inoculated piglets. Overall, we found that PDCoV infection does not exclusively involve the intestine, since the respiratory and biliary systems and cholesterol metabolism also can be affected. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

12 pages, 1859 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Hepatitis E Virus Detection in Camels
by Sérgio Santos-Silva, Mahima Hemnani, Pedro Lopez-Lopez, Helena M. R. Gonçalves, António Rivero-Juarez, Wim H. M. Van der Poel, Maria São José Nascimento and João R. Mesquita
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050323 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) represents a major cause of acute hepatitis and is considered an emerging public health problem around the world. In the Middle East’s and Africa’s arid regions, where camels frequently interact with human populations and camel-derived food products are a [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) represents a major cause of acute hepatitis and is considered an emerging public health problem around the world. In the Middle East’s and Africa’s arid regions, where camels frequently interact with human populations and camel-derived food products are a component of the food chain, camel-borne zoonotic HEV infection is a potential threat. To date, no review paper has been published on HEV in camels. As such, the purpose of the current work is to provide a scientific review of the identification of HEV genotypes seven and eight in camels worldwide to have a better understanding of the current status of this topic and to identify gaps in the current knowledge. Searches were carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Mendeley, Web of Science, and Scopus, including studies published until 31 December 2022 (n = 435). Once the databases were checked for duplicate papers (n = 307), the exclusion criteria were applied to remove any research that was not relevant (n = 118). As a result, only 10 papers were found to be eligible for the study. Additionally, in eight of the ten studies, the rates of HEV infection were found to be between 0.6% and 2.2% in both stool and serum samples. Furthermore, four studies detected HEV genotype seven in dromedary camels, and two studies have shown HEV genotype eight in Bactrian camels. Interestingly, these genotypes were recently reported in camels from the Middle East and China, where one human infection with HEV genotype seven has been associated with the consumption of contaminated camel meat and milk. In conclusion, more research will be needed to determine the prevalence of HEV infection in camels around the world as well as the risk of foodborne transmission of contaminated camel products. As camels are utility animals in several countries, HEV in these animals may pose a potential risk to public health. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

9 pages, 2516 KiB  
Case Report
Hepadnavirus Infection in a Cat with Chronic Liver Disease: A Multi-Disciplinary Diagnostic Approach
by Paolo Capozza, Francesco Pellegrini, Michele Camero, Georgia Diakoudi, Ahmed Hassan Omar, Anna Salvaggiulo, Nicola Decaro, Gabriella Elia, Leonardo Catucci, Barbara Di Martino, Paola Fruci, Letizia Tomassini, Elvio Lepri, Vito Martella and Gianvito Lanave
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(12), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10120668 - 24 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
A 3-year-old female stray, shorthair cat, with clinical signs and serum chemistry markers indicative of hepatic disease, was diagnosed with domestic cat hepadnavirus (DCH) infection. Coupling molecular and serological data, the infection was seemingly contextualized into a chronic phase, since IgM anti-core antibodies, [...] Read more.
A 3-year-old female stray, shorthair cat, with clinical signs and serum chemistry markers indicative of hepatic disease, was diagnosed with domestic cat hepadnavirus (DCH) infection. Coupling molecular and serological data, the infection was seemingly contextualized into a chronic phase, since IgM anti-core antibodies, a marker of early-stage Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection, were not detected. However, the cat possessed IgG anti-core, a common indicator of chronic HBV infection in human patients and did not show seroconversion to the anti-DCH surface antigen, considered protective during HBV infection and associated with long-term protective immunity. On genome sequencing, the DCH strain showed 98.3% nucleotide identity to strains previously identified in Italy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1145 KiB  
Brief Report
The First Identification of Cryptosporidium parvum Virus-1 (CSpV1) in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) Calves in Korea
by Jeong-Byoung Chae, Seung-Uk Shin, Serim Kim, Young-Mi Jo, Hyunsoo Roh, Hansong Chae, Won-Gyeong Kim, Joon-Seok Chae, Hyuk Song and Jung-Won Kang
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110633 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1397
Abstract
Cryptosporidium is an obligate coccidian parasite that causes enteric diseases in bovine species. A double-stranded RNA virus associated with C. parvum oocysts, Cryptosporidium parvum virus-1 (CSpV1), has been characterized. However, the relationship between the abovementioned coccidian parasite and the virus has not been [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium is an obligate coccidian parasite that causes enteric diseases in bovine species. A double-stranded RNA virus associated with C. parvum oocysts, Cryptosporidium parvum virus-1 (CSpV1), has been characterized. However, the relationship between the abovementioned coccidian parasite and the virus has not been studied in the context of the known clinical outcomes. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and molecular traits of CSpV1 in diarrheal feces of Hanwoo (Korean indigenous cattle) calves. Of the 140 fecal samples previously tested for C. parvum, which were obtained from Hanwoo calves aged 60 days, 70 tested positive and 70 tested negative. These samples were included in this study. By using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis targeting the RdRp gene of CSpV1, we detected CSpV1 in 28 samples (20.0%), with infection rates of 31.4% (22/70) in C. parvum-positive and 8.6% (6/70) in C. parvum-negative samples. CSpV1 samples detected in the same farm were clustered together. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the prevalence and molecular characteristics of CSpV1 in Hanwoo calves in the Republic of Korea, providing important insights into the relationship between C. parvum and CSpV1 in bovine hosts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop