Status and Perspective of Asian Schistosomiasis

A special issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease (ISSN 2414-6366). This special issue belongs to the section "Neglected and Emerging Tropical Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 3212

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Office of Research Coordination, University of the East, Manila 1008, Philippines
2. Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Manila 1101, Philippines
Interests: medical parasitology; medical malacology; ecology; embryology

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Guest Editor
Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
Interests: molecular phylogenetics; medical malacology
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Department of Global Health, National Centre for Epidemiology & Population Health, ANU College of Health and Medicine, The Australian National University, 62 Mills Rd, Canberra, Australia
Interests: global health; tropical health; international health; infectious disease epidemiology; Schistosomiasis; soil-transmitted helminths; clinical trials; medical parasitology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Asian schistosomiasis is caused by two species of schistosomes, namely Schistosoma japonicum and S. mekongi, with the former endemic in China, Indonesia, the Philippines and previously in Japan. S. mekongi is found in Laos and Cambodia. The attention paid to Asian schistosomes has not been as high as that given to S. mansoni, found in Africa and South America, and S. haematobium, also found in Africa and the Middle East.  More than 90% of schistosomiasis cases can be found in Africa. This Special Issue with the theme "Status and Perspective of Asian Schistosomiasis" hopes to give Asian schistosomiasis equal focus as its counterpart in Africa and South America. Updates on the status of schistosomiasis in endemic countries such as China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Laos and Cambodia will be given, especially on how far controlling and eliminating the disease have been achieved. Discovery of schistosomiasis in Myanmar will be presented in more detail.  Updates on the diagnosis of infection in humans, reservoir hosts and snail intermediate hosts are included, especially focusing on how they impact elimination efforts. Xenomonitoring as an important tool in surveillance will also be discussed.  Innovative approaches that have been integrated with conventional methods to improve the control and prevention of disease will be added. Below are some of the potential topics for this Special Issue.

  1. Genetic diversity of Asian schistosomes and their snail intermediate hosts
  2. Updates on the diagnosis of schistosome infection in humans, reservoir hosts and snail intermediate hosts
  3. Updates on treatment, diagnosis and vaccine development
  4. Surveillance of schistosomiasis in Japan to prevent resurgence
  5. Innovative methods for the control of schistosomiasis

Prof. Dr. Lydia R. Leonardo
Dr. Ian Kendrich Fontanilla
Prof. Dr. Darren Gray
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Schistosomiasis japonica
  • Schistosomiasis mekongi
  • Oncomelania hupensis
  • Neotricula aperta
  • snail-borne trematode infection

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2315 KiB  
Article
From Perpetual Wetness to Soil Chemistry: Enumerating Environmental and Physicochemical Factors Favoring Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi Snail Presence in the Municipality of Gonzaga, Cagayan, Philippines
by Daria L. Manalo, Jude Karlo G. Bolivar, Paul Raymund Yap, Ma. Ricci R. Gomez, Zaldy P. Saldo, Mark Joseph M. Espino, Joselito E. Dilig, Raffy Jay C. Fornillos, Shirlyn A. Perez, Regie A. Baga, Louie S. Sunico, Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla and Lydia R. Leonardo
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9010009 - 29 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Snail control to complement mass drug administration is being promoted by the World Health Organization for schistosomiasis control. Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines, has a very focal distribution; thus, scrutinizing baseline data and parameters [...] Read more.
Snail control to complement mass drug administration is being promoted by the World Health Organization for schistosomiasis control. Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines, has a very focal distribution; thus, scrutinizing baseline data and parameters affecting this distribution is very crucial. In this study in Gonzaga, Cagayan, Philippines, snail habitats were surveyed, and the various factors affecting the existence of the snails were determined. Malacological surveys and the mapping of sites of perpetual wetness in five endemic and five neighboring non-endemic barangays were conducted. Environmental and physicochemical factors were also examined. Maps of both snail and non-snail sites were generated. Of the fifty sites surveyed, O. h. quadrasi were found in twelve sites, and two sites yielded snails that were infected with S. japonicum cercariae. Factors such as silty loam soil, proximity to a snail site, water ammonia, and soil attributes (organic matter, iron, and pH) are all significantly associated with the presence of snails. In contrast, types of habitats, temperatures, and soil aggregation have no established association with the existence of snails. Mapping snail sites and determining factors favoring snail presence are vital to eliminating snails. These approaches will significantly maximize control impact and minimize wasted efforts and resources, especially in resource-limited schistosomiasis endemic areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Status and Perspective of Asian Schistosomiasis)
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12 pages, 1830 KiB  
Article
Low Prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi Infection and High Prevalence of Other Helminth Infections among Domestic Animals in Southern Lao People’s Democratic Republic
by Somphou Sayasone, Phonepadith Khattignavong, Sengdeuane Keomalaphet, Phoyphaylinh Prasayasith, Pheovaly Soundala, Sonesimmaly Sannikone, Takashi Kumagai, Souk Phomhaksa, Phouth Inthavong, Emilie Louise Akiko Matsumoto-Takahashi, Bouasy Hongvanthong, Paul T. Brey, Shigeyuki Kano and Moritoshi Iwagami
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(7), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8070372 - 18 Jul 2023
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Abstract
The prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi in humans in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) has been relatively well monitored and has decreased due to effective interventions such as preventative chemotherapy with mass drug administration of praziquantel and community awareness programs. However, the [...] Read more.
The prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi in humans in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) has been relatively well monitored and has decreased due to effective interventions such as preventative chemotherapy with mass drug administration of praziquantel and community awareness programs. However, the prevalence among potential domestic reservoir animals remains broadly unclear, except for a few villages in the endemic area. Therefore, we conducted S. mekongi surveys for the domestic animals that had contact with Mekong River water. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the domestic animals in the seven sentinel villages in the Khong and Mounlapamok Districts of Champasak Province in southern Lao PDR in 2018 by random sampling with a statistically reliable sample size. Stool samples of the five predominant domestic animal species, cattle (n = 160), pig (n = 154), buffalo (n = 149), dog (n = 143), and goat (n = 85), were collected and examined using parasitological FECT method and the LAMP technique. The microscopic analysis did not detect any eggs of S. mekongi in the stool samples of any animal species. However, S. mekongi DNA was detected by the LAMP test in dog stool samples (0.7%; 1/143). On the other hand, the prevalence of other helminths was quite high and heterogeneous among animal species and sentinel sites by the microscopic analysis. These findings suggested that an intervention for S. mekongi infection should focus solely on human populations. However, periodic surveillance for S. mekongi infection among dogs should be conducted to monitor a possible resurgence of S. mekongi infection in the domestic animal population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Status and Perspective of Asian Schistosomiasis)
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