Mycotoxin Spectrum in Food and Feed

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 11899

Special Issue Editors

Institute for Grapevine Breeding, Julius Kühn-Institut, 76833 Siebeldingen, Germany
Interests: plant diseases; plant pathology; phytopathology; fungal diseases; mycotoxins; phenotyping; agriculture; cereals; disease resistance
Institute for Plant Protection in Field Crops and Grassland, Julius Kuehn-Institute, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany
Interests: molecular genetics; DNA sequence analysis; molecular diagnostics; fungal; viruses; mycotoxins
Department of Animal Production and Food Science, Food Quality and Microbiology, University Institute for the Research in Agrifood Resources-INURA, University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain
Interests: food microbiology and safety; food mycology; foodborne pathogens; mycotoxins; gene expression; molecular ecology and biology; food science and technology; biocontrol and analytical methods; plant pathology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are a diverse group of toxic secondary metabolites derived from mold fungi. These fungi are classified as plant pathogenic fungi that infect plants in the field and cause losses in the quantity and quality of yields. Furthermore, they can cause damage under favorable conditions during storage through saprophytic growth and the accumulation of mycotoxins. Consequently, infections of crops in the field and during storage can result in the contamination of a wide range of feed and dietary products. Mycotoxins enter the food chain either directly via the consumption of contaminated food or indirectly via feed, thereby endangering human and animal health. The high stability of mycotoxins allows them to persist during food processing and impair food safety, particularly through chronic exposure. The regulation of mycotoxin production in mold fungi is a multifactorial process, involving inherent and environmental regulators, and is hence difficult to predict. Therefore, the development and refinement of reliable diagnostic methods are of crucial importance to keep up with an ongoing diversification, which has been accompanied by the discovery of newly emerging mycotoxins.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect papers related to the mycotoxin spectrum found in processed food and feed, including original articles, review articles, and short communications.

As the Guest Editors of this Special Issue, we look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Elias Alisaac
Dr. Simon Schiwek
Dr. Alicia Rodríguez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food chain
  • food processing
  • mold fungi
  • mycotoxins
  • plant products
  • animal products
  • human health
  • animal health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

21 pages, 1338 KiB  
Review
Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Dried Fruits Worldwide, with a Focus on Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A: A Review
Toxins 2023, 15(9), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15090576 - 18 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2755
Abstract
Dried fruits are popular and nutritious snacks consumed worldwide due to their long shelf life and concentrated nutrient content. However, fruits can be contaminated with various toxigenic fungal species during different stages, including cultivation, harvesting, processing, drying, and storage. Consequently, these products may [...] Read more.
Dried fruits are popular and nutritious snacks consumed worldwide due to their long shelf life and concentrated nutrient content. However, fruits can be contaminated with various toxigenic fungal species during different stages, including cultivation, harvesting, processing, drying, and storage. Consequently, these products may contain high levels of mycotoxins. This risk is particularly pronounced in developed countries due to the impact of climate change. Several factors contribute to mycotoxin production, including the type of fruit, geographical location, climate conditions, harvest treatments, and storage management practices. The main mycotoxins in dried fruits are aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA), which can induce human health problems and economic losses. Mycotoxin contamination can vary significantly depending on the geographic origin of dried fruits (vine fruits, figs, dates, apricots, prunes, and mulberries). The aim of this review was to fill the knowledge gap by consolidating data from various regions to understand the global picture and identify regions with higher contamination risks. By consolidating research from various origins and stages of the supply chain, the review intends to shed light on potential contamination events during pre-harvest, drying, storage, and trading, while also highlighting the effects of storage conditions and climate change on mycotoxin contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Spectrum in Food and Feed)
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18 pages, 433 KiB  
Review
Impact of Enniatin and Deoxynivalenol Co-Occurrence on Plant, Microbial, Insect, Animal and Human Systems: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives
Toxins 2023, 15(4), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15040271 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3323
Abstract
Fusarium mycotoxins commonly contaminate agricultural products resulting in a serious threat to both animal and human health. The co-occurrence of different mycotoxins in the same cereal field is very common, so the risks as well as the functional and ecological effects of mycotoxins [...] Read more.
Fusarium mycotoxins commonly contaminate agricultural products resulting in a serious threat to both animal and human health. The co-occurrence of different mycotoxins in the same cereal field is very common, so the risks as well as the functional and ecological effects of mycotoxins cannot always be predicted by focusing only on the effect of the single contaminants. Enniatins (ENNs) are among the most frequently detected emerging mycotoxins, while deoxynivalenol (DON) is probably the most common contaminant of cereal grains worldwide. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the simultaneous exposure to these mycotoxins, with emphasis on the combined effects in multiple organisms. Our literature analysis shows that just a few studies on ENN–DON toxicity are available, suggesting the complexity of mycotoxin interactions, which include synergistic, antagonistic, and additive effects. Both ENNs and DON modulate drug efflux transporters, therefore this specific ability deserves to be explored to better understand their complex biological role. Additionally, future studies should investigate the interaction mechanisms of mycotoxin co-occurrence on different model organisms, using concentrations closer to real exposures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Spectrum in Food and Feed)
23 pages, 2450 KiB  
Review
Fusarium Head Blight on Wheat: Biology, Modern Detection and Diagnosis and Integrated Disease Management
Toxins 2023, 15(3), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15030192 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5080
Abstract
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major threat for wheat production worldwide. Most reviews focus on Fusarium graminearum as a main causal agent of FHB. However, different Fusarium species are involved in this disease complex. These species differ in their geographic adaptation and [...] Read more.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major threat for wheat production worldwide. Most reviews focus on Fusarium graminearum as a main causal agent of FHB. However, different Fusarium species are involved in this disease complex. These species differ in their geographic adaptation and mycotoxin profile. The incidence of FHB epidemics is highly correlated with weather conditions, especially rainy days with warm temperatures at anthesis and an abundance of primary inoculum. Yield losses due to the disease can reach up to 80% of the crop. This review summarizes the Fusarium species involved in the FHB disease complex with the corresponding mycotoxin profiles, disease cycle, diagnostic methods, the history of FHB epidemics, and the management strategy of the disease. In addition, it discusses the role of remote sensing technology in the integrated management of the disease. This technology can accelerate the phenotyping process in the breeding programs aiming at FHB-resistant varieties. Moreover, it can support the decision-making strategies to apply fungicides via monitoring and early detection of the diseases under field conditions. It can also be used for selective harvest to avoid mycotoxin-contaminated plots in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Spectrum in Food and Feed)
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