Looking Forward: Mycotoxins Occurrence and Detection in Food and Feed

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 9004

Special Issue Editors

1. Centre for The Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, (CITAB) University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Vila Real, Portugal
2. Agrarian School of Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: nutrients; bioactive compounds; grain legumes; FTIR; cereals; rheological analysis; food safety; mycotoxins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
1. National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinary Research (INIAV), Oeiras, Portugal
2. GREEN-IT Bioresources for Sustainability, ITQB NOVA, Av. da República, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
Interests: rice; TRACE-RICE; food chemistry; food science; maize; viscoelasticity; food processing and engineering; food technology; food analysis; starch; genotyping
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is a major safety challenge that requires scientific evidence for protecting both public health and global economic trade. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi produced in reaction to stress caused by environmental extremes, which are responsible for a significant decline in yield, product quality, and consequent economic losses. The occurrence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in food and feed is influenced by climatic conditions, agronomic practices, genetic factors, fungal activity, and storage conditions, resulting in appreciable quality and quantity losses.

The presence of mycotoxins in food and feed has been revealed as a major concern for animal and human health, due to their probability of occurrence and the toxicological properties exacerbated by the climate change scenario that moves mycotoxins occurrence into new areas.

Contributions to this Special Issue may cover all advances on:

  • The global scenario of occurrence and detection of mycotoxins in food and feed;
  • Effects of fungi activity and mycotoxin accumulation on human and animal health;
  • Main factors influencing the fungal toxigenicity: agronomic techniques (soil, sampling, fertilization and harvesting), environmental conditions, fungal activity and storage conditions;
  • Integrated pest management and biological strategies for the mitigation of mycotoxins occurrence during storage;
  • Innovative methodologies for the extraction and analysis of mycotoxins.

In addition to known mycotoxins, for which maximum levels in food are enforced, the so-called “emerging mycotoxins” which are currently unregulated are also included within the scope of this Special Issue.

Dr. Bruna Carbas
Dr. Carla Brites
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fungal activity
  • cereals
  • mitigation strategies
  • health effects
  • agronomic factors

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 335 KiB  
Article
Incidence of Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Corn from Albania
Toxins 2023, 15(9), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15090567 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
In this study, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analyzed in grains, specifically wheat and corn, from Albania. To summarize, 71 wheat and 45 corn samples from different growing areas were collected. The multi-toxin analytical procedure involved sample extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem [...] Read more.
In this study, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analyzed in grains, specifically wheat and corn, from Albania. To summarize, 71 wheat and 45 corn samples from different growing areas were collected. The multi-toxin analytical procedure involved sample extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The incidence of AF was 18% in the analyzed wheat and 71% in the corn samples. The concentration of AFs was much higher in the corn samples than in the wheat samples. The maximum permitted levels for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and total AFs were not exceeded in the wheat samples, while they were exceeded in 36% of the corn samples. In the wheat samples, the AFB1 concentration varied between 0.2 and 0.4 µg kg−1. However, the highest concentrations in the corn samples were 2057, 2944, and 3550 µg kg−1. OTA was present in only three corn samples and one wheat sample. However, all contaminated samples exceeded the maximum permitted levels. This report reveals the presence of AFs and OTA in grain commodities, specifically wheat and corn, grown in Albania. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Looking Forward: Mycotoxins Occurrence and Detection in Food and Feed)
15 pages, 3241 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Agricultural Practices for Controlling Fusarium and Mycotoxins Contamination on Maize Grains: Exploratory Study in Maize Farms
Toxins 2023, 15(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15020136 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Maize is a significant crop to the global economy and a key component of food and feed, although grains and whole plants can often be contaminated with mycotoxins resulting in a general exposure of the population and animals. To investigate strategies for mycotoxins [...] Read more.
Maize is a significant crop to the global economy and a key component of food and feed, although grains and whole plants can often be contaminated with mycotoxins resulting in a general exposure of the population and animals. To investigate strategies for mycotoxins control at the grain production level, a pilot study and exploratory research were conducted in 2019 and 2020 to compare levels of mycotoxins in grains of plants treated with two fertilizers, F-BAC and Nefusoil, under real agricultural environment. The 1650 grains selected from the 33 samples were assessed for the presence of both Fusarium species and mycotoxins. Only fumonisins and deoxynivalenol were detected. Fumonisin B1 ranged from 0 to 2808.4 µg/Kg, and fumonisin B2 from 0 to 1041.9 µg/Kg, while deoxynivalenol variated from 0 to 465.8 µg/Kg. Nefusoil showed to be promising in regard to fumonisin control. Concerning the control of fungal contamination rate and the diversity of Fusarium species, no significant differences were found between the two treatments in any of the years. However, a tendency for was observed Nefusoil of lower values, probably due to the guaranteed less stressful conditions to the Fusarium spp. present in the soil, which do not stimulate their fumonisins production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Looking Forward: Mycotoxins Occurrence and Detection in Food and Feed)
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20 pages, 2982 KiB  
Article
Mycotoxin Occurrence in Feeds and Raw Materials in China: A Five-Year Investigation
Toxins 2023, 15(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15010063 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
Mycotoxins are ubiquitously present in feeds and raw materials and can exert toxicity on animals and humans. Therefore, mycotoxin occurrence should be monitored. We report here a multi-mycotoxin survey of feed samples in China from 2017 to 2021. Concentrations of aflatoxins, trichothecenes type [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are ubiquitously present in feeds and raw materials and can exert toxicity on animals and humans. Therefore, mycotoxin occurrence should be monitored. We report here a multi-mycotoxin survey of feed samples in China from 2017 to 2021. Concentrations of aflatoxins, trichothecenes type B, fumonisins, and zearalenone were determined in a total of 9392 samples collected throughout China. Regional differences and year-to-year variation of mycotoxin occurrence were also assessed in new-season corn. Generally, Fusarium mycotoxins were prevalent, while mycotoxin contamination in each feed commodity showed a distinct pattern, e.g., wheat and bran were typically affected by trichothecenes type B, peanut meals were highly susceptible to aflatoxins, and finished feeds exhibited a comparatively high prevalence of all mycotoxins. In new-season corn, trichothecenes type B and fumonisins were most prevalent, with positive rates of 84.04% and 87.16%, respectively. Regions exhibited different patterns of mycotoxin occurrence. The Anhui and Jiangsu provinces of East China exhibited a high prevalence and concentrations of aflatoxins with a positive rate and a positive average of 82.61% and 103.08 μg/kg, respectively. Central China obtained high fumonisins levels of 4707.84 μg/kg. Trichothecenes type B and zearalenone occurred more frequently in temperate regions of Northeast China, and their positive rates reached 94.99% and 55.67%, respectively. In these regions, mycotoxin concentrations in new-season corn exhibited pronounced year-to-year variations and this could be due to the unusual changes of rainfall or temperature during sensitive periods of corn growing. A large fraction of new-season corn samples contained multiple mycotoxins with two to three classes (75.42%), and the most frequently observed co-contaminants were the combination of trichothecenes type B and fumonisins (73.52%). Trichothecenes type B and zearalenone concentrations were highly positively correlated with a coefficient of 0.775. In conclusion, mycotoxins contamination and co-contamination of feeds are common. Mycotoxin contamination in new-season corn exhibited regional patterns and year-to-year variations, with climate and weather conditions as determinant factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Looking Forward: Mycotoxins Occurrence and Detection in Food and Feed)
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Review

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47 pages, 498 KiB  
Review
Mycotoxins Contamination in Rice: Analytical Methods, Occurrence and Detoxification Strategies
Toxins 2022, 14(9), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14090647 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3907
Abstract
The prevalence of mycotoxins in the environment is associated with potential crop contamination, which results in an unavoidable increase in human exposure. Rice, being the second most consumed cereal worldwide, constitutes an important source of potential contamination by mycotoxins. Due to the increasing [...] Read more.
The prevalence of mycotoxins in the environment is associated with potential crop contamination, which results in an unavoidable increase in human exposure. Rice, being the second most consumed cereal worldwide, constitutes an important source of potential contamination by mycotoxins. Due to the increasing number of notifications reported, and the occurrence of mycotoxins at levels above the legislated limits, this work intends to compile the most relevant studies and review the main methods used in the detection and quantification of these compounds in rice. The aflatoxins and ochratoxin A are the predominant mycotoxins detected in rice grain and these data reveal the importance of adopting safety storage practices that prevent the growth of producing fungi from the Aspergillus genus along all the rice chain. Immunoaffinity columns (IAC) and QuECHERS are the preferred methods for extraction and purification and HPLC-MS/MS is preferred for quantification purposes. Further investigation is still required to establish the real exposition of these contaminants, as well as the consequences and possible synergistic effects due to the co-occurrence of mycotoxins and also for emergent and masked mycotoxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Looking Forward: Mycotoxins Occurrence and Detection in Food and Feed)
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