Application of Botulinum Toxins in Diseases Treatment

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 6773

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Gottfried Schatz Research Center for Cell Signaling, Metabolism and Aging, Macroscopic and Clinical Anatomy, Medical University of Graz, A-8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: botulinum neurotoxin; brain; neurodegenerative disease; animal models of neurodegenerative diseases; parkinson disease; huntington disease; behavior; receptors; morphometry
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Guest Editor
Institute of Anatomy, Rostock University Medical Center, Gertrudenstrasse 9, 18057 Rostock, Germany
Interests: botulinum-neurotoxin; receptors; imaging; animal models of neurodegenerative diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Botulinum toxins are widely used to improve diverse symptoms in humans. A PubMed search (botulinum, toxin, treatment; human) of the years 2018–2022 yielded a total of 4431 citations showing the immense importance for human health. This Special Issue will focus on the broad spectrum of botulinum toxins used in clinical treatments. We cordially invite you to present the latest research in the field of botulinum toxins´ application in your patients, highlighting known or even new indications for those toxins. In addition, reports are welcome, where patients did not profit from applications or dosages. Animal studies that provide a theoretical background for better knowledge of the mode of botulinum action will also be considered. We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Veronica Alexandra Antipova
Prof. Dr. Andreas Wree
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • botulinum toxins
  • diseases
  • treatment
  • application
  • patients
  • animal models

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 1227 KiB  
Article
The Complex Role of Botulinum Toxin in Enhancing Goal Achievement for Post-Stroke Patients
by Miruna Ioana Săndulescu, Delia Cinteză, Daniela Poenaru, Claudia-Gabriela Potcovaru, Horia Păunescu and Oana Andreia Coman
Toxins 2024, 16(4), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins16040172 - 31 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Introduction. The rehabilitation medical team is responsible for the therapeutic management of post-stroke patients and, therefore, for the complex therapeutic approach of spasticity. Considering the generous arsenal at our disposal in terms of both pharmacological treatment, through the possibility of administering botulinum toxin [...] Read more.
Introduction. The rehabilitation medical team is responsible for the therapeutic management of post-stroke patients and, therefore, for the complex therapeutic approach of spasticity. Considering the generous arsenal at our disposal in terms of both pharmacological treatment, through the possibility of administering botulinum toxin to combat spasticity, and in terms of accurate assessment through developed functional scales such as the GAS (Goal Attainment Scale), one of our purposes is to monitor the parameters that influence the achievement of functional goals set by patients together with the medical team in order to render the patients as close as possible to achieving their proposed functional goals, thus enhancing their quality of life. By assessing and establishing statistical and clinical correlations between the GAS and quantifiable parameters related to the affected post-stroke upper limb, namely degree of spasticity, motor control, pain level and evolution of pain under treatment with BoNT-A (abobotulinum toxin A), and patients’ overall response to BoNT-A treatment, we aim to quantify the improvement of the therapeutic management of post-stroke patients with spasticity and develop a more personalized and effective approach to their disability and impairment. Results and discussions. The analysis concluded that there were two independent predictors of the Achieved GAS-T score (the study’s endpoint parameter) motor control at any level of the upper limb and number of prior BoNT-A injections. The number of prior BoNT-A injections was an independent predictor of Achieved GAS-T score improvement but had no significant influence over Baseline GAS-T score. Enhancement in proximal and intermediate motor control showed a GAS score improvement of 3.3 points and a 0.93-point GAS score improvement for wrist motor control progress. From a separate viewpoint, patients with motor deficit on the left side have shown significantly greater improvement in Changed GAS-T scores by 2.5 points compared to patients with deficits on the right side; however, we note as a study limitation the fact that there was no statistical analysis over the dominant cerebral hemisphere of each patient. Conclusions. Improvement in the Achieved GAS-T score means better achievement of patients’ goals. Thus, after the BoNT- A intervention, at follow-up evaluation, GAS was found to be directly correlated with improvement in motor control of the affected upper limb. Mobility of the corresponding limb was enhanced by pain decrease during p-ROM (passive range of motion) and by amelioration of spasticity. Materials and Methods. We conducted an observational, non-randomized clinical study on 52 stroke patients, a representative sample of patients with post-stroke spasticity and disability from our neurological rehabilitation clinic, who have been treated and undergone a specific rehabilitation program in our tertiary diagnostic and treatment medical center, including BoNT-A focal treatment for spasticity in the affected upper limb. The primary objective of the study was to assess the influence of abobotulinum toxin A treatment on the Goal Attainment Scale. Secondary objectives of the study included the assessment of BoNT-A treatment efficacy on spasticity with the MAS (Modified Ashworth Scale), pain with the NRS (Numerical Rating Scale), and joint passive range of motion (p-ROM), identifying demographic, clinical, and pharmacological factors that influence the response to BoNT-A treatment, as well as to conduct a descriptive and exploratory analysis of the studied variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Botulinum Toxins in Diseases Treatment)
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8 pages, 1122 KiB  
Communication
Botulinum Toxin Injections to the Obliquus Capitis Inferioris Muscle for Dynamic Cervical Dystonia Improves Subjective Patient Outcomes
by Robin Anne Bessemer and Mandar Jog
Toxins 2024, 16(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins16020076 - 02 Feb 2024
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Abstract
The obliquus capitis inferioris (OCI) muscle is a significant driver of cervical dystonia with torticaput movements and a no–no head tremor. Limited data are available on the efficacy of OCI injections on patient outcomes. Our study aims to determine whether the botulinum toxin [...] Read more.
The obliquus capitis inferioris (OCI) muscle is a significant driver of cervical dystonia with torticaput movements and a no–no head tremor. Limited data are available on the efficacy of OCI injections on patient outcomes. Our study aims to determine whether the botulinum toxin injection into OCI improves subjective patient quality of life in those with dystonic head tremors. A retrospective chart review was performed for 25 patients receiving injections into the OCI for a dystonic head tremor at the London Movement Disorders Clinic between January 2020 and January 2022. Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Scale-2 (TWSTRS-2) subscale scores for disability and pain, TWSTRS-PSYCH scores, and the global impression of severity were extracted. The average TWSTRS-2 disability subscale change was −2.8 points (p < 0.003). The average TWSTRS-2 pain subscale change was −4.6 points (p < 0.003). The average TWSTRS-PSYCH score prior to injection was 5.6. After injection, the average score was 3.7 (p < 0.004). The patient self-reported average global impression of severity before injection was 7.0; after this, it was 4.2 (p < 0.0003). The OCI injection showed significant improvement in retrospective patient self-reported outcomes; it should be considered early in the treatment plan for cervical dystonia with a no–no head tremor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Botulinum Toxins in Diseases Treatment)
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12 pages, 320 KiB  
Article
The Effect of OnabotulinumtoxinA on Headache Intensity and Number of Monthly Headache Days in Individuals with Chronic Migraine with Different Levels of Neck Disability
by Dilara Onan, Halime Arıkan and Paolo Martelletti
Toxins 2023, 15(12), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15120685 - 06 Dec 2023
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Abstract
One of the treatment methods used in chronic migraine is OnabotulinumtoxinA. The effects of OnabotulinumtoxinA on headache intensity (HI) and number of monthly headache days (NMHD) in chronic migraine (CM) patients classified according to neck disability levels are unknown. Our aim was to [...] Read more.
One of the treatment methods used in chronic migraine is OnabotulinumtoxinA. The effects of OnabotulinumtoxinA on headache intensity (HI) and number of monthly headache days (NMHD) in chronic migraine (CM) patients classified according to neck disability levels are unknown. Our aim was to investigate the effect of OnabotulinumtoxinA on the HI and the NMHD in individuals with CM with different levels of neck disability. One hundred sixteen patients were enrolled in the study. The OnabotulinumtoxinA protocol was administered as per Follow-the-Pain PREEMPT. The Neck Disability Index was used to evaluate neck disability. Primary outcome measures were headache intensity, assessed with the Visual Analogue Scale, and the number of monthly headache days recorded from patients’ diaries. Secondary outcome measures were migraine disability, assessed with the Migraine Disability Assessment Test, and quality-of-life, assessed with the Headache Impact Test-6. All assessments were made at baseline and end of the treatment. The OnabotulinumtoxinA treatment showed a greater improvement effect in the number of monthly headache days (p = 0.000) and migraine disability (p = 0.000) parameters in the severe and complete disability groups. CM patients with complete and severe neck disability received the most benefit in reducing the NMHD at 3 months after OnabotulinumtoxinA treatment, but the HI decreased at a similar level in all neck disability groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Botulinum Toxins in Diseases Treatment)

Review

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23 pages, 1717 KiB  
Review
From Toxin to Treatment: A Narrative Review on the Use of Botulinum Toxin for Autonomic Dysfunction
by Lucas Rempel, Raza N. Malik, Claire Shackleton, Martín Calderón-Juárez, Rahul Sachdeva and Andrei V. Krassioukov
Toxins 2024, 16(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins16020096 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Since its regulatory approval over a half-century ago, botulinum toxin has evolved from one of the most potent neurotoxins known to becoming routinely adopted in clinical practice. Botulinum toxin, a highly potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, can cause botulism illness, characterized by [...] Read more.
Since its regulatory approval over a half-century ago, botulinum toxin has evolved from one of the most potent neurotoxins known to becoming routinely adopted in clinical practice. Botulinum toxin, a highly potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, can cause botulism illness, characterized by widespread muscle weakness due to inhibition of acetylcholine transmission at neuromuscular junctions. The observation of botulinum toxin’s anticholinergic properties led to the investigation of its potential benefits for conditions with an underlying etiology of cholinergic transmission, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction. These conditions range from disorders of the integument to gastrointestinal and urinary systems. Several formulations of botulinum toxin have been developed and tested over time, significantly increasing the availability of this treatment for appropriate clinical use. Despite the accelerated and expanded use of botulinum toxin, there lacks an updated comprehensive review on its therapeutic use, particularly to treat autonomic dysfunction. This narrative review provides an overview of the effect of botulinum toxin in the treatment of autonomic dysfunction and summarizes the different formulations and dosages most widely studied, while highlighting reported outcomes and the occurrence of any adverse events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Botulinum Toxins in Diseases Treatment)
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17 pages, 1786 KiB  
Review
Botulinum Toxin Treatment for Cancer-Related Disorders: A Systematic Review
by Delaram Safarpour and Bahman Jabbari
Toxins 2023, 15(12), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15120689 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1693
Abstract
This systematic review investigates the effect of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) therapy on cancer-related disorders. A major bulk of the literature is focused on BoNT’s effect on pain at the site of surgery or radiation. All 13 published studies on this issue indicated reduction [...] Read more.
This systematic review investigates the effect of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) therapy on cancer-related disorders. A major bulk of the literature is focused on BoNT’s effect on pain at the site of surgery or radiation. All 13 published studies on this issue indicated reduction or cessation of pain at these sites after local injection of BoNTs. Twelve studies addressed the effect of BoNT injection into the pylorus (sphincter between the stomach and the first part of the gut) for the prevention of gastroparesis after local resection of esophageal cancer. In eight studies, BoNT injection was superior to no intervention; three studies found no difference between the two approaches. One study compared the result of intra-pyloric BoNT injection with preventive pyloromyotomy (resection of pyloric muscle fibers). Both approaches reduced gastroparesis, but the surgical approach had more serious side effects. BoNT injection was superior to saline injection in the prevention of esophageal stricture after surgery (34% versus 6%, respectively, p = 0.02) and produced better results (30% versus 40% stricture) compared to steroid (triamcinolone) injection close to the surgical region. All 12 reported studies on the effect of BoNT injection into the parotid region for the reduction in facial sweating during eating (gustatory hyperhidrosis) found that BoNT injections stopped or significantly reduced facial sweating that developed after parotid gland surgery. Six studies showed that BoNT injection into the parotid region prevented the development of or healed the fistulas that developed after parotid gland resection—parotidectomy gustatory hyperhidrosis (Frey syndrome), post-surgical parotid fistula, and sialocele. Eight studies suggested that BoNT injection into masseter muscle reduced or stopped severe jaw pain after the first bite (first bite syndrome) that may develop as a complication of parotidectomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Botulinum Toxins in Diseases Treatment)
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