Environmental Exposures Contributing to Thyroid Cancer Risk

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Human Toxicology and Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2021) | Viewed by 19729

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Guest Editor
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
Interests: environmental pollutants; endocrine disrupting chemicals; cancer
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Guest Editor
1. Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10019, USA
2. Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Mount Sinai West Hospital, New York, NY 10019, USA
Interests: Thyroid cancer; thyroid cancer surgery; oncological outcomes; environmental risk factors

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The incidence of thyroid cancer has been steadily increasing worldwide since the 1970s. Although this increase may partially be explained by early detection of small, papillary thyroid tumors due to increased use and quality of diagnostic imaging techniques, several studies have reported that exposure to environmental factors also contributes to this phenomenon. Besides radiation, a well-established risk factor for thyroid cancer, environmental exposure to pollutants are of increasing interest to researchers due to their ubiquitous presence in the environment, potentially long biological availability on the body, and unsufficient data on carcinogenicity or understanding of their effect on the thyroid gland. 

This Special Issue foccuses on highlighting research addressing the association between environmental exposures and the risk of thyroid cancer. Topics of interest to this issue are:

  • Epidemiological studies or large dataset analyses
  • Molecular or (epi)genetic mechanism assessments
  • Environmental exposure detection methods
  • Assessment of sources of exposure in a population-based setting
  • Interactions or mixture effects of two or more enviromental exposures.

Authors are invited to submit high-quality original research, reviews, short communications, and commentaries.

Dr. Maaike van Gerwen
Dr. Catherine F Sinclair
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Thyroid cancer
  • Epidemiology
  • Environmental exposure
  • Sources of exposure
  • Radiation
  • Endocrine disrupting chemicals
  • Persistent organic pollutants

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 8913 KiB  
Article
Cumulative Protective Effect of Melatonin and Indole-3-Propionic Acid against KIO3—Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Porcine Thyroid
by Paulina Iwan, Jan Stepniak and Malgorzata Karbownik-Lewinska
Toxics 2021, 9(5), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9050089 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
Iodine deficiency is the main environmental factor leading to thyroid cancer. At the same time iodine excess may also contribute to thyroid cancer. Potassium iodate (KIO3), which is broadly used in salt iodization program, may increase oxidative damage to membrane lipids [...] Read more.
Iodine deficiency is the main environmental factor leading to thyroid cancer. At the same time iodine excess may also contribute to thyroid cancer. Potassium iodate (KIO3), which is broadly used in salt iodization program, may increase oxidative damage to membrane lipids (lipid peroxidation, LPO) under experimental conditions, with the strongest damaging effect at KIO3 concentration of ~10 mM (corresponding to physiological iodine concentration in the thyroid). Melatonin and indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) are effective antioxidative indoles, each of which protects against KIO3-induced LPO in the thyroid. The study aims to check if melatonin used together with IPA (in their highest achievable in vitro concentrations) reveals stronger protective effects against KIO3-induced LPO in porcine thyroid homogenates than each of these antioxidants used separately. Homogenates were incubated in the presence of KIO3 (200; 100; 50; 25; 20; 15; 10; 7.5; 5.0; 2.5; 1.25; 0.0 mM) without/with melatonin (5 mM) or without/with IPA (10 mM) or without/with melatonin + IPA, and then, to further clarify the narrow range of KIO3 concentrations, against which melatonin + IPA reveal cumulative protective effects, the following KIO3 concentrations were used: 20; 18.75; 17.5; 16.25; 15; 13.75; 12.5; 11.25; 10; 8.75; 7.5; 0.0 mM. Malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA + 4-HDA) concentration (LPO index) was measured spectrophotometrically. Protective effects of melatonin + IPA were stronger than those revealed by each antioxidant used separately, but only when LPO was induced by KIO3 in concentrations from 18.75 mM to 8.75 mM, corresponding to physiological iodine concentration in the thyroid. In conclusion, melatonin and indole-3-propionic acid exert cumulative protective effects against oxidative damage caused by KIO3, when this prooxidant is used in concentrations close to physiological iodine concentrations in the thyroid. Therefore, the simultaneous administration of these two indoles should be considered to prevent more effectively oxidative damage (and thereby thyroid cancer formation) caused by iodine compounds applied in iodine prophylaxis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposures Contributing to Thyroid Cancer Risk)
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16 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
Acute Changes in Thyroid Hormone Levels among Thai Pesticide Sprayers
by Pornpimol Kongtip, Noppanun Nankongnab, Ritthirong Pundee, Nichcha Kallayanatham, Sumate Pengpumkiat, Jutamanee Chungcharoen, Chavisa Phommalachai, Pajaree Konthonbut, Nattagorn Choochouy, Preecha Sowanthip, Phanthawee Khangkhun, Jutharak Yimsabai and Susan Woskie
Toxics 2021, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9010016 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3368
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of acute pesticide exposures and acute changes in thyroid hormones among Thai farmers. We recruited 78 farmers, who were scheduled to spray insecticides (chlorpyrifos and/or cypermethrin) or herbicides (paraquat and/or glyphosate). On the [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of acute pesticide exposures and acute changes in thyroid hormones among Thai farmers. We recruited 78 farmers, who were scheduled to spray insecticides (chlorpyrifos and/or cypermethrin) or herbicides (paraquat and/or glyphosate). On the day before spraying, farmers collected their first morning void urine and went for blood collection. On the spray day, urine samples were collected at end of the spraying event and they were interviewed with questionnaires. The next morning, the first morning void urine and blood samples were collected. Blood samples were analyzed for thyroid hormones. Urine samples were analyzed for the metabolites of the pesticide sprayed. The results showed that the thyroid hormones, free triiodothyronine (FT3) and total triiodothyronine (T3) were significantly reduced as urinary chlorpyrifos metabolite increased the day after spraying. Total thyroxine (T4) significantly increased as cypermethrin metabolites increased the day after spraying. T4 significantly increased as urinary glyphosate levels increased; however, FT3 and T3 decreased significantly as urinary paraquat levels increased the day after spraying. These findings suggest that acute exposures to the pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, paraquat and glyphosate can produce acute effects on the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis, acutely altering thyroid hormone levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposures Contributing to Thyroid Cancer Risk)
10 pages, 233 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Smoking on the Association between Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAS) and Thyroid Hormones: A National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Analysis
by Maaike van Gerwen, Naomi Alpert, Mathilda Alsen, Kimia Ziadkhanpour, Emanuela Taioli and Eric Genden
Toxics 2020, 8(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040116 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3162
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) are known endocrine disrupting chemicals, potentially affecting thyroid function. Smoking has been associated with PFAS levels as well as with thyroid function. The impact of smoking on the association between PFAS and thyroid function remains to be elucidated, so the [...] Read more.
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) are known endocrine disrupting chemicals, potentially affecting thyroid function. Smoking has been associated with PFAS levels as well as with thyroid function. The impact of smoking on the association between PFAS and thyroid function remains to be elucidated, so the objective was to assess the effect of PFAS exposure on thyroid function in the general population, stratified by smoking status, using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). NHANES adult participants who were part of the 2011–2012 laboratory subsample and had PFAS and thyroid function measured were included (n = 1325). Adjusted linear regression models and stratified analyses were performed. There was a significant positive association between perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (p = 0.003), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (p = 0.014), total PFAS (p = 0.004) concentrations and free T4 (FT4). No significant associations were found between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), PFNA, total PFAS and total T4 (TT4) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In non-smokers, a significant positive association was found between PFOS (p = 0.003), PFHxS (p = 0.034), PFNA (p = 0.012), total PFAS (p = 0.003) and FT4 while no significant associations were found in smokers. The present study showed that increased PFAS exposure was associated with increased FT4 in non-smokers, while no association was found in smokers. These results confirm that smoking modifies the association between PFAS exposure and thyroid function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposures Contributing to Thyroid Cancer Risk)
10 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Study of Thyroid Hormones between Conventional and Organic Farmers in Thailand
by Noppanun Nankongnab, Pornpimol Kongtip, Nichcha Kallayanatham, Ritthirong Pundee, Jutharak Yimsabai and Susan Woskie
Toxics 2020, 8(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040082 - 05 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3131
Abstract
Many pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can interfere with hormone levels. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal impact of exposure to pesticides on thyroid hormone levels, including Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Free Triiodothyronine (FT3), Free Thyroxine (FT4), Triiodothyronine (T3), and Thyroxine (T4). [...] Read more.
Many pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can interfere with hormone levels. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal impact of exposure to pesticides on thyroid hormone levels, including Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Free Triiodothyronine (FT3), Free Thyroxine (FT4), Triiodothyronine (T3), and Thyroxine (T4). Both conventional (i.e., pesticide using) and organic farmers were interviewed using questionnaires, and blood samples were collected at 7–9 a.m. to determine thyroid hormone levels for four rounds, with a duration of eight months between each round. A linear mixed model of the natural log of the individual hormone levels used random intercepts for subjects while controlling gender, baseline age, and body mass index (BMI) was used to compare between conventional and organic farmers or the impact of cumulative days of spraying insecticides, herbicides or fungicides. The estimated marginal means of the thyroid hormone levels (TSH, FT3, T3, and T4) estimated from the linear mixed models were significantly higher among the conventional farmers than organic farmers. As cumulative spray days of insecticide, herbicide or fungicide increased, TSH and FT3 increased significantly. FT4 decreased significantly as cumulative spray days of insecticide or fungicide increased. These findings suggest that the insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides sprayed by conventional farmers exert endocrine-disrupting activities, altering the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposures Contributing to Thyroid Cancer Risk)

Review

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26 pages, 400 KiB  
Review
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Thyroid Cancer: An Overview
by Mathilda Alsen, Catherine Sinclair, Peter Cooke, Kimia Ziadkhanpour, Eric Genden and Maaike van Gerwen
Toxics 2021, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9010014 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 6962
Abstract
Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC) are known to alter thyroid function and have been associated with increased risk of certain cancers. The present study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of available studies on the association between EDC exposure and thyroid cancer. Relevant studies [...] Read more.
Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC) are known to alter thyroid function and have been associated with increased risk of certain cancers. The present study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of available studies on the association between EDC exposure and thyroid cancer. Relevant studies were identified via a literature search in the National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health PubMed as well as a review of reference lists of all retrieved articles and of previously published relevant reviews. Overall, the current literature suggests that exposure to certain congeners of flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates as well as certain pesticides may potentially be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. However, future research is urgently needed to evaluate the different EDCs and their potential carcinogenic effect on the thyroid gland in humans as most EDCs have been studied sporadically and results are not consistent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposures Contributing to Thyroid Cancer Risk)
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