Toxics Young Investigators Contributions Collection in 2023

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 5450

Special Issue Editors

Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
Interests: plant physiology; lichen physiology; bioaccumulation; heavy metals; organic compounds; biomonitoring
Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Science, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4/B, Rende, 87036 Cosenza, Italy
Interests: ecotoxicology; biomonitoring; pesticides; heavy metals; histopathology; amphibians and reptiles; conservation biology
Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
Interests: trace elements; bioaccessibility; environmental chemistry; analytical chemistry; aquatic contamination; atmospheric deposition; natural versus anthropogenic contamination
Dr. Hamidreza Sharifan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968, USA
Interests: nanoparticles; phytotoxicity; bioremediation; water quality; personal care products
Department of Biology, Florence University, Via Madonna del Piano, 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
Interests: metagenomics; genomics; computational biology; molecular evolution

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For the occasion of the 10th anniversary of Toxics, it is launching a Special Issue entitled "Toxics Young Investigators Contributions Collection in 2023". This Special Issue aims to help young scientists in the field of toxic substances to exchange knowledge and increase the visibility of their studies. Through this Special Issue, young researchers are expected to lead the publications derived from their research, either as a first or corresponding author. All accepted papers in the Special Issue will be offered a 20% discount on the article processing charge (APC) to support the work of young scientists.

Young scientists (under 40 years old who have obtained a Ph.D. degree) produce ground-breaking research and have made significant contributions to the advancement of toxicology and toxic-related topics.

Along with their submission, we request that any young authors who are interested in this opportunity send a short biography, including a photograph, their education experience, and current research interests or scientific background. With this new initiative, we hope to strengthen the networking of young scientists, encouraging them to pursue their research careers and assisting them in surmounting the challenges and hurdles they may face on this journey.

Prof. Dr. Andrea Vannini
Dr. Ilaria Bernabò
Dr. Muhammad Babar Javed
Dr. Hamidreza Sharifan
Dr. Giovanni Bacci
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • environemntal biomonitoring
  • environmental pollution
  • physiological effects
  • sentive organisms
  • plant-soil interactions
  • plant-environment interactions
  • pollution mitigation
  • environmental quality
  • biomonitoring
  • ecotoxicology
  • environmental pollutants

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 8696 KiB  
Article
Safety of Oral Carica papaya L. Leaf 10% Ethanolic Extract for Acute and Chronic Toxicity Tests in Sprague Dawley Rats
Toxics 2024, 12(3), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12030198 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 35
Abstract
Carica papaya L. leaves, traditionally utilized in dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals, exhibit a broad spectrum of potentially therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, and wound healing properties. This study examined the acute and chronic toxicity of 10% ethanolic-extracted C. papaya leaf in Sprague Dawley [...] Read more.
Carica papaya L. leaves, traditionally utilized in dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals, exhibit a broad spectrum of potentially therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, and wound healing properties. This study examined the acute and chronic toxicity of 10% ethanolic-extracted C. papaya leaf in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity assessment was a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight, while the chronic toxicity assessment included daily oral doses of 100, 400, 1000, and 5000 mg/kg over 180 days. Systematic monitoring covered a range of physiological and behavioral parameters, including body and organ weights. End-point evaluations encompassed hematological and biochemical analyses, along with gross and histopathological examinations of internal organs. Findings revealed no acute toxicity in the C. papaya leaf extract group, although a significant decrease in uterine weight was observed without accompanying histopathology abnormalities. In the chronic toxicity assessment, no statistically significant differences between the control and the C. papaya leaf extract groups were detected across multiple measures, including behavioral, physiological, and hematological indices. Importantly, histopathological examination corroborated the absence of any tissue abnormalities. The study results indicate that C. papaya leaf extract exhibited no adverse effects on the rats during the 180-day oral administration period, affirming its potential safety for prolonged usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxics Young Investigators Contributions Collection in 2023)
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19 pages, 6428 KiB  
Article
Using Hepatic Gene Expression Assays in English Sole (Parophrys vetulus) to Investigate the Effects of Metro Vancouver Wastewater Effluents
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080657 - 29 Jul 2023
Viewed by 891
Abstract
The present study has investigated the effects of Metro Vancouver’s wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents on English sole (Parophrys vetulus) hepatic gene expression using novel targeted gene expression assays to complement the 2017 Burrard Inlet Ambient Monitoring Program conducted by Metro [...] Read more.
The present study has investigated the effects of Metro Vancouver’s wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents on English sole (Parophrys vetulus) hepatic gene expression using novel targeted gene expression assays to complement the 2017 Burrard Inlet Ambient Monitoring Program conducted by Metro Vancouver. Seven locations of varying distance to the WWTPs were included. Twelve genes involved in xenobiotic defense (CYP1A, HSP70), thyroid function (DIO1), lipid and glucose metabolism (FABP1, FASN, GLUT2, PPARδ, PPARγ), protein synthesis (18S rRNA, RPS4X), and reproduction (ERα, VTG) revealed several differences between these impacted sites. A key finding of the present study was that males exhibited VTG transcript levels either equivalent or exceeding female levels of this gene at all sites investigated, indicating widespread exposure of estrogenic contaminants throughout Burrard Inlet. Furthermore, the induction of hepatic CYP1A was observed due to possible downstream sites being subjected to a larger influx of certain planar halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbons from multiple industrial contributors. This study also revealed significant differences between the sites examined and in genes involved in transcriptional regulation and synthesis of proteins, lipids and glucose metabolism, and thyroid hormone metabolism. Collectively, this study demonstrates the potential of molecular biomarkers of urban contaminant exposure in wild caught English sole for use in diagnosing a broader range of adverse health effects when combined with conventional whole organism health indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxics Young Investigators Contributions Collection in 2023)
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13 pages, 3005 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of In Vitro Genotoxicity of Polystyrene Nanoparticles in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Toxics 2023, 11(7), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11070627 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
According to the trade association PlasticEurope, global plastics production increased to 390.7 million tons in 2021. Unfortunately, the majority of produced plastics eventually end up as waste in the ocean or on land. Since synthetic plastics are not fully biodegradable, they tend to [...] Read more.
According to the trade association PlasticEurope, global plastics production increased to 390.7 million tons in 2021. Unfortunately, the majority of produced plastics eventually end up as waste in the ocean or on land. Since synthetic plastics are not fully biodegradable, they tend to persist in natural environments and transform into micro- and nanoplastic particles due to fragmentation. The presence of nanoplastics in air, water, and food causes ecotoxicological issues and leads to human exposure. One of the main concerns is their genotoxic potential. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the internalization rates, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. The uptake of PS-NPs was confirmed with flow cytometry light scattering analysis. None of the tested nanoparticle concentrations had a cytotoxic effect on human PBMCs, as evaluated by a dual ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining technique. However, an alkaline comet assay results revealed a significant increase in the levels of primary DNA damage after 24 h of exposure to PS-NPs in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, all tested PS-NPs concentrations induced a significant amount of micronucleated cells, as well. The results of this study revealed the genotoxic potential of commercially manufactured polystyrene nanoparticles and highlighted the need for more studies with naturally occurring plastic NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxics Young Investigators Contributions Collection in 2023)
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24 pages, 8707 KiB  
Article
Vitamin E (α-Tocopherol) Does Not Ameliorate the Toxic Effect of Bisphenol S on the Metabolic Analytes and Pancreas Histoarchitecture of Diabetic Rats
Toxics 2023, 11(7), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11070626 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
This study investigated whether the coadministration of vitamin E (VitE) diminishes the harmful effects provoked by plasticizer bisphenol S (BPS) in the serum metabolites related to hepatic and renal metabolism, as well as the endocrine pancreatic function in diabetic male Wistar rats. Rats [...] Read more.
This study investigated whether the coadministration of vitamin E (VitE) diminishes the harmful effects provoked by plasticizer bisphenol S (BPS) in the serum metabolites related to hepatic and renal metabolism, as well as the endocrine pancreatic function in diabetic male Wistar rats. Rats were divided into five groups (n = 5–6); the first group was healthy rats (Ctrl group). The other four groups were diabetic rats induced with 45 mg/kg bw of streptozotocin: Ctrl-D (diabetic control); VitE-D (100 mg/kg bw/d of VitE); BPS-D (100 mg/kg bw/d of BPS); The animals from the VitE + BPS-D group were administered 100 mg/kg bw/d of VitE + 100 mg/kg bw/d of BPS. All compounds were administered orally for 30 days. Body weight, biochemical assays, urinalysis, glucose tolerance test, pancreas histopathology, proximate chemical analysis in feces, and the activity of antioxidants in rat serum were assessed. The coadministration of VitE + BPS produced weight losses, increases in 14 serum analytes, and degeneration in the pancreas. Therefore, the VitE + BPS coadministration did not have a protective effect versus the harmful impact of BPS or the diabetic metabolic state; on the contrary, it partially aggravated the damage produced by the BPS. VitE is likely to have an additive effect on the toxicity of BPS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxics Young Investigators Contributions Collection in 2023)
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14 pages, 1190 KiB  
Article
Yedoma Permafrost Releases Organic Matter with Lesser Affinity for Cu2+ and Ni2+ as Compared to Peat from the Non-Permafrost Area: Risk of Rising Toxicity of Potentially Toxic Elements in the Arctic Ocean
Toxics 2023, 11(6), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11060483 - 25 May 2023
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Pollution of the Arctic Ocean by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a current environmental problem. Humic acids (HAs) play an important role in the regulation of PTE mobility in soil and water. The permafrost thaw releases ancient organic matter (OM) with a specific [...] Read more.
Pollution of the Arctic Ocean by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a current environmental problem. Humic acids (HAs) play an important role in the regulation of PTE mobility in soil and water. The permafrost thaw releases ancient organic matter (OM) with a specific molecular composition into the Arctic watersheds. This could affect the mobility of PTEs in the region. In our study, we isolated HAs from two types of permafrost deposits: the Yedoma ice complex, which contains pristine buried OM, and the alas formed in the course of multiple thaw–refreezing cycles with the most altered OM. We also used peat from the non-permafrost region as the recent environmental endmember for the evolution of Arctic OM. The HAs were characterized using 13C NMR and elemental analysis. Adsorption experiments were conducted to assess the affinity of HAs for binding Cu2+ and Ni2+. It was found that Yedoma HAs were enriched with aliphatic and N-containing structures as compared to the much more aromatic and oxidized alas and peat HAs. The adsorption experiments have revealed that the peat and alas HAs have a higher affinity for binding both ions as compared to the Yedoma HAs. The obtained data suggest that a substantial release of the OM from the Yedoma deposits due to a rapid thaw of the permafrost might increase the mobility of PTEs and their toxicity in the Arctic Ocean because of much lesser “neutralization potential”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxics Young Investigators Contributions Collection in 2023)
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