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Education, Psychosocial Factors and Health in Different Educational Contexts

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Health, Well-Being and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 February 2021) | Viewed by 49028

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Health, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaén, Spain
Interests: uncommon sports; teaching physical education; physical activity and sport promotion; public policies in sport; lifestyle sports
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Research Methods and Diagnosis in Education, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: learning strategies; motivation; well-being
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Education represents an essential way to achieve the holistic development of children and young people. Different educational institutions have the obligation to exercise a process of guidance, offering a multitude of resources and tools that ensure the well-being of their students and enhances their physical, cognitive, and social dimensions. In this way, a good psychosocial adjustment of the youth in the educational system must be ensured, and their physical and mental health will also be improved and their academic performance will be enhanced. Thus, some basic contents that must be worked on at all educational stages are physically-healthy habits, such as the practice of physical activity, learning strategies such as organizational or elaboration, and specific psychosocial factors such as emotional intelligence or self-concept.

This Special Issue aims to explore the current state of this outlook, delving into the current causes linked to unhealthy habits and bad practices in educational contexts. It is intended to know the relationships between psychosocial factors and its association with differents aspects related to learning processes, well-being, health, and tutoring and counseling in the educational field. Furthermore, this Issue is open to review, descriptive, or experimental studies that contribute new knowledge to this area, as well as new methodological proposals related to new educational processes aiming for the improvement of health and well-being in different educational stages. This Special Issue will focus on this issue and its solutions; what our current state of knowledge is; and future directions for promoting the responsible and sustainable educational practices associated with psychosocial factors, health development, environment, resources, and social practices from childhood, adolescence, and university.

Dr. Amador Jesús Lara Sánchez
Prof. Dr. Ramón Chacón Cuberos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Education
  • Wellbeing
  • Psychosocial factors
  • Health
  • Physical activity and sport
  • Tutoring and guidance
  • Sustainability

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Basic Psychological Needs and Their Association with Academic Factors in the Spanish University Context
by Ramón Chacón-Cuberos, Amador Jesús Lara-Sánchez and Manuel Castro-Sánchez
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2449; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052449 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Motivational development represents a key element for academic performance in the university context. A non-experimental study with a cross-sectional and ex post facto design through a single measurement in a single group was conducted. The sample was made up of a total of [...] Read more.
Motivational development represents a key element for academic performance in the university context. A non-experimental study with a cross-sectional and ex post facto design through a single measurement in a single group was conducted. The sample was made up of a total of 2736 university students (♂ = 33.8% (n = 924); ♀ = 66.2% (n = 1812)) belonging to a total of 19 Spanish universities. The main instrument used was the Basic Psychological Needs scale, using the IBM SPSS 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) software for data analysis. The results showed that the need for autonomy was higher in social sciences students, those who accessed their studies through vocational training and those who attended their degree in person. In addition, this need was positively related to score, but inversely related to age and grade. The need for competence was higher in students who studied in private centers, those who accessed their university studies through other ways and those students who studied online. Likewise, this need was directly related to the score. Finally, it should be noted that the need for relationships was higher in university students from public institutions, students who accessed their studies through vocational training and those who studied in face-to-face universities. The need for a relationship correlated positively with the score, although with less strength than other needs. In this way, the relevance of various academic factors in the motivational development of students can be established, from which various educational implications are derived in order to favor academic performance. Full article
12 pages, 478 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Effect of Physical Activity on Internalizing and Externalizing Problems and Life Satisfaction
by Sukkyung You, Kyulee Shin and Mihye Kim
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2322; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042322 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2857
Abstract
This study examined the long-term effect of physical activity on life satisfaction from a sample of 2092 middle school students (52.5% male) in South Korea. Structural equation modeling analyses were employed to understand how various factors influence youth life satisfaction. Physical activity during [...] Read more.
This study examined the long-term effect of physical activity on life satisfaction from a sample of 2092 middle school students (52.5% male) in South Korea. Structural equation modeling analyses were employed to understand how various factors influence youth life satisfaction. Physical activity during physical education class had a long-term influence on life satisfaction through both internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors as mediating factors. Gender differences were found in the relationships between physical activity and life satisfaction. The current findings imply that encouraging students in early adolescence to actively engage in physical education potentially is a useful educational intervention method. Implications and future directions are discussed. Full article
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12 pages, 1257 KiB  
Article
Factor Analysis of Subjective Well-Being Sustainability through Foreign Language Learning in Healthy Older Individuals
by Blanka Klimova, Marcel Pikhart, Szymon Dziuba and Anna Cierniak-Emerych
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031590 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2740
Abstract
Healthy aging is one of the most important aspects of human life as it can significantly improve its quality. Therefore, it is necessary to promote successful aging as a significant and important part of maintaining physical and mental well-being in the elderly. One [...] Read more.
Healthy aging is one of the most important aspects of human life as it can significantly improve its quality. Therefore, it is necessary to promote successful aging as a significant and important part of maintaining physical and mental well-being in the elderly. One of the strategies to enhance the elderly’s well-being may be also foreign language learning. The purpose of this study is to compare and discuss what effect foreign language learning (FLL) might have on subjective well-being among healthy older individuals in the Czech Republic and Poland, using factor analysis as the primary statistical method. The research sample consisted of two experimental groups of seniors; one from the Czech Republic (n = 92) and another from Poland (n = 100). The main research methods included a questionnaire survey and factor analysis. The factor analysis revealed the four significant factors and their correlations with demographic variables, whose results showed the effect of FLL on seniors’ subjective well-being. In conclusion, learning a foreign language at an older age seems to be one of the key strategies to maintain a subjective feeling of happiness at a relatively high level in elderly people without necessary pharmacological intervention. Full article
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12 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Healthy Students: Adaptation and Validation of the Instrument from the Workplace to the Educational Field
by Ramón Gómez-Chacón, Nicolás Fernández-Martínez and Pablo Gálvez-Ruiz
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031134 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Psychological capital (optimism, resilience, hope and self-efficacy) has been joined by a new dimension in the workplace. This is engagement, a new construct, and a research questionnaire called the healthy employee was created to assess this dimension. In this sense, the present work [...] Read more.
Psychological capital (optimism, resilience, hope and self-efficacy) has been joined by a new dimension in the workplace. This is engagement, a new construct, and a research questionnaire called the healthy employee was created to assess this dimension. In this sense, the present work has the aim of adapting and validating this questionnaire of the healthy employee in the educational field, calling this person a healthy student. In total, 290 students (140 women and 150 men) undertaking different university degrees were recruited for this research. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to test the structure of two different models in the workplace, with five and eight dimensions, and to adapt and verify the reliability of the models in the educational setting. The results showed a poor fit for both models, suggesting the elimination of four items in the five-dimensional model and of three items in the eight-dimensional model. In addition, the five-dimensional model indicated discriminant validity, while the eight-dimensional model presented non-compliance between two dimensions. Therefore, this work generates an instrument with adequate psychometric properties in the five-dimensional model in the educational field. Full article
12 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity in a University Population in the Coastal Region of Ecuador
by Damaris Hernández-Gallardo, Ricardo Arencibia-Moreno, Daniel Linares-Girela, Iván Jesús Saca-Plua and Marta Linares-Manrique
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 10165; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310165 - 05 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
Background: Variations in physical activity greatly affect total energy expenditure, and therefore its examination contributes to the prevention of systemic disease. We sought to evaluate energy expenditure and physical activity within a university population from the coastal region of Ecuador. Methods: A descriptive [...] Read more.
Background: Variations in physical activity greatly affect total energy expenditure, and therefore its examination contributes to the prevention of systemic disease. We sought to evaluate energy expenditure and physical activity within a university population from the coastal region of Ecuador. Methods: A descriptive and observational research study was developed to compare 1038 university students. Weight, height, resting metabolic rate and estimated energy needs were estimated. A 24 h recall questionnaire was administered to examine the relationship between total energy expenditure and physical activity. The “IPAQ” (international physical activity questionnaire) was employed to classify the type of physical activity performed and weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes were calculated. Results: Male and female participants showed total energy expenditures of 2571.26 ± 321.26 and 1924.75 ± 112.78 kcal/day, respectively, with resting metabolic rates of 1864.12 ± 206.67 and 1373.96 ± 178.28 kcal/day, respectively. A total of 81.88% of the population reported being sedentary. With regards to time distribution between activities, insignificant time was dedicated to sport and health-related activities. Weekly MET minute expenditure was classified as low in 45.37% of individuals, moderate in 52.2%, and high in 3% of individuals. Conclusions: We conclude that the studied population led a notably sedentary lifestyle, which was contingent on voluntary behavioural states including the avoidance of certain exercises. Such tendencies are harmful to health. Full article
17 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Contributing Factors in Adolescents’ Mental Well-Being—The Role of Socioeconomic Status, Social Support, and Health Behavior
by Gabriella Nagy-Pénzes, Ferenc Vincze and Éva Bíró
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9597; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229597 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4069
Abstract
Mental disorders are common in adolescents, and for effective interventions we should be aware of their determinants. However, there are only a small number of studies investigating the combined effect of multiple factors. Therefore, our aim is to assess the impact of socioeconomic [...] Read more.
Mental disorders are common in adolescents, and for effective interventions we should be aware of their determinants. However, there are only a small number of studies investigating the combined effect of multiple factors. Therefore, our aim is to assess the impact of socioeconomic status, social support, and health behavior on adolescents’ mental well-being. A cross-sectional health survey of 1641 children was carried out in accordance with the study protocol of the Hungarian Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey. Multivariate multiple regression was used to analyze the main determinants of mental well-being. The boys’ mental well-being was favorable compared to girls; lower subjective family wealth was associated with lower life satisfaction and depressive mood. Life satisfaction was positively related to healthy eating, social support, and physical activity. Unhealthy eating, sedentary lifestyle, and lower social support were associated with higher depression scores. Higher social support reduces psychosomatic symptoms, while unhealthy eating and spending a lot of time in front of the computer increase them. Both social support and healthy lifestyle seem to be protective against mental health problems among adolescents, and thus interventions should focus on these factors regardless of the socioeconomic status of the participants, with special attention given to girls. Full article
13 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Basic Psychological Needs as a Motivational Competence: Examining Validity and Measurement Invariance of Spanish BPNSF Scale
by Giuseppina Maria Cardella, Brizeida Raquel Hernández-Sánchez and José Carlos Sánchez-García
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5422; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135422 - 05 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3360
Abstract
Motivation is an essential component in higher education. In this area, researchers have described three psychological needs that drive human behavior: Autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These three needs are central dimensions of Self-Determination Theory. Various measurement tools have been used to evaluate these [...] Read more.
Motivation is an essential component in higher education. In this area, researchers have described three psychological needs that drive human behavior: Autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These three needs are central dimensions of Self-Determination Theory. Various measurement tools have been used to evaluate these dimensions. Despite the universality of these, the literature lacks validation of them in the Spanish university context. The present study aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (BPNSFS) in this context. This scale was administered to a sample of 1075 Spanish university students. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded that the six-factor structure fitted the data. Results supported the reliability and validity of all the subscales. The obtained factor structure provided evidence in support of the comparability of the model between male and female students and different types of studies. Full article
15 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
Subjective Well-Being and Psychosocial Adjustment: Examining the Effects of an Intervention Based on the Sport Education Model on Children
by Pablo Luna, Alba Rodríguez-Donaire, Débora Rodrigo-Ruiz and Javier Cejudo
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4570; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114570 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2875
Abstract
The current study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention based on the Sport Education model, compared to an intervention based on the traditional model of Direct Instruction in children. The intervention was carried out during school hours for 18 sessions of [...] Read more.
The current study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention based on the Sport Education model, compared to an intervention based on the traditional model of Direct Instruction in children. The intervention was carried out during school hours for 18 sessions of 50-min each. The sample was made up of 146 children aged 10–12 years (M = 10.78 years; SD = 1.07 years). Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 87) and a control group (n = 59). A quasi-experimental design with repeated pretest and posttest evaluations with the control group was implemented. The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for children and adolescents (PANASN) was used to assess the affective component of subjective well-being. The Child and Adolescent Behavior Assessment System (BASC) was used to assess psychosocial adjustment. The results showed significant improvements in the affective component of subjective well-being and a reduction in anxiety in favor of the experimental group. Our current results show the methodological and practical efficacy of a Sport Education intervention. Full article
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15 pages, 1322 KiB  
Article
Academic Self-Efficacy in Unaccompanied Foreign Minors: Structural Equation Modelling According to Schooling
by Eva María Olmedo-Moreno, Jorge Expósito López, María del Carmen Olmos-Gómez, Micaela Sánchez Martín and Ramón Chacón-Cuberos
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4363; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114363 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2612
Abstract
(1) Background: New migratory flows taking place in Europe and the USA are categorised by a huge arrival of unaccompanied foreign minors (UFM), requiring appropriate attention to schooling in order to guarantee their integration. In facing this situation, the various political and educational [...] Read more.
(1) Background: New migratory flows taking place in Europe and the USA are categorised by a huge arrival of unaccompanied foreign minors (UFM), requiring appropriate attention to schooling in order to guarantee their integration. In facing this situation, the various political and educational administrations of the European Union (EU) have promoted an action plan for schools. Despite this, it has been shown that schooling does not totally guarantee social integration, encouraging the development of a new social model to generate new ways of understanding the learning process. (2) Methods: The aim of the present study is to adapt and validate Bandura’s academic self-efficacy scale (2006) within a sample of UFM. This scale is composed of 18 items distributed according to three underlying constructs. (3) Results: The validation analysis consisted of an exploratory factorial analysis using principal component analysis with varimax rotation, followed by confirmatory factorial analysis using structural equations (root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.052; normalised fit index (NFI) = 0.90; incremental fit index (IFI) = 0.91; confirmatory fit index (CFI) = 0.91). Reliability and internal consistency of the instrument was also tested with values being higher than 0.7 for all dimensions. (4) Conclusions: The final instrument was reduced to 12 items which were grouped into three dimensions (effort, self-confidence and understanding). Finally, the conducted multi-group analysis showed a stronger relationship between understanding, self-confidence and effort within UFM who had resided in Spain for a longer time. This could be linked to the more prolonged schooling process received. Full article
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11 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Parental Educational Level on Physical Activity in Schoolchildren
by Inés M. Muñoz-Galiano, Jonathan D. Connor, Miguel A. Gómez-Ruano and Gema Torres-Luque
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3920; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093920 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3263
Abstract
The factors influencing physical activity participation in children are varied, although there is evidence that the educational level of parents may be one important factor. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of parental education on the level of physical [...] Read more.
The factors influencing physical activity participation in children are varied, although there is evidence that the educational level of parents may be one important factor. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of parental education on the level of physical activity and the sedentary behavior of their children. The parents of 727 students, separated based on school group (preschool: n = 179; primary: n = 284; secondary: n = 230; high: n = 34), were invited to complete a series of questionnaires assessing their educational level (low, intermediate, and high) and their child’s level of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Primary school students with high- and intermediate-educated parents were found to engage in significantly more physical activity per week and spent more time engaged in homework than children with lower-educated parents. Secondary school students with higher-educated parents were found to spend significantly less time engaged in sedentary behavior than children with lower- or intermediate-educated parents, and high schoolers with higher-educated parents engaged in less tablet time than children with lower-educated parents. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that greater physical activity was precipitated by certain sedentary behaviors in children with more educated parents, such as total time watching TV (primary school), doing homework (secondary school), and total time using a tablet/similar (high school), which increased total time engaged in physical activity. These findings suggest that more educated parents may implement structured time for their children to engage in a balance of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Full article
11 pages, 1144 KiB  
Article
The Psychomotor Profile of Pupils in Early Childhood Education
by Alfonso Martínez-Moreno, Susana Imbernón Giménez and Arturo Díaz Suárez
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2564; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062564 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5306
Abstract
The aim of the article was to find out the psychomotor profile of children in the second cycle of infant education (3–6 years) through an observational cohort study with a prospective character. A total of 277 students participated, 52.7% boys and 47.3% girls, [...] Read more.
The aim of the article was to find out the psychomotor profile of children in the second cycle of infant education (3–6 years) through an observational cohort study with a prospective character. A total of 277 students participated, 52.7% boys and 47.3% girls, grouped in a control group (52.3%) and an experimental group (47.7%). The McCarthy Scales of Aptitude (MCSA) and Psychomotor Skills for Children, 7th edition, were used. The results showed that, in the global score and its dimensions, the time factor had significant and different influences, according to the control or experimental group. However, there were no significant differences in motor skills with respect to sex. As conclusions, the level of psychomotor development of the sample is close to the average of the development scale used. The time factor is significant when the subjects are subjected to stimulation; therefore, this must be taken into account in any therapeutic or learning process. Full article
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13 pages, 502 KiB  
Article
Subjective Well-Being in Higher Education: Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction with Life and Subjective Vitality Scales in Spanish University Students
by Laura Delgado-Lobete, Rebeca Montes-Montes, Alba Vila-Paz, Miguel-Ángel Talavera-Valverde, José-Manuel Cruz-Valiño, Berta Gándara-Gafo, Adriana Ávila-Álvarez and Sergio Santos-del-Riego
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2176; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062176 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4290
Abstract
Satisfaction with life (SWL) and subjective vitality (SV) are indicators of subjective well-being and quality of life. University students are at risk of low levels of subjective well-being, and therefore it is necessary to have properly validated tools to assess SWL and SV [...] Read more.
Satisfaction with life (SWL) and subjective vitality (SV) are indicators of subjective well-being and quality of life. University students are at risk of low levels of subjective well-being, and therefore it is necessary to have properly validated tools to assess SWL and SV in this population. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) and subjective vitality scale (SVS) in Spanish university students. Participants were 435 undergraduate students enrolled in 50 different courses (M = 20.9 years, SD = 2.1; female students = 71.2%). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the structure of the scales. Internal consistency, criterion and discriminant validity were also evaluated. Results confirmed the 5-item model of the SWLS (NNFI = 0.975, CFI = 0.987, RMSEA = 0.076) and the six-item model of the SVS (NNFI = 0.980, CFI = 0.988, RMSEA = 0.102). Internal consistency was excellent in both scales. The SWLS and the SVS were significantly associated, and students with low self-esteem showed lower SWL and SV, indicating good criterion and discriminant validity. These findings support the use of the SWLS and SVS for the assessment of subjective well-being in higher education context. Full article
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13 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Music as a Resource Against Bullying and Cyberbullying: Intervention in two Centers in Spain
by Amaya Epelde-Larrañaga, José Antonio Oñederra Ramírez and Ligia Isabel Estrada-Vidal
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12052057 - 07 Mar 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4606
Abstract
Aggressive conflicts are quite frequent in schools, and all students take part in them. Bullying and cyberbullying are the most common methods used. The main objective of this work was to prevent and reduce aggressive behaviors among school children. In this study we [...] Read more.
Aggressive conflicts are quite frequent in schools, and all students take part in them. Bullying and cyberbullying are the most common methods used. The main objective of this work was to prevent and reduce aggressive behaviors among school children. In this study we present the results of an intervention that we have carried out in two education centers, one public and one semi-public, with students between the ages of 11 and 14. This intervention was done using music and was reinforced by a talk about human values. Two hundred adolescents from the autonomous city of Melilla, Spain, took part in this study. This was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test/post-test design and an equivalent randomized control group. The instrument used was the Garaigordóbil Cyberbullying Test. The musical intervention lasted for four months. The effect of the intervention program was checked through the t-test of related samples, checking the size of the effect through Cohen's d. The results showed a decrease in victims, aggressors and witnesses of cyberbullying in the semi-public education center and a decrease in victims of bullying in the public center. It is concluded that music can be a valid resource in making people aware of aggressive behaviors and in helping to reduce it. Full article
13 pages, 478 KiB  
Article
The Importance of the Phoenix Bird Technique (Resilience) in Teacher Training: CD-RISC Scale Validation
by Javier Cachón Zagalaz, Inés López Manrique, María Belén San Pedro Veledo, María Luisa Zagalaz Sánchez and Carmen González González de Mesa
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031002 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3917
Abstract
Resilience is a personal characteristic or trait that is revealed in situations in which the individual shows high adaptation mechanisms. It is not a state of stress immunity but the ability to adapt to different circumstances. This characteristic is highly important for future [...] Read more.
Resilience is a personal characteristic or trait that is revealed in situations in which the individual shows high adaptation mechanisms. It is not a state of stress immunity but the ability to adapt to different circumstances. This characteristic is highly important for future teachers and their teaching activities. To analyze resilience levels of future teachers of nursery, primary and secondary education. First, this study is ainstrumental research carried out to revalidate the CD-RISC (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale) for teachers in training, and second, based on the foregoing results, it is a non-experimental empirical study. The participants were 373 students of degrees in Early Childhood Education, Primary Education, and a Master’s Degree in Secondary Education from two Spanish Universities and a Chilean university. Exploratory and a confirmatory factorial analysis were sequentially used to identify the number and composition of factors, and central tendency and dispersion tests, analysis of variance, and effect size were calculated. The programs and statistical tests used were SPSS.22, FACTOR.10.8.01, M-Plus.7.3, and G*Power 3.1.9.2. The instrumental research revealed a bifactorial distribution, resistant personality, resources and control. Females, older individuals, and those who attend primary education showed higher resilience levels than males, younger people, and children in early childhood education. Full article
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Review

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14 pages, 832 KiB  
Review
Secondary-School-Based Interventions to Improve Muscular Strength in Adolescents: A Systematic Review
by Carmelo García-Baños, Jacobo Ángel Rubio-Arias, Luis Manuel Martínez-Aranda and Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 6814; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176814 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2730
Abstract
Physical education is considered an ideal environment for improving physical fitness and muscle strength through exercise and training. This systematic review aimed to analyze studies where an intervention was implemented in Secondary School Physical Education classes to improve muscle strength. The literature search [...] Read more.
Physical education is considered an ideal environment for improving physical fitness and muscle strength through exercise and training. This systematic review aimed to analyze studies where an intervention was implemented in Secondary School Physical Education classes to improve muscle strength. The literature search was carried out in the SPORTDiscus, PubMed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect databases. We selected randomized and nonrandomized interventions conducted in Physical Education with adolescents aged 13–18 years, where muscle strength was evaluated, comparing a control group with one or more experimental groups. From the identified works after applying the levels of screening and eligibility, eight articles were chosen for the final analysis. Data collection and risk of bias assessment were performed independently by a single reviewer. The interventions of the included studies employed varied training loads, materials, and exercises. Significant improvements were achieved in all interventions for different strength measurement tests such as the Countermovement Jump (CMJ), Standing Long Jump (SLJ) and Squat Jump (SJ) tests, medicine ball throwing test, maximum isometric strength, manual dynamometry, push-up and curl-up tests, and maximum repetition tests. Strength training can be applied safely and effectively in Secondary Education. However, methodological differences in interventions have been identified; therefore, further research is needed. Full article
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