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Efficient and Non-polluting Biomass and Wastes Thermal Gasification

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 11367

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
VALORIZA—Researche Center for Endogenous Resources Valorization, Polytecnic Institute of Portalegre Campus Politécnico, 10, 7300-555 Portalegre, Portugal
Interests: bioenergy; thermal gasification; waste valorization; electrolysis; corrosion
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Issues related to the emissions of greenhouse gases, lack of fossil natural resources and the increasing price of fuels have progressively encouraged research and adoption of new technological strategies for energy production from renewable sources and application of waste-to-energy (WTE), waste-to-gas (WTG) and waste-to-hydrogen (WTH2) concepts. Syngas obtained from gasification of biomass and wastes constitutes an interesting resource for materials manufacture, biofuels production and energy generation because it has lower impacts for the environment compared to traditional technologies and allows for the valorization of waste residues as feedstock. Forest residues and municipal solid wastes are the major sources of biomass energy of interest. On the other hand, thermal gasification technology allows a very low environmental impact due to an easy control and minimization of gaseous, solid and liquid emissions.

This book presents the scope, potential and technologies related to the use of biomass resources with a focus on thermal gasification processes, involving topics such as:

  1. Principles of thermal gasification principles
  2. Gasification of raw materials
  3. Types of gasification reactors
  4. Water gas shift and methanation reactions
  5. Gas cleaning technologies
  6. Application of gasification ashes
  7. Gasification process economics

Prof. Dr. Paulo Brito
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • biomass
  • wastes energetic valorisation
  • thermal gasification

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 5859 KiB  
Article
Gasification and Power Generation Characteristics of Rice Husk, Sawdust, and Coconut Shell Using a Fixed-Bed Downdraft Gasifier
by Md. Emdadul Hoque, Fazlur Rashid and Muhammad Aziz
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042027 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5077
Abstract
Synthetic gas generated from the gasification of biomass feedstocks is one of the clean and sustainable energy sources. In this work, a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier was used to perform the gasification on a lab-scale of rice husk, sawdust, and coconut shell. The aim [...] Read more.
Synthetic gas generated from the gasification of biomass feedstocks is one of the clean and sustainable energy sources. In this work, a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier was used to perform the gasification on a lab-scale of rice husk, sawdust, and coconut shell. The aim of this work is to find and compare the synthetic gas generation characteristics and prospects of sawdust and coconut shell with rice husk. A temperature range of 650–900 °C was used to conduct gasification of these three biomass feedstocks. The feed rate of rice husk, sawdust, and coconut shell was 3–5 kg/h, while the airflow rate was 2–3 m3/h. Experimental results show that the highest generated quantity of methane (vol.%) in synthetic gas was achieved by using coconut shell than sawdust and rice husk. It also shows that hydrogen production was higher in the gasification of coconut shell than sawdust and rice husk. In addition, emission generations in coconut shell gasification are lower than rice husk although emissions of rice husk gasification are even lower than fossil fuel. Rice husk, sawdust, and coconut shell are cost-effective biomass sources in Bangladesh. Therefore, the outcomes of this paper can be used to provide clean and economic energy sources for the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient and Non-polluting Biomass and Wastes Thermal Gasification)
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19 pages, 15481 KiB  
Article
Co-Combustion of Waste Tires and Plastic-Rubber Wastes with Biomass Technical and Environmental Analysis
by Luís Carmo-Calado, Manuel Jesús Hermoso-Orzáez, Roberta Mota-Panizio, Bruno Guilherme-Garcia and Paulo Brito
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031036 - 1 Feb 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5661
Abstract
The present work studies the possibility of energy recovery by thermal conversion of combustible residual materials, namely tires and rubber-plastic, plastic waste from outdoor luminaires. The waste has great potential for energy recovery (HHV: 38.6 MJ/kg for tires and 31.6 MJ/kg for plastic). [...] Read more.
The present work studies the possibility of energy recovery by thermal conversion of combustible residual materials, namely tires and rubber-plastic, plastic waste from outdoor luminaires. The waste has great potential for energy recovery (HHV: 38.6 MJ/kg for tires and 31.6 MJ/kg for plastic). Considering the thermal conversion difficulties of these residues, four co-combustion tests with mixtures of tires/plastics + pelletized Miscanthus, and an additional test with 100% Miscanthus were performed. The temperature was increased to the maximum allowed by the equipment, about 500 °C. The water temperature at the boiler outlet and the water flow were controlled (60 °C and 11 L/min). Different mixtures of residues (0–60% tires/plastics) were tested and compared in terms of power and gaseous emissions. Results indicate that energy production increased with the increase of tire residue in the mixture, reaching a maximum of 157 kW for 40% of miscanthus and 60% of tires. However, the automatic feeding difficulties of the boiler also increased, requiring constant operator intervention. As for plastic and rubber waste, fuel consumption generally decreased with increasing percentages of these materials in the blend, with temperatures ranging from 383 °C to 411 °C. Power also decreased by including such wastes (66–100 kW) due to feeding difficulties and cinder-fusing problems related to ash melting. From the study, it can be concluded that co-combustion is a suitable technology for the recovery of waste tires, but operational problems arise with high levels of residues in the mixture. Increasing pollutant emissions and the need for pre-treatments are other limiting factors. In this sense, the thermal gasification process was tested with the same residues and the same percentages of mixtures used in the co-combustion tests. The gasification tests were performed in a downdraft reactor at temperatures above 800 °C. Each test started with 100% acacia chip for reference (like the previous miscanthus), and then with mixtures of 0–60% of tires and blends of plastics and rubbers. Results obtained for the two residues demonstrated the viability of the technology, however, with mixtures higher than 40% it was very difficult to develop a process under stable conditions. The optimum condition for producing a synthesis gas with a substantial heating value occurred with mixtures of 20% of polymeric wastes, which resulted in gases with a calorific value of 3.64 MJ/Nm3 for tires and 3.09 MJ/Nm3 for plastics and rubbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient and Non-polluting Biomass and Wastes Thermal Gasification)
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