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Recent Advances in Climate Change and Water Resources

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sustainability and Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 3 October 2024 | Viewed by 4192

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department Civil Engineering, Polytechnic of Leiria, Leiria, Portugal
Interests: flood modeling; climate change adaptation; water resources management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Natural Hazards Research Center (NHRC.ipt), Polytechnic Institute of Tomar, 2300-313 Tomar, Portugal
2. Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, PO Box 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: climate change; extreme events; natural hazards; meteorology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water and climate change are closely linked. To tackle the water and climate crisis, the water sector must adapt to the impacts of climate change on water resources. Extreme weather events are increasing water scarcity, decreasing its quality, and making its availability more unpredictable. These impacts threaten sustainable development, biodiversity, and people’s access to water and sanitation. The new advances towards climate-resilient water management have several branches that are expected to be addressed in this Special Issue:

  • Assessment of the impact of structural and non-structural actions to mitigate floods, including grey infrastructures and/or nature-based solutions; how they perform; and advantages and/or disadvantages.
  • Implementation of green and blue infrastructures.
  • Protecting natural buffers. Coastal mangroves and wetlands are effective and inexpensive natural barriers to flooding, extreme weather events, and erosion.
  • Harvesting rainwater. Rainwater capture is particularly useful in regions with uneven rainfall distribution to build resilience to shocks and ensure supplies for dry periods.
  • Reusing wastewater. Unconventional water resources, such as regulated treated wastewater, can be used for irrigation and industrial and municipal purposes.
  • Research on vulnerability and resilience, including case studies of best-practices implementation.
  • Water–energy nexus. The growing demand for water increases the need for energy-intensive water pumping, transportation, and treatment.
  • Transboundary cooperation is essential to collectively address the impacts of climate change to balance the water needs of communities, industry, agriculture, and ecosystems.
  • Water governance must be put at the heart of action plans. The scarcity of water resources often means that several sectors compete for their use. It is also essential that non-state actors, such as NGOs and the private sector, participate in the policy-making process.
  • Access to funds for linking water management and climate change mitigation or adaptation.

Dr. Sandra Mourato
Dr. Cristina Andrade
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • extreme events
  • water resources
  • water governance
  • mitigation, and adaptation measures
  • reusing wastewater
  • harvesting rainwater
  • nature-based solutions
  • transboundary cooperation
  • water–energy nexus
  • groundwater recharge

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

26 pages, 24955 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Non-Point Source (NPS) Management on Non-Point Source Reduction and Water Cycle Improvement in an Urban Area
by Jinsun Kim, Jimin Lee, Minji Park, Joong-Hyuk Min, Jong Mun Lee, Heeseon Jang and Eun Hye Na
Sustainability 2024, 16(3), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16031248 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 692
Abstract
Suwon, the capital and largest city of Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, was designated as a non-point source management area in 2010. The management period ended in 2020, so follow-up measures are needed. In this study, we investigated several projects implemented in Suwon for urban [...] Read more.
Suwon, the capital and largest city of Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, was designated as a non-point source management area in 2010. The management period ended in 2020, so follow-up measures are needed. In this study, we investigated several projects implemented in Suwon for urban water cycle improvement and non-point source pollution reduction, and the long-term management effects were analyzed to suggest policy directions such as the revision of designation notices. During the 10-year management period in Suwon, the population and lot area continued to increase, and the non-point source-based annual Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) discharge loads also increased by approximately 25% at the half sub-basins Hwangguji-cheon and Woncheonri-cheon in 2020 compared to 2010. Even under these conditions, statistical analyses show that the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Phosphorus (TP) concentrations monitored at the outlet of basin were decreased due to the promotion of a large-scale sewer management project as well as non-point source pollution reduction projects. Also, the field monitoring data-based Load Duration Curve (LDC) analysis results indicate that the loads decreased in the high-flow period of 2020 compared to 2015. Also, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values calculated using satellite images since 2017 tended to increase slightly during the period when the impervious area estimated using the land registration map increased. It is assumed that using the current calculation method for impervious areas has limitations regarding its ability to reflect changes in the small-scale Low-Impact Development (LID) facility and in ecological/landscape areas. On the other hand, the annual variation in direct runoff estimated at the outlet using three hydrograph separation methods did not show any improvement with regard to storm water retention during the management period. These results reveal that the effects on urban water cycle improvement, such as peak flow reduction and base flow increase, may not be noticeable despite some progress in reducing non-point source pollution and increasing green area. Therefore, additional efforts directed towards non-point source pollution management focused on water cycle improvement are required in the city, especially in the sub-basins with higher pollution loads such as Hwangguji-cheon and Seoho-cheon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Climate Change and Water Resources)
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17 pages, 317 KiB  
Article
Iran’s Regional Transnational Water Partnerships: Unclear Rules, Unstable Partnerships, and an Unsettled Future
by Farshad Amiraslani and Deirdre Dragovich
Sustainability 2023, 15(15), 11889; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151511889 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Water resources are the most contentious, scarce, and contestable natural resources at any geographical scale. Where water resources cross international boundaries, additional uncertainties arise for access to and distribution of available water. Here, we examined three transnational water partnerships by focusing on Iran [...] Read more.
Water resources are the most contentious, scarce, and contestable natural resources at any geographical scale. Where water resources cross international boundaries, additional uncertainties arise for access to and distribution of available water. Here, we examined three transnational water partnerships by focusing on Iran as a dryland country with a developing economy. Thus, Iran has a key interest in water policies and the development and governance of water resources. Within Iran’s regional context, we considered whether the country obtained a geopolitical advantage from three regional water partnerships, involving the Caspian Sea, the Helmand River, and the export of hydroelectricity. We used a global database and several years of Iranian newspaper articles to explore possible linkages between contemporary and historical challenges while looking at international laws and conventions. We highlighted (a) the transboundary Helmand River as the most unstable partnership; (b) the complexities of the relationships between the Caspian Sea’s beneficiaries, including Iran, in utilising its vast resources in an environment with unclear rules; and (c) the rainfall- and geopolitically dependent hydroelectricity exchange agreements with neighbouring countries. Although Iran pursued such international involvement through treaties and economic initiatives, its water-based geopolitical influence in the region remains constrained by domestic demand, hydrometeorological geography, and the involvement of major world powers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Climate Change and Water Resources)
20 pages, 9629 KiB  
Article
Climate Change Trends for the Urban Heat Island Intensities in Two Major Portuguese Cities
by Cristina Andrade, André Fonseca and João A. Santos
Sustainability 2023, 15(5), 3970; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15053970 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1831
Abstract
Urban Heat Island (UHI) intensities are analyzed for the metropolitan areas of the two major Portuguese cities, Lisbon and Porto, in the period 2008–2017. Projections for the UHI intensity averaged over 2008–2017 and a future period 2021–2050 are calculated under the Representative Concentration [...] Read more.
Urban Heat Island (UHI) intensities are analyzed for the metropolitan areas of the two major Portuguese cities, Lisbon and Porto, in the period 2008–2017. Projections for the UHI intensity averaged over 2008–2017 and a future period 2021–2050 are calculated under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the UHI intensity are assessed for daytime, nighttime, and average daily conditions. This analysis is carried out for the winter (Dec-Jan-Feb, DJF) and summer (Jun-Jul-Aug, JJA) meteorological seasons. Maximum UHI intensities of about 3.5 °C were reached in 2008–2017 in both metropolitan areas, but over a wider region during winter nighttime than during summer nighttime. Contrariwise, the most intense urban cool island effect reached −1.5 °C/−1 °C in Lisbon/Porto. These UHI intensities were depicted during summer daytime and in less urbanized areas. Overall, the UHI intensities were stronger during the winter than in the summer for both cities. Results show that the UHI intensity is closely related to underlying surfaces, as the strongest intensities are confined around the most urbanized areas in both cities. Until 2050, under RCP8.5, the highest statistically significant trends are projected for summer daytime, of about 0.25 °C (per year) for Lisbon and 0.3 °C (per year) for the UHI 99th percentile intensities in both metropolitan areas. Conversely, the lowest positive statistically significant trends (0.03 °C/0.02 °C per year) are found for the winter daytime UHI intensities in Lisbon and the winter nighttime and average UHI intensities in Porto, respectively. These statistically significant patterns (at a 5% significance level) are in line with the also statistically significant trends of summer mean and maximum temperatures in Portugal, under RCP8.5 until 2050. Scientists, urban planners, and policymakers face a significant challenge, as the contribution of urbanization and the forcing promoted by global warming should be duly understood to project more sustainable, go-green, carbon-neutral, and heat-resilient cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Climate Change and Water Resources)
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