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Sustainable Structural Health Monitoring and Piezoresistivity Behavior for Green Synthetic Concrete

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2024 | Viewed by 1534

Special Issue Editors

1. College of Engineering, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Sulaimani-Kirkuk Rd, Sulaymaniyah 46001, Iraq
2. College of Engineering, American University of Iraq, Sulaimani, Kurdistan region, Sulaimani-Kirkuk Rd, Sulaymaniyah 46001, Iraq
Interests: cement; concrete; soil mechanics; rock mechanics; sustainability; modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Scientific Research Center, Soran University, Erbil, Iraq
Interests: green synthesis method; silver nanoparticles; metal electroplating
Dr. Samir Mustafa Hamad
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Scientific Research Center, Soran University, Erbil, Iraq
Interests: nuclear physics; semiconductor; nanotechnology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Concrete is a composite material of fine and coarse aggregate bonded with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete is the second most used substance in the world after water and is the most widely used building material. Its usage worldwide, ton for ton, is twice that of steel, wood, plastics, and aluminum combined. Globally, the ready-mix concrete industry, the largest concrete market segment, is projected to exceed USD 600 billion in revenue by 2025. This widespread use results in several environmental impacts. Most notably, the production process for cement produces large volumes of greenhouse gas emissions, leading to a net 8% of global emissions. Other environmental concerns include widespread illegal sand mining, impacts on the surrounding environment such as increased surface runoff or urban heat island effect, and potential public health implications from toxic ingredients.

Electrical resistivity (ER) is an important criterion for evaluating cement-based materials and structural health monitoring, such as concrete, since it allows the material to respond to strain or cracks. ER is a characteristic of concrete that reflects the degree of difficulty with which ions may move. ER may be utilized to measure corrosion and durability and monitor the status of standard samples over time. Because the approach is non-destructively tested, it was perfect for on-site quality control. Including steel creation slag decreased the ER of concrete while increasing the quantity of steel production slag in the mix enhanced conductivity. According to published data, the electrical resistivity measurements range from extremely low to very high values. This is because a measurement technique, device measurement, and low frequency cause a high electrical resistivity value. The frequency range utilized was 0.5–1 kHz, and the literature used two electrical measuring methods: two probes and four probes.

Therefore, this Special Issue in Sustainability is dedicated to comprehensive reviews and original studies on resource use (e.g., nondestructive tests, piezoelectrical resistivity, and green synthetic nano conductive materials) of cementitious materials and concrete containing less common, non-conventional materials.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Ahmed Salih Mohammed
Dr. Azeez Abdullah Barzinjy
Dr. Samir Mustafa Hamad
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • eco-friendly green concrete
  • mechanical and durability-related properties
  • waste materials
  • nanomaterials
  • green nanoparticle
  • piezoelectric behavior
  • conductive materials
  • electrical resistivity versus the strength of the material

Published Papers (1 paper)

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50 pages, 5467 KiB  
A Review: Construction and Demolition Waste as a Novel Source for CO2 Reduction in Portland Cement Production for Concrete
Sustainability 2024, 16(2), 585; - 09 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1052
There is an increasing global recognition of the need for environmental sustainability in mitigating the adverse impacts of cement production. Despite the implementation of various carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation strategies in the cement industry, such as waste heat recovery, the use [...] Read more.
There is an increasing global recognition of the need for environmental sustainability in mitigating the adverse impacts of cement production. Despite the implementation of various carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation strategies in the cement industry, such as waste heat recovery, the use of alternative raw materials and alternative fuels, energy efficiency improvements, and carbon capture and storage, overall emissions have still increased due to the higher production levels. The resolution of this matter can be efficiently achieved by the substitution of traditional materials with an alternative material, such as calcined clay (CC), construction and demolition waste (CDW), which have a significant impact on various areas of sustainable development, including environmental, economic, and social considerations. The primary objectives of employing CDW in the Portland cement production are twofold: firstly, to mitigate the release of CO2 into the atmosphere, as it is a significant contributor to environmental pollution and climate change; and secondly, to optimize the utilization of waste materials, thereby addressing the challenges associated with their disposal. The purpose of this work is to present a thorough examination of the existing body of literature pertaining to the partial replacement of traditional raw materials by CDW and the partial replacement of Portland cement by CDW and to analyze the resulting impact on CO2 emissions. Full article
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