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Concrete with Recycled and Sustainable Materials

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 13508

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
ISISE-Institute for Sustainability and Innovation in Structural Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães , Portugal
Interests: material/structural sustainability; materials engineering; fiber reinforced concrete; recycled materials; concrete structures; waste management; cost competitive production
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Guest Editor
Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes & Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: waste management; circular economy; multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA); life cycle assessment (LCA)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to introduce this Special Issue, which aims to highlight the needs for the development of “Concrete with Recycled and Sustainable Materials” in the construction industry.

The enormous demands for construction materials to sustain the increasing number of buildings and urban infrastructure is increasing the amount of construction and demolition waste. Therefore, recycling and application of the wastes in building materials—especially concrete, which is one of the most widely used construction materials in the world—becomes a crucial issue for the sustainable development of our planet. However, the use of recycled products in the construction industry, as a solution for tackling the negative environmental impacts of continuous material extraction and waste generation, is hamstrung due to perceptions of lower quality and uncertain performance benefits. Therefore, it is timely to foster a strong body of literature to cover the mechanical and environmental responses of concrete/mortar tailored by means of applying more sustainable materials (e.g., alternative recycled waste materials that reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, collaborate in construction and demolition waste management, and conserve non-renewable resources) and to introduce novel approaches towards engineering concrete with lower environmental impact and comparable mechanical behavior to that of the conventional material. This Special Issue brings together materials, techniques and concepts from the following distinct disciplines in order to raise awareness about the importance of improving construction sustainability in concrete/mortar.

Dr. Fatemeh Soltanzadeh
Dr. Carlos A. Teixeira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable construction
  • sustainable cementitious materials
  • recycled aggregate concrete/mortar
  • recycled-fiber-reinforced cementitious composites
  • life-cycle assessment (LCA)
  • LCA inventory data
  • pozzolanic materials

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

25 pages, 12502 KiB  
Article
Bond Behavior of Recycled Tire Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Concrete and Basalt-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Rebar after Prolonged Seawater Exposure
by Fatemeh Soltanzadeh, Ali Edalat-Behbahani, Kasra Hosseinmostofi, Ibrahim Fatih Cengiz, Joaquim Miguel Oliveira and Rui L. Reis
Sustainability 2023, 15(22), 15856; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152215856 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 830
Abstract
The integration of basalt-fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) rebars into concrete design standards still remains unrealized due to limited knowledge on the performance of the rebars in concrete, particularly in terms of bond durability in harsh conditions. In this work, we investigated the bond durability [...] Read more.
The integration of basalt-fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) rebars into concrete design standards still remains unrealized due to limited knowledge on the performance of the rebars in concrete, particularly in terms of bond durability in harsh conditions. In this work, we investigated the bond durability characteristics of BFRP rebars in fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (FRSCC) structures. To this aim, a number of 24 FRSCC pullout specimens reinforced with either BFRP rebar or glass-fiber-reinforced polymer, GFRP, rebar, which is a commonly used type of FRP, were fabricated. Half of these specimens were submerged in simulated seawater for a two-year span, while the other 12 similar specimens were maintained in standard laboratory conditions for comparative purposes. Subsequently, all 24 specimens underwent monotonic and fatigue pull-out tests. The exploration in this study focused on investigating the influence of the environmental condition, reinforcement type, and loading type on the bond stress versus slip relationship, maximum bond stress, and failure mode of the specimens. Based on the results obtained and by adopting the durability approach of industry standards for prediction of the bond retention of FRP-reinforced concrete, the bond strength retention between BFRP/GFRP and FRSCC after 50 years of exposure to seawater was estimated. The outcomes of the study are expected to enhance engineers’ confidence in the use of FRP, especially BFRP, for constructing durable and sustainable reinforced concrete structures in aggressive environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete with Recycled and Sustainable Materials)
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16 pages, 3582 KiB  
Article
On the Need for a Paradigm Change in the Valuation of Concrete with Waste Materials Based on the Example of Concrete with Crumb Rubber
by Julia Nowak, Roman Jaskulski, Wojciech Kubissa, Bartłomiej Matusiak and Maciej Banach
Sustainability 2023, 15(5), 3928; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15053928 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a study of the strength and thermal properties of concrete in which part of the fine and coarse aggregate was replaced with crumb rubber from used tyres up to 2.4% the weight of the concrete. Twelve series [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a study of the strength and thermal properties of concrete in which part of the fine and coarse aggregate was replaced with crumb rubber from used tyres up to 2.4% the weight of the concrete. Twelve series of concrete with w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 were tested. A decrease in compressive strength and a linear dependence of strength in relation to the amount of rubber in the concrete were observed. At the same time, the insulating properties of the material improved, which also depended linearly on the amount of rubber used in the dosage range applied. A thermomechanical index was introduced to evaluate the functionality of the concrete simultaneously on the basis of the two properties mentioned. It was assumed that a decrease in its value of no more than 15% compared to the maximum value obtained allows the concrete to be regarded as meeting the performance requirements. Out of the twelve series tested, including ten with crumb rubber, only three series failed to meet this condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete with Recycled and Sustainable Materials)
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16 pages, 4066 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Thermal Conductivity of Sustainable Concrete Having Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs) and Recycled Aggregate (RCA) Using Needle Probe Test
by Samer Al Martini, Ahmad Khartabil and Reem Sabouni
Sustainability 2023, 15(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010109 - 21 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2083
Abstract
The evaluation of thermal properties is commonly conducted to characterize non-structural materials, such as lightweight concrete, that are used for thermal insulation. Such materials are designed for thermal resistivity applications. Due to the increased demand to adopt sustainable practices in the construction industry, [...] Read more.
The evaluation of thermal properties is commonly conducted to characterize non-structural materials, such as lightweight concrete, that are used for thermal insulation. Such materials are designed for thermal resistivity applications. Due to the increased demand to adopt sustainable practices in the construction industry, municipalities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) emphasize the use of sustainable materials in construction, such as green concrete. The cement in green concrete is partially replaced with supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs); these materials are by-product waste from other industries. The SCMs can contribute to sustainability by reducing the concrete carbon footprint. They can also help in extending concrete durability and service life. However, there is still a lack in the literature regarding the effects of these materials on the thermal properties of concrete. This paper investigates the thermal properties of sustainable concrete mixes incorporating various types of SCMs. The SCMs that are considered in this investigation are fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS), and microsilica. Another way to improve the sustainability of the concrete is to partially replace the natural aggregates with recycled aggregates. Thus, a group of the concrete mixes in this investigation were prepared by replacing 40% of natural aggregates with recycled aggregates to investigate the effects of recycled aggregate on the thermal properties of concrete. Further, the thermal properties of three lightweight concrete mixtures commonly used in construction were evaluated. All concrete mixtures were examined for thermal conductivity and resistivity in accordance with ASTM D5334. The results of this investigation showed that SCMs and recycled aggregates have a significant impact on the thermal properties of concrete. The high replacement of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) resulted in a remarkable increase in thermal conductivity. This investigation provides significant conclusions and recommendations that are of practical importance to the construction industry in the UAE to promote sustainability. This research aims at formulating recommendations for the effective use of SCMs in the construction industry in the UAE based on their effects on the thermal properties of concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete with Recycled and Sustainable Materials)
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25 pages, 6604 KiB  
Article
Feasibility Study on Concrete Made with Substitution of Quarry Dust: A Review
by Buthainah Nawaf AL-Kharabsheh, Mohamed Moafak Arbili, Ali Majdi, Jawad Ahmad, Ahmed Farouk Deifalla, A. Hakamy and Hasan Majed Alqawasmeh
Sustainability 2022, 14(22), 15304; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142215304 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2718
Abstract
Concrete mechanical properties could be improved through adding different materials at the mixing stage. Quarry dust (QD) is the waste produced by manufactured sand machines and comprise approximately 30–40% of the total quantity of QD generated. When it dries, it transforms into a [...] Read more.
Concrete mechanical properties could be improved through adding different materials at the mixing stage. Quarry dust (QD) is the waste produced by manufactured sand machines and comprise approximately 30–40% of the total quantity of QD generated. When it dries, it transforms into a fine dust that poses a tremendous hazard to the environment by contaminating the soil and water and seriously endangering human health. QD utilization in concrete is one of the best options. Though a lot of scholars focus on imitation of QD in concrete, knowledge is scattered, and a detailed review is required. This review collects the information regarding QD-based concrete, including fresh properties, strength, durability, and microstructure analysis. The results indicate that QD is suitable for concrete to a certain extent, but higher percentages adversely affect properties of concrete due to absence of fluidity. The review also indicates that up to 40–50% substitution of QD as a fine aggregate can be utilized in concrete with no harmful effects on strength and durability. Furthermore, although QD possesses cementitious properties and can be used as cement substitute to some extent, less research has explored this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete with Recycled and Sustainable Materials)
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27 pages, 9018 KiB  
Article
Computing Models to Predict the Compressive Strength of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) at Various Mix Proportions
by Kawan Ghafor, Hemn Unis Ahmed, Rabar H. Faraj, Ahmed Salih Mohammed, Rawaz Kurda, Warzer Sarwar Qadir, Wael Mahmood and Aso A. Abdalla
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12876; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912876 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
Concrete has relatively high compressive strength (resists breaking when squeezed) but significantly lower tensile strength (vulnerable to breaking when pulled apart). The compressive strength is typically controlled by the ratio of water-to-cement when forming the concrete, and tensile strength is increased by additives, [...] Read more.
Concrete has relatively high compressive strength (resists breaking when squeezed) but significantly lower tensile strength (vulnerable to breaking when pulled apart). The compressive strength is typically controlled by the ratio of water-to-cement when forming the concrete, and tensile strength is increased by additives, typically steel, to create reinforced concrete. In other words, we can say concrete is made up of sand (which is a fine aggregate), ballast (which is a coarse aggregate), cement (which can be referred to as a binder), and water (which is an additive). Highly ductile material engineered cementitious composites (ECC) were developed to address these issues by spreading short polymer fibers randomly throughout a cement-based matrix. It has a high tensile strain capacity of more than 3%, hundreds of times more than conventional concrete. On the other hand, among the other examined qualities, compressive strength (CS) is a critical property. Consequently, developing reliable models to predict an ECC’s compressive strength is crucial for cost, time, and energy savings. It also includes instructions for planning construction projects and calculating the optimal time to remove the formwork. The artificial neural network (ANN), nonlinear model (NLR), linear relationship model (LR), multi-logistic model (MLR), and M5P-tree model were all proposed as alternative models to estimate the CS of ECC mixtures created by fly ash in this research (M5P). To create the models, a large amount of data were gathered and evaluated, totaling roughly 205 mixes. Various mixture proportions, fiber length, diameter, and curing durations were explored as input variables. To test the effectiveness of the suggested models, several statistical evaluations, including determination coefficient (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Scatter Index (SI), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and Objective (OBJ) value, were utilized. Based on the statistical evaluations, the ANN model performed better in forecasting the CS of ECC mixes incorporating fly ash than other models. This model’s RMSE, MAE, OBJ, and R2 values were 4.55 MPa, 3.46 MPa, 4.39 MPa, and 0.98, respectively. A large database presented in this investigation can be used as the bench mark for future mixture proportions of the ECC. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis showed the contribution of each mixture ingredient on the CS of ECC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete with Recycled and Sustainable Materials)
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21 pages, 1050 KiB  
Article
Core Elements Affecting the Circularity of Materials
by Aurelija Burinskienė, Olga Lingaitienė and Artūras Jakubavičius
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8367; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148367 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
The authors have revised the circularity of materials, which is essential to stimulate circular activity processes. The theoretical part starts with the revision of material circularity under linear and circular models, and answers to the question of how to use modern technologies to [...] Read more.
The authors have revised the circularity of materials, which is essential to stimulate circular activity processes. The theoretical part starts with the revision of material circularity under linear and circular models, and answers to the question of how to use modern technologies to ensure the sustainable use of natural resources. Later on, the authors describe the material circularity in the concept of close-loop and open-loop production. Further on, the authors examine the recycling of different waste categories as an essential element necessary for the circularity, give the results of reviewing various sectors and present key elements affecting material circularity. The authors revised the set of variables and formed a correlation matrix and used a dynamic regression model to identify the circular material use rate. The authors suggested a three-level methodology that provided a dynamic regression model that could be applied for forecasting the size of circular material use rate in European Union countries. The empirical research results show that the key elements affecting the circularity of materials are private investments dedicated for recycling, the recycling of electronic waste and other municipal waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete with Recycled and Sustainable Materials)
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22 pages, 6424 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Performance of Amorphous Metallic Fiber-Reinforced and Rubberized Thin Bonded Cement-Based Overlays
by Ayesha Javed, Syed Asad Ali Gillani, Wasim Abbass, Muhammad Rizwan Riaz, Rashid Hameed, Safeer Abbas, Abdelatif Salmi and Ahmed Farouk Deifalla
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8226; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138226 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2054
Abstract
To improve the flexural behavior of thin bonded cement-based overlays, this study was carried out on the use of repair material incorporating amorphous metallic fibers (AMFs) in combination with the rubber aggregates obtained from grinding of worn-out tires. For this study, sixteen mortar [...] Read more.
To improve the flexural behavior of thin bonded cement-based overlays, this study was carried out on the use of repair material incorporating amorphous metallic fibers (AMFs) in combination with the rubber aggregates obtained from grinding of worn-out tires. For this study, sixteen mortar mix compositions were prepared to contain AMFs and/or rubber aggregates to be used as overlay material while the substrate used was plain cement mortar. Rubber aggregates were incorporated at three different replacement ratios (i.e., 10%, 20% and 30%) by an equivalent volume of sand, and AMFs were added in three different dosages (i.e., 10 kg/m3, 20 kg/m3 and 30 kg/m3). In this study, composite beams (500 × 100 × 140 mm) comprising substrate (500 × 100 × 100 mm) and repair layer (500 × 100 × 40 mm) were prepared and investigated under flexural loading. Experimental results showed that the increase in rubber content resulted in a decrease compressive strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. Rubberized fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (30R30F) exhibited higher flexural toughness and the flexural toughness improved up to 400%. Toughness and maximum deflection of composite beams enhanced significantly due to synergetic effect of AMF and rubber aggregates. It was observed that before peak load, rubber plays its role by delaying the micro-crack propagation. Results also revealed that the steel fibers reinforcement plays an important role in restraining the crack openings under flexure loading. In the post-peak region, steel fibers control the cracks from propagating further by bridging action and provide higher post-peak residual strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete with Recycled and Sustainable Materials)
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