Feature Papers in Section Smart Grids

A special issue of Smart Cities (ISSN 2624-6511). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart Grids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 19458

Special Issue Editors

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain
Interests: internet of energy; smart grids; power quality; electronic instrumentation; usability of complex systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Division Electrical Energy Systems and Applications (ELECTA), Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
Interests: smart grids; demand response; stochastic modelling; home energy management systems; smart metering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will collect and highlight recent work on smart grids. We are inviting reviews, regular research papers (articles), and communications in all areas of research concerning smart grids. Topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Applications for smart grids, smart buildings, smart homes, smart lighting, renewable energy sources, and power electronics for smart grids.
  • Distributed and peer-to-peer energy and multi-energy systems: control, optimisation, and modelling.
  • Electric vehicle and smart grid interaction.
  • Computer engineering, as well as information and communication technologies (ICT), for smart grids: infrastructures and information management for smart grids.
  • IoT architectures, protocols, and algorithms, as well IoT devices and network technologies, applied to smart grids.
  • Cloud computing, autonomic computing, data management, intelligent data processing, and data-driven management for smart grids.
  • Real-time, semantic web services, and context-aware systems for smart grids.
  • Cyber-physical systems and virtual and augmented reality for smart grids.
  • Advances in smart grid sensing: (wireless) sensors networks, communications, sensors interfaces, embedded sensing/actuation, and grid synchronisation technologies.
  • Traceability, calibration, and data fusion models for distributed sensing grids.
  • Challenges in reliability, quality, security, efficiency, and resilience of power infrastructure.
  • Experimentation and deployments: real solutions, system design, modelling and evaluation for smart grids, proof-of-concept implementations, pilot deployments, and performance evaluation.
  • Novel trends and challenges for smart grids.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Moreno-Munoz
Dr. Emilio José Palacios-García
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Smart Cities is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Smart Grids
  • Smart Energy
  • Power Quality
  • Microgrids
  • Distributed Energy Resources
  • Internet of Energy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

26 pages, 930 KiB  
Article
Harmonic and Supraharmonic Emissions of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Chargers
Smart Cities 2022, 5(2), 496-521; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5020027 - 09 Apr 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3149
Abstract
Electric vehicle (EV) charging represents a relevant electric load with a rapid evolution in terms of number, power rating and distortion, in particular, considering the connection to the low-voltage public grid: available short-circuit power may be limited and particularly susceptible loads may co-exist [...] Read more.
Electric vehicle (EV) charging represents a relevant electric load with a rapid evolution in terms of number, power rating and distortion, in particular, considering the connection to the low-voltage public grid: available short-circuit power may be limited and particularly susceptible loads may co-exist in the same grid portion. Standards can partially address the problem covering only the harmonic interval, but they necessitate significant extension and improvement in the supraharmonic range. In addition, EV chargers have been observed to violate in some scenarios the applicable harmonic limits, so that the mechanisms of emission and distortion should be better understood and evaluated, including phenomena of mutual influence between EV chargers and with pre-existing grid distortion. Although models can help simulate large-scale scenarios in terms of fundamental frequency phenomena, such as power flow, voltage fluctuation and imbalance, substantial and reliable information can come from experimental results, providing measured harmonic and supraharmonic emissions, accompanied by details on loads mix, grid characteristics and EV charger operating conditions. This work thus defines the applicable constraints in terms of limits and compatibility levels for public and light industrial low-voltage grids, discusses the available experimental results and datasets, analyzing the typical distortion behavior and providing indication of sources of information for further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Section Smart Grids)
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22 pages, 73073 KiB  
Article
Design, Analysis and Implementation of Bidirectional DC–DC Converters for HESS in DC Microgrid Applications
Smart Cities 2022, 5(2), 433-454; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5020024 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3221
Abstract
This research proposes an enhanced converter for a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for a multi-input bidirectional DC–DC power converter (MIPC). When batteries are used for energy storage, their charge and discharge rates are low, putting the battery under current stress and shortening [...] Read more.
This research proposes an enhanced converter for a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for a multi-input bidirectional DC–DC power converter (MIPC). When batteries are used for energy storage, their charge and discharge rates are low, putting the battery under current stress and shortening its life. Because of their increased power density, supercapacitors (SCs) can react quickly to abrupt fluctuations and solve this problem. SCs, on the other hand, cannot be utilized for storage since they cannot provide power for prolonged periods of time. Batteries and supercapacitors are employed together in HESSs because their opposing characteristics make them an ideal pair for energy storage. An MIPC is used to connect the HESS to the DC microgrid. The MIPC allows for decoupled battery and SC power regulation, as well as energy transfer across storage devices inside the system. A controller has been developed to regulate both HESS charging and discharging operations, making it a unified controller for DC microgrid applications. The proposed model predictive control (MPC) provided better DC grid voltage restoration to step change in PV generation and load demand over the traditional proportional integral (PI) control scheme. The MPC method minimizes current strains, extends battery life and enhances overall system performance in response to a step change in PV power and load demand as well as providing quicker DC grid voltage control. Simulation and experimental data for the proposed controller were created by varying PV generation and load demand, resulting in faster DC link voltage regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Section Smart Grids)
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20 pages, 6553 KiB  
Article
Operation of the Egyptian Power Grid with Maximum Penetration Level of Renewable Energies Using Corona Virus Optimization Algorithm
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 34-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5010003 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3961
Abstract
Countries around the world are looking forward to fully sustainable energy by the middle of the century to meet Paris climate agreement goals. This paper presents a novel algorithm to optimally operate the Egyptian grid with maximum renewable power generation, minimum voltage deviation [...] Read more.
Countries around the world are looking forward to fully sustainable energy by the middle of the century to meet Paris climate agreement goals. This paper presents a novel algorithm to optimally operate the Egyptian grid with maximum renewable power generation, minimum voltage deviation and minimum power losses. The optimal operation is performed using Corona Virus Algorithm (CVO). The proposed CVO is compared to the Teaching and Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithm in terms of voltage deviation, power losses and share of renewable energies. The real demand, solar irradiance and wind speed in typical winter and summer days are considered. The 2020 Egyptian grid model is developed, simulated, and optimized using DIgSILENT software application. The results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed CVO, compared to the TLBO, to operate the grid with the highest share possible of renewables. The paper is a step forward to achieve Egyptian government targets to reach 20% and 42% penetration level of renewable energies by 2022 and 2035, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Section Smart Grids)
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24 pages, 5192 KiB  
Article
Optimal Planning of Electrical Appliance of Residential Units in a Smart Home Network Using Cloud Services
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1173-1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4030063 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 3548
Abstract
One of the important aspects of realizing smart cities is developing smart homes/buildings and, from the energy perspective, designing and implementing an efficient smart home area energy management system (HAEMS) is vital. To be effective, the HAEMS should include various electrical appliances as [...] Read more.
One of the important aspects of realizing smart cities is developing smart homes/buildings and, from the energy perspective, designing and implementing an efficient smart home area energy management system (HAEMS) is vital. To be effective, the HAEMS should include various electrical appliances as well as local distributed/renewable energy resources and energy storage systems, with the whole system as a microgrid. However, the collecting and processing of the data associated with these appliances/resources are challenging in terms of the required sensors/communication infrastructure and computational burden. Thanks to the internet-of-things and cloud computing technologies, the physical requirements for handling the data have been provided; however, they demand suitable optimization/management schemes. In this article, a HAEMS is developed using cloud services to increase the accuracy and speed of the data processing. A management protocol is proposed that provides an optimal schedule for a day-ahead operation of the electrical equipment of smart residential homes under welfare indicators. The proposed system comprises three layers: (1) sensors associated with the home appliances and generation/storage units, (2) local fog nodes, and (3) a cloud where the information is processed bilaterally with HAEMS and the hourly optimal operation of appliances/generation/storage units is planned. The neural network and genetic algorithm (GA) are used as part of the HAEMS program. The neural network is used to predict the amount of workload corresponding to users’ requests. Improving the load factor and the economic efficiency are considered as the objective function that is optimized using GA. Numerical studies are performed in the MATLAB platform and the results are compared with a conventional method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Section Smart Grids)
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12 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Intrusion Detection in Critical Infrastructures: A Literature Review
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1146-1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4030061 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4222
Abstract
Over the years, the digitization of all aspects of life in modern societies is considered an acquired advantage. However, like the terrestrial world, the digital world is not perfect and many dangers and threats are present. In the present work, we conduct a [...] Read more.
Over the years, the digitization of all aspects of life in modern societies is considered an acquired advantage. However, like the terrestrial world, the digital world is not perfect and many dangers and threats are present. In the present work, we conduct a systematic review on the methods of network detection and cyber attacks that can take place in a critical infrastructure. As is shown, the implementation of a system that learns from the system behavior (machine learning), on multiple levels and spots any diversity, is one of the most effective solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Section Smart Grids)
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