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Massive and Reliable Sensor Communications with LPWANs Technologies

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2020) | Viewed by 30264

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
IMT Lille Douai, Douai, France
Interests: IoT; massive access; interference modeling; PHY layer

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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi” (DEI), University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna, Italy
Interests: Internet of Things; wireless sensor networks; medium access control protocols for wireless networks; routing protocols for wireless networks; Industrial IoT; smart city; smart buildings; UAV-Aided wireless networks

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Guest Editor
University of Pau, Pau, France
Interests: LoRa technologies; multimedia information on wireless sensor networks; wireless video sensor networks for critical-mission surveillance applications
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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

LPWANs have received great interest in the recent years in efforts to allow the deployment of massive machine-type communications. However, they still face several challenges depending on the targeted applications: massiveness, reliability, security, ease of deployment, and suffering from a limited downlink. As 5G and NB-IoT are entering the market, the survival of LPWANs in unlicensed bands becomes questionable.

Indeed, deploying sensor networks in unlicensed bands faces many difficulties, especially because the network is generally not managed by telecommunication specialists, while it requires different areas of expertise to be properly implemented. Will devices last as long as expected? Will the network accept a sufficiently large number of devices? Can the received data be trusted? Where can we store them and how can we process the data? Is it possible that the network might face unexpected damages? Can security and privacy be ensured?

This Special Issue will cover the latest breakthroughs in LP-WAN technologies and highlight their ability, or not, to survive in the face of 5G. All issues related to LP-WANs are welcome for submission, with a special interest in LoRa technology. Topics can range from more theoretical aspects to deployments and experiments.

Dr. Laurent Clavier
Dr. Chiara Buratti
Dr. Congduc Pham
Dr. Gianluigi Ferrari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • LPWAN
  • Massive access
  • Reliability
  • Chirp spread spectrum
  • LoRa technology
  • Alternative LoRa-based MAC protocols
  • LoRa architectures for the Internet of Things
  • Non-orthogonal multiple access
  • Interference
  • Deterministic access
  • Security
  • Implementation, deployment, and experiments
  • Energy autonomy, life duration
  • Energy harvesting
  • Network architecture
  • Resilience

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 5651 KiB  
Article
Dense Deployment of LoRa Networks: Expectations and Limits of Channel Activity Detection and Capture Effect for Radio Channel Access
by Congduc Pham and Muhammad Ehsan
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030825 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4869
Abstract
With worldwide deployment of LoRa/LoRaWAN LPWAN networks in a large variety of applications, it is crucial to improve the robustness of LoRa channel access which is largely ALOHA-like to support environments with higher node density. This article presents extensive experiments on LoRa Channel [...] Read more.
With worldwide deployment of LoRa/LoRaWAN LPWAN networks in a large variety of applications, it is crucial to improve the robustness of LoRa channel access which is largely ALOHA-like to support environments with higher node density. This article presents extensive experiments on LoRa Channel Activity Detection and Capture Effect property in order to better understand how a competition-based channel access mechanisms can be optimized for LoRa LPWAN radio technology. In the light of these experimentation results, the contribution continues by identifying design guidelines for a channel access mechanism in LoRa and by proposing a channel access method with a lightweight collision avoidance mechanism that can operate without a reliable Clear Channel Assessment procedure. The proposed channel access mechanism has been implemented and preliminary tests show promising capabilities in increasing the Packet Delivery Rate in dense configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Massive and Reliable Sensor Communications with LPWANs Technologies)
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16 pages, 2722 KiB  
Article
How Can Wake-up Radio Reduce LoRa Downlink Latency for Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes?
by Nour El Hoda Djidi, Matthieu Gautier, Antoine Courtay, Olivier Berder and Michele Magno
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030733 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3570
Abstract
LoRa is popular for internet of things applications as this communication technology offers both a long range and a low power consumption. However, LoRaWAN, the standard MAC protocol that uses LoRa as physical layer, has the bottleneck of a high downlink latency to [...] Read more.
LoRa is popular for internet of things applications as this communication technology offers both a long range and a low power consumption. However, LoRaWAN, the standard MAC protocol that uses LoRa as physical layer, has the bottleneck of a high downlink latency to achieve energy efficiency. To overcome this drawback we explore the use of wake-up radio combined with LoRa, and propose an adequate MAC protocol that takes profit of both these heterogeneous and complementary technologies. This protocol allows an opportunistic selection of a cluster head that forwards commands from the gateway to the nodes in the same cluster. Furthermore, to achieve self-sustainability, sensor nodes might include an energy harvesting sub-system, for instance to scavenge energy from the light, and their quality of service can be tuned, according to their available energy. To have an effective self-sustaining LoRa system, we propose a new energy manager that allows less fluctuations of the quality of service between days and nights. Latency and energy are modeled in a hybrid manner, i.e., leveraging microbenchmarks on real hardware platforms, to explore the influence of the energy harvesting conditions on the quality of service of this heterogeneous network. It is clearly demonstrated that the cooperation of nodes within a cluster drastically reduces the latency of LoRa base station commands, e.g., by almost 90% compared to traditional LoRa scheme for a 10 nodes cluster. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Massive and Reliable Sensor Communications with LPWANs Technologies)
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21 pages, 1037 KiB  
Article
Fundamental Limits of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) for the Massive Gaussian Broadcast Channel in Finite Block-Length
by Jean-Marie Gorce, Philippe Mary, Dadja Anade and Jean-Marc Kélif
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030715 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2151
Abstract
Superposition coding (SC) has been known to be capacity-achieving for the Gaussian memoryless broadcast channel for more than 30 years. However, SC regained interest in the context of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in 5G. From an information theory point of view, SC is [...] Read more.
Superposition coding (SC) has been known to be capacity-achieving for the Gaussian memoryless broadcast channel for more than 30 years. However, SC regained interest in the context of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in 5G. From an information theory point of view, SC is capacity-achieving in the broadcast Gaussian channel, even when the number of users tends to infinity. However, using SC has two drawbacks: the decoder complexity increases drastically with the number of simultaneous receivers, and the latency is unbounded since SC is optimal only in the asymptotic regime. To evaluate these effects quantitatively in terms of fundamental limits, we introduce a finite time transmission constraint imposed at the base station, and we evaluate fundamental trade-offs between the maximal number of superposed users, the coding block-length and the block error probability. The energy efficiency loss due to these constraints is evaluated analytically and by simulation. Orthogonal sharing appears to outperform SC for hard delay constraints (equivalent to short block-length) and in low spectral efficiency regime (below one bit per channel use). These results are obtained by the association of stochastic geometry and finite block-length information theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Massive and Reliable Sensor Communications with LPWANs Technologies)
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19 pages, 858 KiB  
Article
LoRaWANSim: A Flexible Simulator for LoRaWAN Networks
by Riccardo Marini, Konstantin Mikhaylov, Gianni Pasolini and Chiara Buratti
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030695 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 7248
Abstract
Among the low power wide area network communication protocols for large scale Internet of Things, LoRaWAN is considered one of the most promising, owing to its flexibility and energy-saving capabilities. For these reasons, during recent years, the scientific community has invested efforts into [...] Read more.
Among the low power wide area network communication protocols for large scale Internet of Things, LoRaWAN is considered one of the most promising, owing to its flexibility and energy-saving capabilities. For these reasons, during recent years, the scientific community has invested efforts into assessing the fundamental performance limits and understanding the trade-offs between the parameters and performance of LoRaWAN communication for different application scenarios. However, this task cannot be effectively accomplished utilizing only analytical methods, and precise network simulators are needed. To that end, this paper presents LoRaWANSim, a LoRaWAN simulator implemented in MATLAB, developed to characterize the behavior of LoRaWAN networks, accounting for physical, medium access control and network aspects. In particular, since many simulators described in the literature are deployed for specific research purposes, they are usually oversimplified and hold a number of assumptions affecting the accuracy of their results. In contrast, our simulator has been developed for the sake of completeness and it is oriented towards an accurate representation of the LoRaWAN at the different layers. After a detailed description of the simulator, we report a validation of the simulator itself and we then conclude by presenting some results of its use revealing notable and non-intuitive trade-offs present in LoRaWAN. Such simulator will be made available via open access to the research community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Massive and Reliable Sensor Communications with LPWANs Technologies)
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18 pages, 5395 KiB  
Article
Quaternion Model of Higher-Order Rotating Polarization Wave Modulation for High Data Rate M2M LPWAN Communication
by Zaid Ahmad, Shaiful Jahari Hashim, Fakhrul Zaman Rokhani, Syed Abul Rahman Al-Haddad, Aduwati Sali and Ken Takei
Sensors 2021, 21(2), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020383 - 7 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3250
Abstract
With growing interest in Industry 4.0, machine-to-machine communication (M2M) will become the key enabler for low-power wide area networks (LPWANs) in connecting machines and sensor nodes distributed across a distance in the industrial environment. The choice of modulation and diversity techniques, and the [...] Read more.
With growing interest in Industry 4.0, machine-to-machine communication (M2M) will become the key enabler for low-power wide area networks (LPWANs) in connecting machines and sensor nodes distributed across a distance in the industrial environment. The choice of modulation and diversity techniques, and the selection of spectrum (licensed/unlicensed) will impact and influence the requirements of wireless M2M systems. Link reliability is one of the most important requirements for LPWAN deployment in industrial scenarios. Rotating Polarization Wave (RPW) system has been recently proposed as an LPWAN solution for reliable M2M communication in high clutter environment and it deploys BPSK modulation with polarization diversity (PD). This paper proposes a new multi-level Rotating Polarization Phase-Shift Keying (RP-MPSK) modulation to provide high data rate and energy efficiency. A novel quaternion model for RPW system (Q-RPW) is also proposed to reduce the complexity in modeling, simulation, and implementation. Results using Q-RPW model show that RP-MPSK modulation offers a high diversity gain over BPSK with second-order diversity. Bit error rate (BER) performance of RP-MPSK modulation compared against other LPWAN modulation like MPSK, FSK and QAM has shown high reliability and substantial improvement in SNR. To overcome the degradation in error performance caused by the proposed higher-order modulation, sampling rates are recommended based on BER performance. BER performance of RP-MPSK under multipath and interference conditions is also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Massive and Reliable Sensor Communications with LPWANs Technologies)
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18 pages, 454 KiB  
Article
Autonomous Power Decision for the Grant Free Access MUSA Scheme in the mMTC Scenario
by Wissal Ben Ameur, Philippe Mary, Jean-François Hélard, Marion Dumay and Jean Schwoerer
Sensors 2021, 21(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010116 - 27 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Non-orthogonal multiple access schemes with grant free access have been recently highlighted as a prominent solution to meet the stringent requirements of massive machine-type communications (mMTCs). In particular, the multi-user shared access (MUSA) scheme has shown great potential to grant free access to [...] Read more.
Non-orthogonal multiple access schemes with grant free access have been recently highlighted as a prominent solution to meet the stringent requirements of massive machine-type communications (mMTCs). In particular, the multi-user shared access (MUSA) scheme has shown great potential to grant free access to the available resources. For the sake of simplicity, MUSA is generally conducted with the successive interference cancellation (SIC) receiver, which offers a low decoding complexity. However, this family of receivers requires sufficiently diversified received user powers in order to ensure the best performance and avoid the error propagation phenomenon. The power allocation has been considered as a complicated issue especially for a decentralized decision with a minimum signaling overhead. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for an autonomous power decision with a minimal overhead based on a tight approximation of the bit error probability (BEP) while considering the error propagation phenomenon. We investigate the efficiency of multi-armed bandit (MAB) approaches for this problem in two different reward scenarios: (i) in Scenario 1, each user reward only informs about whether its own packet was successfully transmitted or not; (ii) in Scenario 2, each user reward may carry information about the other interfering user packets. The performances of the proposed algorithm and the MAB techniques are compared in terms of the successful transmission rate. The simulation results prove that the MAB algorithms show a better performance in the second scenario compared to the first one. However, in both scenarios, the proposed algorithm outperforms the MAB techniques with a lower complexity at user equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Massive and Reliable Sensor Communications with LPWANs Technologies)
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22 pages, 869 KiB  
Article
Radio Resource Dimensioning for Low Delay Access in Licensed OFDMA IoT Networks
by Yi Yu, Lina Mroueh, Philippe Martins, Guillaume Vivier and Michel Terré
Sensors 2020, 20(24), 7173; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247173 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
In this paper, we focus on the radio resource planning in the uplink of licensed Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based Internet of Things (IoT) networks. The average behavior of the network is considered by assuming that active sensors and collectors are [...] Read more.
In this paper, we focus on the radio resource planning in the uplink of licensed Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based Internet of Things (IoT) networks. The average behavior of the network is considered by assuming that active sensors and collectors are distributed according to independent random Poisson Point Process (PPP) marked by channel randomness. Our objective is to statistically determine the optimal total number of Radio Resources (RRs) required for a typical cell. On one hand, the allocated bandwidth should be sufficiently large to support the traffic of the devices and to guarantee a low access delay. On the other hand, the over-dimensioning is costly from an operator point of view and induces spectrum wastage. For this sake, we propose statistical tools derived from stochastic geometry to evaluate, adjust and adapt the allocated bandwidth according to the network parameters, namely the required Quality of Service (QoS) in terms of rate and access delay, the density of the active sensors, the collector intensities, the antenna configurations and the transmission modes. The optimal total number of RRs required for a typical cell is then calculated by jointly considering the constraints of low access delay, limited power per RR, target data rate and network outage probability. Different types of networks are considered including Single Input Single Output (SISO) systems, Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) systems using antenna selection or Maximum Ratio Combiner (MRC), and Multiuser Multiple Input Multiple Output (MU-MIMO) systems using Zero-Forcing decoder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Massive and Reliable Sensor Communications with LPWANs Technologies)
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21 pages, 2933 KiB  
Article
Enhanced LoRaWAN Adaptive Data Rate for Mobile Internet of Things Devices
by Arshad Farhad, Dae-Ho Kim, Santosh Subedi and Jae-Young Pyun
Sensors 2020, 20(22), 6466; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20226466 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 4902
Abstract
A long-range wide area network (LoRaWAN) is one of the leading communication technologies for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. In order to fulfill the IoT-enabled application requirements, LoRaWAN employs an adaptive data rate (ADR) mechanism at both the end device (ED) and the [...] Read more.
A long-range wide area network (LoRaWAN) is one of the leading communication technologies for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. In order to fulfill the IoT-enabled application requirements, LoRaWAN employs an adaptive data rate (ADR) mechanism at both the end device (ED) and the network server (NS). NS-managed ADR aims to offer a reliable and battery-efficient resource to EDs by managing the spreading factor (SF) and transmit power (TP). However, such management is severely affected by the lack of agility in adapting to the variable channel conditions. Thus, several hours or even days may be required to converge at a level of stable and energy-efficient communication. Therefore, we propose two NS-managed ADRs, a Gaussian filter-based ADR (G-ADR) and an exponential moving average-based ADR (EMA-ADR). Both of the proposed schemes operate as a low-pass filter to resist rapid changes in the signal-to-noise ratio of received packets at the NS. The proposed methods aim to allocate the best SF and TP to both static and mobile EDs by seeking to reduce the convergence period in the confirmed mode of LoRaWAN. Based on the simulation results, we show that the G-ADR and EMA-ADR schemes reduce the convergence period in a static scenario by 16% and 68%, and in a mobility scenario by 17% and 81%, respectively, as compared to typical ADR. Moreover, we show that the proposed schemes are successful in reducing the energy consumption and enhancing the packet success ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Massive and Reliable Sensor Communications with LPWANs Technologies)
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