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Selected Papers from 4th Joint International Symposium on Deformation Monitoring (JISDM 2019)

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Remote Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 January 2020) | Viewed by 17890

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Unit of Spatial Planning and Regional Development – SPReD, School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Natonionla Technical University of Athens NTUA., Zographou Campus, 15780 Zografou, Greece
Interests: sensor fusion and Kalman filtering for navigation, engineering surveying and structural deformation monitoring
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 15780 Zographos, Greece
Interests: engineering surveying; geodesy, positioning and navigation; point-cloud modelling and applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechniou 9, Zografos, 15780, Greece
Interests: engineering surveying; precise measurements;calibration, geodetic metrology; astronomical orientation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to contribute to the state-of-the-art and present current applications of deformation monitoring sensors and deformation modelling. It will contain papers on all aspects of deformation monitoring in geodesy and geomatics. The papers will represent an extension of the articles presented at the 4th Joint International Symposium on Deformation Monitoring (JISDM2019), which was held in Athens, Greece in May 2019. Invited topics include but are not limited to methods and new concepts; integration and automation; as well as innovative applications in the broader field of deformation monitoring, analysis, and interpretation.

Prof. Vassilis Gikas
Prof. Dr. Maria Tsakiri
Prof. Dr. George Pantazis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • QC/QA and optimization techniques
  • GNSS-based monitoring
  • point cloud-based deformations
  • reference frames and geodynamics
  • vibration monitoring and dynamics
  • ground and spaceborne radar
  • deformation monitoring for cultural heritage and construction engineering
  • bridge and dam monitoring
  • multi-sensor systems
  • UAV for change detection and deformation monitoring and monitoring of geohazards

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

24 pages, 8924 KiB  
Article
Monitoring of the Static and Dynamic Displacements of Railway Bridges with the Use of Inertial Sensors
by Piotr Olaszek, Ireneusz Wyczałek, Damian Sala, Marek Kokot and Andrzej Świercz
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2767; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20102767 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4287
Abstract
In the case of the monitoring of bridges, the determination of vertical displacements is one of the most important issues. A new measuring system has been developed and implemented for assessment of railway bridges based on measurements of the structural response to passing [...] Read more.
In the case of the monitoring of bridges, the determination of vertical displacements is one of the most important issues. A new measuring system has been developed and implemented for assessment of railway bridges based on measurements of the structural response to passing trains. The system uses inertial sensors: Inclinometers and accelerometers that do not need any referential points. The system records signals related to the passage of a train over a monitored bridge. The signals from inclinometers before the train’s entry are used to determine the static movement. Integrated signals from inclinometers and accelerometers are used to determine dynamic displacements when the train goes through the bridge. Signals from inclinometers are used to determine the so-called “quasi-static” component of the displacement and signal from the accelerometer to determine the dynamic component. Field tests have been carried out on a viaduct along a high-speed railway line. Periodic comparative measurements are carried out using a Total Station to verify static measurements and using inductive sensors to verify dynamic measurements. Tests of the system carried out so far have proven its usefulness for monitoring bridges in a high-speed railway (up to 200 km/h) with high accuracy while determining dynamic displacements. Full article
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19 pages, 5826 KiB  
Article
Linear and Nonlinear Deformation Effects in the Permanent GNSS Network of Cyprus
by Chris Danezis, Miltiadis Chatzinikos and Christopher Kotsakis
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061768 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3792
Abstract
Permanent Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) reference stations are well established as a powerful tool for the estimation of deformation induced by man-made or physical processes. GNSS sensors are successfully used to determine positions and velocities over a specified time period, with unprecedented [...] Read more.
Permanent Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) reference stations are well established as a powerful tool for the estimation of deformation induced by man-made or physical processes. GNSS sensors are successfully used to determine positions and velocities over a specified time period, with unprecedented accuracy, promoting research in many safety-critical areas, such as geophysics and geo-tectonics, tackling problems that torment traditional equipment and providing deformation products with absolute accuracy. Cyprus, being located at the Mediterranean fault, exhibits a very interesting geodynamic regime, which has yet to be investigated thoroughly. Accordingly, this research revolves around the estimation of crustal deformation in Cyprus using GNSS receivers. CYPOS (CYprus POsitioning System), a network of seven permanent GNSS stations has been operating since 2008, under the responsibility of the Department of Lands and Surveys. The continuous flow of positioning data collected over this network, offers the required information to investigate the behavior of the crustal deformation field of Cyprus using GNSS sensors for the first time. This paper presents the results of a multi-year analysis (11/2011–01/2017) of daily GNSS data and provides inferences of linear and nonlinear deforming signals into the position time series of the network stations. Specifically, 3D station velocities and seasonal periodic displacements are jointly estimated and presented via a data stacking approach with respect to the IGb08 reference frame. Full article
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15 pages, 5101 KiB  
Article
Multi-Temporal InSAR Analysis for Monitoring Ground Deformation in Amorgos Island, Greece
by Stavroula Alatza, Ioannis Papoutsis, Demitris Paradissis, Charalampos Kontoes and Gerassimos A. Papadopoulos
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020338 - 7 Jan 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4445
Abstract
Radar Interferometry is a widely used method for estimating ground deformation, as it provides precision to a few millimeters to centimeters, and at the same time, a wide spatial coverage of the study area. On 9 July 1956, one of the strongest earthquakes [...] Read more.
Radar Interferometry is a widely used method for estimating ground deformation, as it provides precision to a few millimeters to centimeters, and at the same time, a wide spatial coverage of the study area. On 9 July 1956, one of the strongest earthquakes of the 20th century in the area of the South Aegean, occurred in Amorgos, with a magnitude of Mw = 7.7. The objective of this research is to map ground deformation in Amorgos island, using InSAR techniques. We conducted a multi-temporal analysis of all available data from 2003 to 2019 by exploiting historical ENVISAT SAR imagery, as well as the dense archive of Sentinel-1 SLC imagery. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PS) and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) methods were implemented. Results of both data-sets indicate a small-scale deformation on the island. A multi-track analysis was implemented on Sentinel-1 data to decompose the line of sight velocities to vertical and horizontal. The central south coast is experiencing horizontal movement, while uplift of a maximum value of 5 mm/y is observed in the southeastern coast. The combination of the good spatial coverage achievable via InSAR, with GPS measurements, is suggested an important tool for the seamless monitoring of Amorgos island towards tectonic hazard estimation. Full article
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14 pages, 3835 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Msplit Estimation in Displacement Analysis
by Zbigniew Wiśniewski, Robert Duchnowski and Andrzej Dumalski
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 5047; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19225047 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
Sets of geodetic observations often contain groups of observations that differ from each other in the functional model (or at least in the values of its parameters). Sets of observations obtained at various measurement epochs is a practical example in such a context. [...] Read more.
Sets of geodetic observations often contain groups of observations that differ from each other in the functional model (or at least in the values of its parameters). Sets of observations obtained at various measurement epochs is a practical example in such a context. From the conventional point of view, for example, in the least squares estimation, subsets in question should be separated before the parameter estimation. Another option would be application of Msplit estimation, which is based on a fundamental assumption that each observation is related to several competitive functional models. The optimal assignment of every observation to the respective functional model is automatic during the estimation process. Considering deformation analysis, each observation is assigned to several functional models, each of which is related to one measurement epoch. This paper focuses on the efficacy of the method in detecting point displacements. The research is based on example observation sets and the application of Monte Carlo simulations. The results were compared with the classical deformation analysis, which shows that the Msplit estimation seems to be an interesting alternative for conventional methods. The most promising are results obtained for disordered observation sets where the Msplit estimation reveals its natural advantage over the conventional approach. Full article
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16 pages, 3968 KiB  
Article
Detection of Structural Vibration with High-Rate Precise Point Positioning: Case Study Results Based on 100 Hz Multi-GNSS Observables and Shake-Table Simulation
by Jacek Paziewski, Rafal Sieradzki and Radoslaw Baryla
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 4832; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19224832 - 6 Nov 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2480
Abstract
This contribution presents and assesses the methodology aiming at the characterization of the structural vibrations with high-rate GNSS measurements. As commonly employed precise point positioning (PPP) based on ionosphere-free linear combination of undifferenced signals may not meet the high requirements in terms of [...] Read more.
This contribution presents and assesses the methodology aiming at the characterization of the structural vibrations with high-rate GNSS measurements. As commonly employed precise point positioning (PPP) based on ionosphere-free linear combination of undifferenced signals may not meet the high requirements in terms of displacement precision, a modified processing strategy has been proposed. The algorithms were implemented in the own-developed GNSS processing software and validated using the designed experiment. For this purpose, we have set up a field experiment taking advantage of the prototype shake-table, which simulated the dynamic horizontal displacements of the GNSS antenna. The device ensured a periodic motion of the antenna with modifiable characteristics, namely amplitude and frequency. In this experiment, we have set the amplitudes from 1.5 to 9 mm and the frequency to 3.80 Hz. As a dataset, we have used 100 Hz GPS, Galileo, and BDS measurements. The results confirmed a high applicability of the enhanced PPP processing strategy for precise displacement detection. Specifically, it was feasible to obtain the dynamic displacements with precision at the level of millimeters. The differences between the PPP-derived amplitude and the true amplitude of the simulated displacements were in the range of 0.5–1.3 mm, whereas the difference between the detected and benchmark frequency did not exceed 0.026 Hz. Hence, the proposed methodology allows meeting the specific demands of structural displacement monitoring. Full article
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