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Micro- and Nano-Technologies for Sensing: From Device Fabrication to Applications

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2024 | Viewed by 1189

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Interests: nanofabrication; electron beam lithography; dry etch; electrochemical deposition; integration technologies of micro and nano devices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In a wide range of applications, sensors involve micro- and nanofabrication technologies, material/structure characterization methods, and interactions between functional structures and detected targets. The rapid miniaturization and multifunctionality of sensors have triggered research in both “top-down” fabrication techniques and “bottom-up” approaches, including diverse lithographic methods, pattern transfer, molecule assembly, functional film growth, and surface modification. To achieve specific functionalities and applications, these commonly used technologies need to be aligned and integrated with others. This ultimately leads to the emergence of new processes and novel sensors, accelerating the pace of the sensor-related industrial revolution.

The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight the latest developments in device fabrication, sensing principles, and sensor applications in diverse engineering and scientific fields. It brings together original research articles and reviews that cover a wide range of topics related to micro- and nanotechnologies for sensing. We sincerely invite you to submit original unpublished work.

Topics of interest of this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Micro- and nanofabrication;
  • Process integration of sensors;
  • Surface modification and characterization;
  • Sensing principles;
  • Biomedical and chemical sensors;
  • Metamaterial sensors;
  • Flexible and wearable sensors;
  • Multifunctional sensors;
  • Optoelectronic and photonic sensors.

Dr. Xiaoli Zhu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • micro- and nanofabrication
  • process integration of sensors
  • surface modification and characterization
  • sensing principles
  • biomedical and chemical sensors
  • metamaterial sensors
  • flexible and wearable sensors
  • multifunctional sensors
  • optoelectronic and photonic sensors

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 7409 KiB  
Article
Cardiac Multi-Frequency Vibration Signal Sensor Module and Feature Extraction Method Based on Vibration Modeling
by Zhixing Gao, Yuqi Wang, Kang Yu, Zhiwei Dai, Tingting Song, Jun Zhang, Chengjun Huang, Haiying Zhang and Hao Yang
Sensors 2024, 24(7), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24072235 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases pose a long-term risk to human health. This study focuses on the rich-spectrum mechanical vibrations generated during cardiac activity. By combining Fourier series theory, we propose a multi-frequency vibration model for the heart, decomposing cardiac vibration into frequency bands and establishing [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases pose a long-term risk to human health. This study focuses on the rich-spectrum mechanical vibrations generated during cardiac activity. By combining Fourier series theory, we propose a multi-frequency vibration model for the heart, decomposing cardiac vibration into frequency bands and establishing a systematic interpretation for detecting multi-frequency cardiac vibrations. Based on this, we develop a small multi-frequency vibration sensor module based on flexible polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films, which is capable of synchronously collecting ultra-low-frequency seismocardiography (ULF-SCG), seismocardiography (SCG), and phonocardiography (PCG) signals with high sensitivity. Comparative experiments validate the sensor’s performance and we further develop an algorithm framework for feature extraction based on 1D-CNN models, achieving continuous recognition of multiple vibration features. Testing shows that the recognition coefficient of determination (R2), mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean square error (RMSE) of the 8 features are 0.95, 2.18 ms, and 4.89 ms, respectively, with an average prediction speed of 60.18 us/point, meeting the re-quirements for online monitoring while ensuring accuracy in extracting multiple feature points. Finally, integrating the vibration model, sensor, and feature extraction algorithm, we propose a dynamic monitoring system for multi-frequency cardiac vibration, which can be applied to portable monitoring devices for daily dynamic cardiac monitoring, providing a new approach for the early diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Full article
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12 pages, 3329 KiB  
Article
Fast Fabrication Nanopores on a PMMA Membrane by a Local High Electric Field Controlled Breakdown
by Shaoxi Fang, Delin Zeng, Shixuan He, Yadong Li, Zichen Pang, Yunjiao Wang, Liyuan Liang, Ting Weng, Wanyi Xie and Deqiang Wang
Sensors 2024, 24(7), 2109; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24072109 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 433
Abstract
The sensitivity and accuracy of nanopore sensors are severely hindered by the high noise associated with solid-state nanopores. To mitigate this issue, the deposition of organic polymer materials onto silicon nitride (SiNx) membranes has been effective in obtaining [...] Read more.
The sensitivity and accuracy of nanopore sensors are severely hindered by the high noise associated with solid-state nanopores. To mitigate this issue, the deposition of organic polymer materials onto silicon nitride (SiNx) membranes has been effective in obtaining low-noise measurements. Nonetheless, the fabrication of nanopores sub-10 nm on thin polymer membranes remains a significant challenge. This work proposes a method for fabricating nanopores on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) membrane by the local high electrical field controlled breakdown, exploring the impact of voltage and current on the breakdown of PMMA membranes and discussing the mechanism underlying the breakdown voltage and current during the formation of nanopores. By improving the electric field application method, transient high electric fields that are one–seven times higher than the breakdown electric field can be utilized to fabricate nanopores. A comparative analysis was performed on the current noise levels of nanopores in PMMA-SiNx composite membranes and SiNx nanopores with a 5 nm diameter. The results demonstrated that the fast fabrication of nanopores on PMMA-SiNx membranes exhibited reduced current noise compared to SiNx nanopores. This finding provides evidence supporting the feasibility of utilizing this technology for efficiently fabricating low-noise nanopores on polymer composite membranes. Full article
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