Resources of Urban Green Spaces and Sustainable Development

A special issue of Resources (ISSN 2079-9276).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2022) | Viewed by 22922

Special Issue Editor

1. Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Urmia University, Urmia 5756151818, Iran
2. Higher Technical School of Architecture, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: sustainable urban development; climate change adaptation; urban health; outdoor thermal comfort; urban green spaces; urban heat island; built environment; land use planning; mental map analyzing; social interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urban green spaces are considered one of the most valuable natural resources in cities. Given contentious issues such as climate change, global warming, and environmental pollution in cities, the importance of green spaces has been increasing due to their natural elements. These spaces are capable of diminishing heat problems together with reducing air pollution in urban areas. One of the vital issues in recent decades is the discussion of sustainable development and livability of cities for human societies, which can be achieved through sustainable development goals.

Accordingly, the potential of urban green spaces in urban areas is an integral part of urban sustainable development. Appropriate attention and improvement of urban green spaces make them pleasant and livable, which in turn lead to improving quality of life and urban health. The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for topics which assesses the role of urban green spaces as a natural resource on the sustainability of human society.

This Special Issue welcomes novel studies including research articles, review papers, and technical notes related to urban green spaces that are in line with achieving sustainable development goals. It also includes the effect of urban green spaces on reducing environmental crises, promoting urban health, comfort, and the wellbeing of the citizens.

Dr. Farshid Aram
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Resources is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • natural resources
  • green resources
  • urban green spaces
  • urban greenery
  • green infrastructures
  • sustainable development goals
  • sustainable city and society
  • urban health
  • climate change action
  • good health and well-being

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 193 KiB  
Editorial
Resources of Urban Green Spaces and Sustainable Development
by Farshid Aram
Resources 2024, 13(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13010010 - 10 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3798
Abstract
Urban green spaces are considered one of the most valuable natural resources in cities [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resources of Urban Green Spaces and Sustainable Development)

Research

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16 pages, 2775 KiB  
Article
Relationship of Photosynthetic Activity of Polygonum acuminatum and Ludwigia lagunae with Physicochemical Aspects of Greywater in a Zero-Liquid Discharge System
by Karen Takahashi, Gabriela Araújo, Vali Pott, Nídia Yoshida, Liana Lima, Anderson Caires and Paula Paulo
Resources 2022, 11(10), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11100084 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
Landscape harmony is a key factor in the application of nature-based solutions to provide green areas. The search for plants that meet this requirement is crucial in this context. We evaluated the adaptation, resistance, and performance of Polygonum acuminatum and Ludwigia lagunae, [...] Read more.
Landscape harmony is a key factor in the application of nature-based solutions to provide green areas. The search for plants that meet this requirement is crucial in this context. We evaluated the adaptation, resistance, and performance of Polygonum acuminatum and Ludwigia lagunae, macrophytes from the Pantanal biome, in greywater-fed mesocosms simulating zero-liquid discharge systems. Four irrigation solutions were tested for 212 d. Neither species exhibited stress conditions in the adaptation phase, with photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm) close to that obtained in Pantanal. However, over time, the mesocosms irrigated with greywater (GW) without nutrient supplementation exhibited stress according to correlation analyses of photosystem PSII and physicochemical parameters; L. lagunae for dissolved oxygen below 3 mg L−1 and P. acuminatum for water temperatures above 27 °C. Supplementation of GW with nutrients resulted in good growth and performance. Both species were able to receive high chemical oxygen demand (COD) loads, averaging 34 g m−2 day−1 for L. lagunae and 11 g m−2 day−1 for P. acuminatum, with an average removal of 85% by both. L. lagunae had better evapotranspiration capacity, with greater potential for use in cooling islands, whereas P. acuminatum showed a more resistant metabolism without nutrient supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resources of Urban Green Spaces and Sustainable Development)
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17 pages, 8348 KiB  
Article
Spatial Planning of the Coastal Marine Socioecological System—Case Study: Punta Carnero, Ecuador
by Jenny Escandón-Panchana, Rafael Elao Vallejo, Paulo Escandón-Panchana, Andrés Velastegui-Montoya and Gricelda Herrera-Franco
Resources 2022, 11(8), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11080074 - 4 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3300
Abstract
Marine-coastal ecosystems are productive and valuable habitats worldwide due to their significant contributions to human wellbeing. However, human activities, limited territorial planning, and unsustainable demand and consumption of natural goods and services put pressure on marine-coastal ecosystems. In this sense, marine-coastal planning is [...] Read more.
Marine-coastal ecosystems are productive and valuable habitats worldwide due to their significant contributions to human wellbeing. However, human activities, limited territorial planning, and unsustainable demand and consumption of natural goods and services put pressure on marine-coastal ecosystems. In this sense, marine-coastal planning is a management tool to contrast these forces because it manages different human activities on the coast and in the oceans over space and time, strengthening political, social, and tourist development and the economy of the territory. Our objective is to propose marine-coastal spatial planning strategies through an ecosystem-based approach for allocating a mangrove and estuarine zone conservation area. The study methodology is: (i) Compilation of information from the study area with an emphasis on regulations and protected areas. (ii) Analysis of human relations with marine-coastal ecosystems. (iii) Mapping and zoning of the conservation area. (iv) Analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats and threats, weaknesses, opportunities, strengths (SWOT–TWOS) matrix to recommend strategies and guarantee the viability of marine-coastal protection. The results show zoning maps of the sector proposed as a conservation area comprising mangroves and an estuarine zone. It also approaches governance strategies or conservation management measures and protection of the marine-coastal space. Finally, as a recommendation, we propose improvements to the current municipal ordinances, guaranteeing the management and protection of the study area, and furthering achievements in the comprehensive development of land-use planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resources of Urban Green Spaces and Sustainable Development)
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9 pages, 5311 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Inefficient Urban Growth on Spatial Inequality of Urban Green Resources (Case Study: Urmia City)
by Majid Ramezani Mehrian, Ayoub Manouchehri Miandoab, Asghar Abedini and Farshid Aram
Resources 2022, 11(7), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11070062 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2227
Abstract
Urban green spaces are essential for improving the livability of cities. Urban parks as green and public open spaces and signs of nature in cities have special economic and social value. The existence of neighborhood parks and their proper distribution is a key [...] Read more.
Urban green spaces are essential for improving the livability of cities. Urban parks as green and public open spaces and signs of nature in cities have special economic and social value. The existence of neighborhood parks and their proper distribution is a key element for improving the quality of life in the cities. Spatial equity and accessibility to parks are factors influencing the performance of parks. This study was conducted to determine the current situation of Urmia city in this regard by using the travel cost approach and network analysis, and also examining the impact of rapid urban growth on spatial inequalities. According to the results, 18% of the residential land in Urmia city is located outside of the park service area, and 68% of residential lands outside the park’s service area are areas that have developed as a result of urban growth in the last two decades. Based on the analysis, in 23 neighborhoods of Urmia city, the entire neighborhood is located in the service area of parks and has pedestrian access to this service. Other neighborhoods—to address the issue of spatial justice related to urban parks—fall into three categories: high, medium, and low priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resources of Urban Green Spaces and Sustainable Development)
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16 pages, 1949 KiB  
Article
The Ratio of Biologically Vital Areas as a Measure of the Sustainability of Urban Parks Using the Example of Budapest, Hungary
by Kinga Kimic and Albert Fekete
Resources 2022, 11(5), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11050047 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2824
Abstract
Biologically vital areas (BVAs) indicate regions with ecological functions within cities. Their presence in green spaces helps to counteract the negative impacts of built-up areas and impermeable structures on urban environments and city dwellers. The main objective of this study was to examine [...] Read more.
Biologically vital areas (BVAs) indicate regions with ecological functions within cities. Their presence in green spaces helps to counteract the negative impacts of built-up areas and impermeable structures on urban environments and city dwellers. The main objective of this study was to examine the level of sustainability of urban parks based on their real ratio of biologically vital areas (RBVA). The preliminary research was conducted in 2021 on six randomly selected parks in Budapest, Hungary, which are examples either of site rehabilitation or of new designs based on a sustainable approach. The areas of the main types of landcover with ecological functions, such as greenery planted on the ground, green roofs, permeable pavement, and water reservoirs, were measured and compared to the area of hard structures as well as the entire area of each park. The results show that the RBVA was below 50% in four of the six studied cases (ranging from 22.97% in MOM Park to 44.13% in Millenáris Park) and above 50% in two cases (51.52% in Graphisoft Park and 79.31% in Nehru Park). This diversity resulted from the need to reconcile ecological and social functions in urban parks; however, the implementation of sustainable solutions should be increased in further development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resources of Urban Green Spaces and Sustainable Development)
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11 pages, 451 KiB  
Article
Urban Gardens as Sustainable Attractions for Children in Family Tourism
by Francesc Fusté-Forné and Maria Fusté Forné
Resources 2021, 10(11), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10110111 - 1 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3783
Abstract
Most of the global population live in urban environments and the majority of tourist flows are concentrated in cities. Urban agriculture has recently emerged as an avenue for the protection of sustainable food production and the promotion of sustainable food consumption. Also, the [...] Read more.
Most of the global population live in urban environments and the majority of tourist flows are concentrated in cities. Urban agriculture has recently emerged as an avenue for the protection of sustainable food production and the promotion of sustainable food consumption. Also, the relationships between horticulture and tourism are attracting growing interest in the context of urban studies. Drawing on a qualitative approach based on ten semi-structured interviews, this research analyzes the relationship between urban gardens and family tourism. The paper innovatively contributes to the understanding of gardens as an urban attraction that improves the sustainable production and consumption of food in the context of family tourism experiences. The results show the relevance of urban gardens for the creation of sustainable experiences that engage families with local food, enhance local supply chains, and inform the future of urban environments. Urban gardens are a visitor attraction that may lead to the development of sustainable people, places and products, and they represent the sustainable integration of horticulture in tourism based on participatory experiences, direct contact with the natural environment and the discovery of the origin of food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resources of Urban Green Spaces and Sustainable Development)
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Other

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17 pages, 6904 KiB  
Case Report
Green Resources for Safety Improvement and Sustainable Landscape Design: The Case of a Dangerous Tehran-Dizin Road Bend
by Mahsa Habibi, Elnaz Chitsazzadeh and Amir Mosavi
Resources 2022, 11(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020019 - 9 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3271
Abstract
Improving road safety is not only reliant on engineering aspects but also on the surrounding landscape, which plays an indispensable role in drivers’ visual perception. As a part of road landscapes, green areas affect road safety by screening or framing views. While vistas [...] Read more.
Improving road safety is not only reliant on engineering aspects but also on the surrounding landscape, which plays an indispensable role in drivers’ visual perception. As a part of road landscapes, green areas affect road safety by screening or framing views. While vistas could be highlighted in safe spots in order for road users to enjoy their travel, in dangerous scenic points, visual attractions need to be concealed to lessen visual distractions and the risk of accidents. This study aims at optimizing road safety through sustainable landscape design in one of the dangerous Tehran–Dizin road bends to meet both road safety and environmental requirements. In doing so, cone of vision formulas have been applied to calculate measures of green landscape features so as to hide visual distractions and upgrade safety. To design such a green landscape, green resources and their characteristics have been elaborated, and native species have been suggested in plant composition, which can improve the sense of place, enhance the environment, and create a sustainable landscape. The research shows that a cone of vision could functionally be employed to increase the success of a designed green landscape, especially in situations where two-dimensional approaches are not sufficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resources of Urban Green Spaces and Sustainable Development)
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