Recent Advances and Trends in Underwater Optical Wireless Communications and Networks

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 3406

Special Issue Editors

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cognitive Radio and Information Processing, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004, China
Interests: machine learning; wireless communication; underwater optical communication and network; 5G/6G; ad hoc network
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cognitive Radio and Information Processing, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004, China
Interests: wireless communications; IoT; 6G; smart manufacturing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, we have witnessed increased interest in ocean exploration due to foreseeable depletion of several oceanic resources and rapid global climate changes. This has prompted research and development of high-speed, long-distance, highly secure, efficient and robust underwater optical wireless communication (UOWC) in the military, industrial, and scientific sectors. UOWC has emerged, promising high data rate communication in the underwater environment. This technology has proven its value in various applications, such as control of docking ports, real-time video transmission, telemetry, disaster prevention, environmental surveillance, offshore exploration, and oceanographic studies. It is a promising candidate for underwater communication, specifically using blue and green light. Several research efforts have been devoted to attaining long-distance UOWC, including iteration of algorithms and device updates. However, underwater scattered light can cause spatial, temporal, polarization, and phase distortion in the emitted optical signals. It can substantially restrict the transmission rate and distance between underwater devices. To ensure efficient, secure, and high-speed UOWC, research has focused on developing new communication mechanisms, novel transceiver designs, and new modulation formats.

This Special Issue aims to provide a platform for the recent advances and innovations in UOWCs. You are cordially invited to submit original research articles or perspective reviews, including the recent trends and developments regarding the current state-of-the art UOWCs. The scope of this Special Issue includes, but is not limited to:

  • Emerging UOWC technologies;
  • New advances and challenges of UOWCs;
  • Coding, detection, and modulation schemes for UOWC;
  • Hybrid underwater optical wireless networks;
  • Energy transfer and harvesting in Underwater Optical Wireless Systems;
  • Internet of Underwater Things (IoUTs);
  • Single-photon detector-based communication;
  • Detector sensors, high-efficiency photodetectors for UOWC systems;
  • Optical light sources for UOWC systems;
  • Characterization of aquatic optical channels;
  • Machine-learning-based algorithms for UOWC;
  • Non-orthogonal Multiple Access techniques for UOWCs;
  • Intelligent Reflecting Surface (IRS)-based UOWCs;
  • Quantum-key distribution techniques;
  • Standards, protocols, and recommendation for UOWCs;
  • Experiments, trials, and testbeds for UOWCs;
  • Fiber-wireless communication systems;
  • UOWC positioning and localization;
  • Scattering and oceanic turbulence mitigation techniques;
  • Oceanic turbulence modeling and simulation.

Dr. Syed Agha Hassnain Mohsan
Dr. Yanlong Li
Dr. Zou Zhou
Dr. Khaled Rabie
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • underwater optical wireless communication
  • underwater visible light communication
  • optical communications
  • free space optical communication
  • architecture and protocol

Published Papers (2 papers)

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12 pages, 5128 KiB  
Article
Research on a Blue–Green LED Communication System Based on an Underwater Mobile Robot
by Tianhao Shen, Junfang Guo, Hexi Liang, Yanlong Li, Kaiwen Li, Yonghong Dai and Yong Ai
Photonics 2023, 10(11), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10111238 - 7 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Underwater robots have been widely used in ocean exploration, deep-sea observation, seabed operations, marine scientific research, and other fields. Underwater low-latency, efficient, and safe communication modes are key to realizing the application of an underwater robot data transmission system. This paper mainly studies [...] Read more.
Underwater robots have been widely used in ocean exploration, deep-sea observation, seabed operations, marine scientific research, and other fields. Underwater low-latency, efficient, and safe communication modes are key to realizing the application of an underwater robot data transmission system. This paper mainly studies the optical communication between underwater mobile robots, including the large-dispersion-angle light-emitting diode (LED) design, large field of view receiving technology, weak light detector technology, etc. By designing a 120° large divergence angle underwater optical communication system in this study, the receiving field-of-view angle of the receiving end can reach 60°, which is suitable for the optical communication system of an underwater mobile platform. The high-power LED driver circuit is designed to drive the high-power LED and adopt weak light detection technology to ensure its stability and reliability. The experimental results show that, in the case of incomplete alignment between the transmitter and receiver, stable communication of underwater robots in motion is achieved through the design of a large divergence angle and a receiving field-of-view angle and the use of an underwater weak light detection technology. The communication distance is 30 m, and the communication rate remains above 10 Mbps. The information transmission content can include network data transmission, real-time video, high-definition video, high-definition images, and other data types. This equipment provides a solution for cableless data transmission of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and substantially enhances the application field of ROVs. Full article
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14 pages, 8350 KiB  
Article
Research on Adaptive Transmit Diversity Strategy for Reducing Interference in Underwater Optical Multi-Beam Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Systems
by Yanlong Li, Yutong Jiang, Xiao Chen, Pengcheng Jiang, Shuaixing Li and Yu Hu
Photonics 2023, 10(10), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10101152 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
With the rapid development of the underwater Internet of Things (IoT), the number of underwater communication nodes is rapidly increasing. The access capacity of a traditional multi-antenna communication system is limited by the number of transmitting antennas, and multi-beam communication systems using non-orthogonal [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of the underwater Internet of Things (IoT), the number of underwater communication nodes is rapidly increasing. The access capacity of a traditional multi-antenna communication system is limited by the number of transmitting antennas, and multi-beam communication systems using non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technology can enhance the access capacity of the system. However, this can lead to serious inter-beam and intra-beam interference. To address the severe issues of inter-beam and intra-beam interference in underwater multi-beam NOMA systems, we propose an adaptive transmit diversity strategy. We design an algorithm for adaptive selection and merging beams based on the degree of interference between beams in space, which merges LED beams with high interference. Diversity technology is used to reduce interference between beams, and spatial multiplexing is still performed between LED groups with low interference. Within the same beam, we use an OFDM-NOMA scheme to match and group the users. Signals from different user groups are sent through different subcarriers to improve resource utilization. This enhances access capacity while reducing NOMA inter-user interference. Simulation results show that the bit error rate (BER) of users with the adaptive transmit diversity strategy satisfies the forward error correction (FEC) limits in the presence of high inter-beam interference and has a better reachable rate and BER performance compared to the multi-beam access system without interference management. We also analyze the system BER performance of the proposed strategy in the multi-user case, and the BER of all 32 access nodes are lower than the FEC threshold at a communication distance of 5 m. This demonstrates that the strategy can effectively reduce the interference of the multi-beam NOMA system. Full article
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