Pharmacy Curriculum Development

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 35418

Special Issue Editor

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
Interests: the development of undergraduate programs for pharmacy, pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences; the role of motivational and other noncognitive factors in the study success of undergraduate students and pharmacists who participate in continuous professional development programs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Worldwide changes in the roles of pharmacists have triggered the idea to dedicate a Special Issue of this journal to ‘Pharmacy Curriculum Development’. Originally the submission deadline for contributions to this special issue was set at May 2020. The reality of a Covid-19 disturbed world has, however, forced us to be more lenient. A new deadline is now set for December 31st, 2020. We hope that some colleagues want to share their valuable experiences with the development and optimization of the Pharmacy curriculum.

The following (non-exhaustive) list of subjects may be of interest for this issue: educational frameworks, progressive development of student competences, motivation, feedback and assessment, and suitable teaching/learning approaches for professional development. In addition, curriculum integration, optimization, management, and teacher/preceptor professionalization are planned to be covered.

Authors are invited to describe their experiences with aspects of curriculum development in a concrete and practical way, aimed at supporting colleagues worldwide with the design of completely new curricula or with the re-engineering of existing curricula.

Dr. Andries S. Koster
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

16 pages, 1278 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Bachelor Course on Pain with Autonomy-Supportive Teaching Strategies through the Lens of Self-Determination Theory
Pharmacy 2021, 9(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9010066 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2860
Abstract
To stimulate learners’ autonomy, autonomy-supportive teaching strategies were included in the design of a multidisciplinary elective course on pain. During this course, students explored pain from different disciplinary angles, i.e., from biomedical, psychological, arts, philosophical, and anthropological perspectives. In the course, autonomy was [...] Read more.
To stimulate learners’ autonomy, autonomy-supportive teaching strategies were included in the design of a multidisciplinary elective course on pain. During this course, students explored pain from different disciplinary angles, i.e., from biomedical, psychological, arts, philosophical, and anthropological perspectives. In the course, autonomy was stimulated by giving students freedom of choice, especially in their final assignments. The aim of this study was to explore students’ freedom of choice and students’ perceptions of the multidisciplinary course on pain, particularly students’ perception of autonomy in the light of self-determination theory (SDT). To address the aim of this study, a mixed methods approach was used. Directed content analysis was conducted on a reflective part of the final individual assignment and was used to find categories fitting within SDT and also outside it. In addition to this, the diversity of topics as well as different disciplines present in the final individual assignments was explored to demonstrate students’ freedom of choice. This study shows that the course setup supported students’ autonomy and relatedness and stimulated students’ interest in and relevance to pain. Moreover, it stimulated students’ freedom of choice and stimulated curiosity towards disciplines such as arts and philosophy. Therefore, it can be concluded that we successfully developed a multidisciplinary course on pain in which students are exposed to different autonomy-supportive teaching strategies based on the SDT framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Curriculum Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1911 KiB  
Article
Students’ Feedback on the Development of a Competency-Based Pharmacy Education (CBPE) at the University of Tartu, Estonia
Pharmacy 2021, 9(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9010045 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2916
Abstract
Increasing need in society to provide collaborative and patient-centered pharmaceutical care has to be addressed in curriculum development. Principles of competency-based pharmacy education (CBPE) could be seen as one solution to the new professional challenges of pharmacists. At the University of Tartu (UT), [...] Read more.
Increasing need in society to provide collaborative and patient-centered pharmaceutical care has to be addressed in curriculum development. Principles of competency-based pharmacy education (CBPE) could be seen as one solution to the new professional challenges of pharmacists. At the University of Tartu (UT), the Pharmacy curriculum was updated in 2019 to introduce principles of CBPE. The aim of this study was to gather initial students’ feedback on the development of CBPE at the UT. The survey was conducted in the spring semester of the 2019/2020 academic year to collect feedback about all curricula at the UT. All 1st, 3rd, and 5th year pharmacy students (n = 67) were invited and 70.1% (N = 47) of them also participated in this study in order to evaluate the Pharmacy curriculum. Pharmacy students were more complacent with the content and less with the fixed structure of the Pharmacy curriculum. Students emphasized more theoretical knowledge and less practical and transferable skills of the competencies developed over the studies. Initial student feedback on the development of CBPE in Estonia demonstrated that theoretical knowledge needs to be more integrated with practice throughout the curriculum. In the future, more attention should be paid to the development of transferable skills, including digital skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Curriculum Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1453 KiB  
Article
Role of Nutrition Education in Pharmacy Curriculum—Students’ Perspectives and Attitudes
Pharmacy 2021, 9(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9010026 - 23 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2152
Abstract
Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. Purpose: This study was conducted to determine if today’s pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of [...] Read more.
Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. Purpose: This study was conducted to determine if today’s pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of a nutrition course. Methods: Ninety-five pharmacy students attending pharmacy school were surveyed in two pharmacy schools in the United States. Results: The survey showed only 13.7% received nutrition education and 82.9% of students believed nutrition education should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. When the pharmacy-related experience was taken into account, 73.3% of students believed that a nutrition course should be incorporated into the curriculum. Conclusion: This study suggests that pharmacy students from two major universities in Alabama and Illinois realize the importance of nutrition education and believe a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Curriculum Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 727 KiB  
Article
Design of a Pharmacy Curriculum on Patient Centered Communication Skills
Pharmacy 2021, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9010022 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4915
Abstract
For delivering high quality pharmaceutical care pharmacy students need to develop the competences for patient centered communication. The aim of the article is to describe how a curriculum on patient centered communication can be designed for a pharmacy program. General educational principles for [...] Read more.
For delivering high quality pharmaceutical care pharmacy students need to develop the competences for patient centered communication. The aim of the article is to describe how a curriculum on patient centered communication can be designed for a pharmacy program. General educational principles for curriculum design are based on the theories of constructive alignment, self-directed learning and the self-determination theory. Other principles are paying systematic and explicit attention to skills development, learning skills in the context of the pharmacy practice and using a well-balanced system for the assessment of students’ performance. Effective educational methods for teaching communication skills are small group training sessions preferably with (simulation) patients, preceded by lectures or e-learning modules. For (formative or summative) assessment different methods can be used. The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) is preferred for summative assessment of communication competence. The principles and educational methods are illustrated with examples from the curriculum of the master Pharmacy program of Utrecht University (The Netherlands). The topics ‘pharmaceutical consultations on prescription medicine,’ ‘pharmaceutical consultations on self-care medication’ and ‘clinical medication reviews’ are described in detail. Finally, lessons learned are shared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Curriculum Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 440 KiB  
Article
Knowledge and Attitudes of Student Pharmacists Regarding Polypharmacy and Deprescribing: A Cross-Sectional Study
Pharmacy 2020, 8(4), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8040220 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2730
Abstract
Pharmacists play a key role in deprescribing medications. Incorporation of this concept into pharmacy school curricula is important in ensuring that graduates can address the complex needs of an aging population. The aims of this study were to assess if and how student [...] Read more.
Pharmacists play a key role in deprescribing medications. Incorporation of this concept into pharmacy school curricula is important in ensuring that graduates can address the complex needs of an aging population. The aims of this study were to assess if and how student pharmacists were exposed to deprescribing within their curriculum, to assess students’ perceptions regarding their attitudes, ability and confidence in deprescribing, and to assess if reported curricular exposure to this topic resulted in improved perceptions or objective knowledge assessment scores. An electronic survey was distributed to third- and fourth-year pharmacy students at 132 schools of pharmacy. The survey included three sections including: (i) demographics and questions on their exposure to deprescribing and other experiences within their curriculum; (ii) questions regarding their attitudes, ability, and confidence regarding deprescribing on a 5-point Likert-scale; (iii) a knowledge assessment on polypharmacy and deprescribing in the form of 12 multiple-choice questions. Likert-scale questions were analyzed as scales utilizing the mean score for items measuring student perceptions regarding deprescribing attitudes, ability, and confidence. Comparisons were made on each variable between students with and without curricular exposure to deprescribing using t-tests. Ninety-one responses were included in the analysis. Only 59.3% of respondents reported exposure to deprescribing in their didactic coursework. The mean scores on the polypharmacy and deprescribing knowledge assessments were 61.0% and 64.5%, respectively. Those with exposure to deprescribing concepts within their curriculum were more likely to agree that their school’s curriculum prepared them to deprescribe in clinical practice (t(89) = −2.26, p = 0.03). Pharmacy schools should evaluate their curricula and consider the addition of specific deprescribing objectives and outcome measures for didactic and experiential training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Curriculum Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2387 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Changes of Deep and Surface Learning in a Constructivist Pharmacy Curriculum
Pharmacy 2020, 8(4), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8040200 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
In the undergraduate Pharmacy program at the department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, an educational model is used that is aimed at the development of deep and self-regulating learning. It is, however, unknown whether these objectives are realized. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
In the undergraduate Pharmacy program at the department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, an educational model is used that is aimed at the development of deep and self-regulating learning. It is, however, unknown whether these objectives are realized. The aim of this study was to assess longitudinal changes in processing and regulation strategies of student learning during their progression in the curriculum, that is explicitly based on constructivist principles. Processing strategies (deep vs. stepwise), regulation strategies (self- vs. external), conceptions of learning and orientations to learning were measured with the Inventory of Learning patterns of Students (ILS). Longitudinal data are reported here for students, of which data are available for year 1/2 and year 4/5 (n = 90). The results demonstrate that the use of deep processing (critical thinking in particular, effect size = 0.94), stepwise processing (analyzing in particular, effect size = 0.55) and concrete processing strategies (effect size = 0.78) increases between the bachelor phase (year 1/2) and the master phase (year 4/5). This change is based on the students having a constructivist view about the nature of learning and is mediated through a relatively large increase in the use of self-regulating strategies (effect size = 0.75). We conclude that this six-year undergraduate Pharmacy program effectively stimulates the development of deep and self-regulated learning strategies in pharmacy students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Curriculum Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 968 KiB  
Article
The Pharmacy Game-GIMMICS® a Simulation Game for Competency-Based Education
Pharmacy 2020, 8(4), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8040198 - 24 Oct 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6146
Abstract
The profile of the profession of pharmacists has profoundly changed over the last decades. Pharmacy education has moved towards competency-based education. The pharmacy game, called GIMMICS®, developed at the University of Groningen, is unique in combining simulation with serious gaming to [...] Read more.
The profile of the profession of pharmacists has profoundly changed over the last decades. Pharmacy education has moved towards competency-based education. The pharmacy game, called GIMMICS®, developed at the University of Groningen, is unique in combining simulation with serious gaming to teach a wide range of competencies. In this article, we describe the learning goals, the assessment methods, the teaching tools, and the students’ view of the pharmacy game. The learning goals are to train the competencies of collaboration, leadership, communication, and pharmaceutical expertise. The core of the game is the simulation of community pharmacy practice activities, such as patient counseling, processing of prescriptions, and collaboration with other health professionals. Students are assessed individually and as a pharmacy team. The pharmacy team, with the largest number of patients wins the game. Student evaluations show that they value the course. Currently, seven universities from around the globe have adopted the pharmacy game in their curriculum, adjusting the course to their country’s pharmacy practice and educational system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Curriculum Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1344 KiB  
Communication
Managing a Curriculum Innovation Process
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030153 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4388
Abstract
Curriculum reform is a long-term project that needs to be managed through detailed strategy. To create this strategy, the management team has to analyse the current situation by doing a thorough environmental scan and by identifying the gap between the current state and [...] Read more.
Curriculum reform is a long-term project that needs to be managed through detailed strategy. To create this strategy, the management team has to analyse the current situation by doing a thorough environmental scan and by identifying the gap between the current state and the desired program. To be implemented, the vision of the new program needs to rely on the generation of several potential avenues to come up with optimal solutions, likely involving some form of innovation. Indeed, to come up with the most promising ideas, there needs to be an environment conducive to reflection and experimentation. Throughout the phases of analysis, decision making and implementation, specific activities need to be organised to engage college members. Furthermore, such a profoundly impacting project needs to include a parallel change management strategy to account for expected human resistance, both individual and collective (internal culture). This article proposes a method and several concrete actions to help leaders and managers support the development and implementation of a new and innovative curriculum to promote and support advancement of local professional practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Curriculum Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2057 KiB  
Article
Alignment of CanMEDS-Based Undergraduate and Postgraduate Pharmacy Curricula in The Netherlands
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030117 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3287
Abstract
In this article the design of three master programs (MSc in Pharmacy) and two postgraduate specialization programs for community or hospital pharmacist is described. After a preceding BSc in Pharmacy, these programs cover the full pharmacy education capacity for pharmacists in primary and [...] Read more.
In this article the design of three master programs (MSc in Pharmacy) and two postgraduate specialization programs for community or hospital pharmacist is described. After a preceding BSc in Pharmacy, these programs cover the full pharmacy education capacity for pharmacists in primary and secondary health care in the Netherlands. All programs use the CanMEDS framework, adapted to pharmacy education and specialization, which facilitates the horizontal integration of pharmacists’ professional development with other health care professions in the country. Moreover, it is illustrated that crossing the boundary from formal (university) education to experiential (workplace) education is eased by a gradual change in time spent in these two educational environments and by the use of comparable monitoring, feedback, and authentic assessment instruments. A reflection on the curricula, based on the principles of the Integrative Pedagogy Model and the Self-determination Theory, suggests that the alignment of these educational programs facilitates the development of professional expertise and professional identity of Dutch pharmacists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Curriculum Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 218 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Compounding Training in the Australian Undergraduate Pharmacy Curricula
Pharmacy 2020, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8010027 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2859
Abstract
Introduction: In recent decades the role of the Australian community pharmacist has evolved to focus primarily on pharmaceutical care provision. Despite this, compounding remains an important product service offered by pharmacists. The aim of this study was to qualitatively describe the current integration [...] Read more.
Introduction: In recent decades the role of the Australian community pharmacist has evolved to focus primarily on pharmaceutical care provision. Despite this, compounding remains an important product service offered by pharmacists. The aim of this study was to qualitatively describe the current integration of training in compounding within Bachelor of Pharmacy courses in Australia. Methods: The Australian Health Practitioner Regulatory Agency website was searched to identify eligible university courses. Subsequently, the educational providers’ homepages were consulted, and Bachelor of Pharmacy handbooks and curricula perused. All relevant information regarding training in compounding was extracted. Results: In total, 16 Bachelor of Pharmacy courses were identified. All of these contain compounding training in their curricula, including laboratory classes. Most curricula have units specifically dedicated to compounding and drug formulation. Three universities offer a curriculum which is organ-systems based, and include compounding relevant to the individual organ systems. Discussion and Conclusions: In Australia, the training in compounding is well integrated into pharmacy curriculum and is more emphasised than in many other developed countries. This is congruent with the International Pharmaceutical Federation’s needs-based approach to local pharmacy education. In Australia there is a need for pharmacists to routinely dispense simple compounded products. Further research is required to evaluate Australian pharmacy graduates’ compounding abilities and how best to promote the achievement of the required knowledge and skills to enable simple compounding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Curriculum Development)
Back to TopTop