Nanomaterials: Electrochemistry and Electro-Analytical Application

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy and Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2024 | Viewed by 19264

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221, China
Interests: MOF-derived nanomaterials; hollow structure; interface engineering; water splitting; electrocatalysis; gas sensing

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Guest Editor
The University of the Western Cape (UWC) Sensor Laboratories (SensorLab), Univeristy of Western Cape, 4th Floor Chemical Sciences Building, Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
Interests: nanoarchitectonic antenna effect-lanthanide complex; kesterite; metal organic framework (MOF) and perovskite materials for applications in energy (generation/storage) and sensing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing concern over environmental sustainability, affordable healthcare. and energy accessibility has elicited heightened research interests in renewable energy sources and analytical sensors. Clean electrochemical energy conversion technologies, such as water electrolysis, batteries, supercapacitors, and photovoltaic cells, are regarded as promising “green” solutions due to their low carbon footprints. Further, advanced electrochemical sensor devices are being developed for point-of-need applications in real-time detection (RTD) of disease markers and environmental contaminants. To facilitate the electrochemical reactions in these energy and sensor technologies, advanced functional nanomaterials are required. Inorganic materials (such as metal chalcogenides, antenna effect-lanthanide complexes, kesterites, MOFs, and perovskites) that are formed in various crystalline phases exhibit properties that make them suitable as emerging nano-electrocatalysts. These nanomaterials are functionalized by interface engineering, ion doping, morphology control, and other strategies, which improve their energy conversion efficiency and sensor performance. This Special Issue will include review articles and original research work on chalcogenides, antenna effect–lanthanide complexes, kesterites, MOFs and perovskites, and their applications in energy, electrocatalysis, and electroanalytical sensor processes. Articles on density functional theory (DFT) simulation studies that provide a better understanding of structure–function relationships of the materials and device applications are welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Xuezhi Song
Prof. Dr. Emmanuel Iwuoha
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • electrochemical energy systems (battery, supercapacitor and supercapattery)
  • environmental sustainability
  • hydrogen evolution reaction
  • MOFs
  • oxygen evolution reaction
  • photovoltaic materials
  • sensors

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 10279 KiB  
Article
Bio-Electroanalysis Performance of Heme Redox-Center for π-π Interaction Bonding of a Methylene Blue-Graphene Modified Electrode
by Porntip Khownarumit, Kanmanee Choosang, Rungtiva P. Poo-arporn, Yingyot Poo-arporn, Narong Chanlek and Werasak Surareungchai
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(4), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13040745 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Hemeprotein detection has motivated extensive research on the direct reaction of a heme molecule and a redox dye. The present study used methylene blue as both donor and acceptor for a redox reaction. First, the solid phases of methylene blue (MB) and graphene [...] Read more.
Hemeprotein detection has motivated extensive research on the direct reaction of a heme molecule and a redox dye. The present study used methylene blue as both donor and acceptor for a redox reaction. First, the solid phases of methylene blue (MB) and graphene (GP) formed a π-π interaction bond at the aromatic rings. The conductivity of GP was better than that of carbon in a carbon electrode (CE). Then, the working CE was modified using strong adsorption of MB/GP on the electrode surface. The surface of the electrode was investigated using a modified and an unmodified electrode. The electrode’s properties were studied using voltammograms of redox couple K3[Fe(CN)6]3−/4−. Its reaction was used to find the active area of the modified electrode, which was 1.76 times bigger than that of the unmodified electrode. The surface coverage values of the modified and unmodified electrodes were 8.17 × 10−6 and 1.53 × 10−5 mol/cm2, respectively. This research also studied the application of hemeprotein detection. Hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin (Mb), and cytochrome c (Cyt. C) were studied by the reaction of Fe (III/II) at the heme-redox center. The electrocatalytic reaction between MB/GP and hemeproteins produced an anodic peak at 0.35 V for Hb, Mb, and Cyt. C. This nanohybrid film enhanced electron transfer between protein molecules and the modified carbon electrode. The amperometric measurements show that the limit of detection was 0.2 µM, 0.3 µM, and 0.1 µM for Hb, Mb, and Cyt. C, respectively. The measurement spanned a linear range of 0.2 µM to 5 µM, 0.3 µM to 5 µM, and 0.1 µM to 0.7 µM for Hb, Mb, and Cyt. C, respectively. Hb showed the lowest sensitivity compared with Mb and Cyt. C due to the role of steric hindrance in the hemeprotein specificity structure. This study offers a simple and efficient fabrication platform for electrochemical sensors for hemeproteins. When compared to other complex immobilization processes, the fabrication method for this sensor has many benefits, including no need for special chemicals and easy preparation and electrode modification—both of which are crucial for the development of electrochemical sensing devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials: Electrochemistry and Electro-Analytical Application)
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18 pages, 3439 KiB  
Article
Hydrazine High-Performance Oxidation and Sensing Using a Copper Oxide Nanosheet Electrocatalyst Prepared via a Foam-Surfactant Dual Template
by Etab M. Almutairi, Mohamed A. Ghanem, Abdulrahman Al-Warthan, Mufsir Kuniyil and Syed F. Adil
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13010129 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1598
Abstract
This work demonstrates hydrazine electro-oxidation and sensing using an ultrathin copper oxide nanosheet (CuO-NS) architecture prepared via a versatile foam-surfactant dual template (FSDT) approach. CuO-NS was synthesised by chemical deposition of the hexagonal surfactant Brij®58 liquid crystal template containing dissolved copper [...] Read more.
This work demonstrates hydrazine electro-oxidation and sensing using an ultrathin copper oxide nanosheet (CuO-NS) architecture prepared via a versatile foam-surfactant dual template (FSDT) approach. CuO-NS was synthesised by chemical deposition of the hexagonal surfactant Brij®58 liquid crystal template containing dissolved copper ions using hydrogen foam that was concurrently generated by a sodium borohydride reducing agent. The physical characterisations of the CuO-NS showed the formation of a two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin nanosheet architecture of crystalline CuO with a specific surface area of ~39 m2/g. The electrochemical CuO-NS oxidation and sensing performance for hydrazine oxidation revealed that the CuO nanosheets had a superior oxidation performance compared with bare-CuO, and the reported state-of-the-art catalysts had a high hydrazine sensitivity of 1.47 mA/cm2 mM, a low detection limit of 15 μM (S/N = 3), and a linear concentration range of up to 45 mM. Moreover, CuO-NS shows considerable potential for the practical use of hydrazine detection in tap and bottled water samples with a good recovery achieved. Furthermore, the foam-surfactant dual template (FSDT) one-pot synthesis approach could be used to produce a wide range of nanomaterials with various compositions and nanoarchitectures at ambient conditions for boosting the electrochemical catalytic reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials: Electrochemistry and Electro-Analytical Application)
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11 pages, 2639 KiB  
Article
Coupling Plant Polyphenol Coordination Assembly with Co(OH)2 to Enhance Electrocatalytic Performance towards Oxygen Evolution Reaction
by Xue-Zhi Song, Yu-Hang Zhao, Fan Zhang, Jing-Chang Ni, Zhou Zhang, Zhenquan Tan, Xiao-Feng Wang and Yanqiang Li
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(22), 3972; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12223972 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is kinetically sluggish due to the limitation of the four-electron transfer pathway, so it is imperative to explore advanced catalysts with a superior structure and catalytic output under facile synthetic conditions. In the present work, an easily accessible [...] Read more.
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is kinetically sluggish due to the limitation of the four-electron transfer pathway, so it is imperative to explore advanced catalysts with a superior structure and catalytic output under facile synthetic conditions. In the present work, an easily accessible strategy was proposed to implement the plant-polyphenol-involved coordination assembly on Co(OH)2 nanosheets. A TA-Fe (TA = tannic acid) coordination assembly growing on Co(OH)2 resulted in the heterostructure of Co(OH)2@TA-Fe as an electrocatalyst for OER. It could significantly decrease the overpotential to 297 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm−2. The heterostructure Co(OH)2@TA-Fe also possessed favorable reaction kinetics with a low Tafel slope of 64.8 mV dec−1 and facilitated a charge-transfer ability. The enhanced electrocatalytic performance was further unraveled to be related to the confined growth of the coordination assembly on Co(OH)2 to expose more active sites, the modulated surface properties and their synergistic effect. This study demonstrated a simple and feasible strategy to utilize inexpensive biomass-derived substances as novel modifiers to enhance the performance of energy-conversion electrocatalysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials: Electrochemistry and Electro-Analytical Application)
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11 pages, 4331 KiB  
Article
Chlorophyll Detection by Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Using Functionalized Carbon Quantum Dots Triangle Ag Nanoparticles
by Nur Afifah Ahmad Nazri, Nur Hidayah Azeman, Mohd Hafiz Abu Bakar, Nadhratun Naiim Mobarak, Tg Hasnan Tg Abd Aziz, Ahmad Rifqi Md Zain, Norhana Arsad, Yunhan Luo and Ahmad Ashrif A. Bakar
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(17), 2999; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12172999 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
An optical sensor-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor was demonstrated for sensitive and selective chlorophyll detection through the integration of amino-functionalized carbon quantum dots (NCQD) and triangle silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The additions of amino groups to the CQD enhance the detection of [...] Read more.
An optical sensor-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor was demonstrated for sensitive and selective chlorophyll detection through the integration of amino-functionalized carbon quantum dots (NCQD) and triangle silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The additions of amino groups to the CQD enhance the detection of chlorophyll through electrostatic interactions. AgNPs-NCQD composite was fabricated on the surface of the silanized glass slide using the self-assembly technique. The experimental results showed that the AgNPs-NCQD film-based LSPR sensor detects better than AgNPs and AgNPs-CQD films with a good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9835). AgNPs-NCQD showed a high sensitivity response of 2.23 nm ppm−1. The detection and quantification limits of AgNPs-NCQD are 1.03 ppm and 3.40 ppm, respectively, in the range of 0.05 to 6 ppm. Throughout this study, no significant interference was observed among the other ionic species (NO2, PO4, NH4+, and Fe3+). This study demonstrates the applicability of the proposed sensor (AgNPs-NCQD) as a sensing material for chlorophyll detection in oceans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials: Electrochemistry and Electro-Analytical Application)
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12 pages, 2746 KiB  
Article
Platinum–Dysprosium Alloys as Oxygen Electrodes in Alkaline Media: An Experimental and Theoretical Study
by Jadranka Milikić, Nikola Nikolić, Diogo M. F. Santos, Daniele Macciò, Adriana Saccone, Mabkhoot Alsaiari, Mohammed Jalalah, M. Faisal, Farid A. Harraz, Yizhao Li, Abu Bakr Nassr, Igor Pašti and Biljana Šljukić
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(14), 2318; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12142318 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Platinum–dysprosium (Pt–Dy) alloys prepared by the arc melting technique are assessed as potential electrodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) using voltammetry and chronoamperometry in alkaline media. A relatively small change (10 at.%) in the alloy composition brought a notable difference in the [...] Read more.
Platinum–dysprosium (Pt–Dy) alloys prepared by the arc melting technique are assessed as potential electrodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) using voltammetry and chronoamperometry in alkaline media. A relatively small change (10 at.%) in the alloy composition brought a notable difference in the alloys’ performance for the ORR. Pt40Dy60 electrode, i.e., the electrode with a lower amount of Pt, was identified to have a higher activity towards ORR as evidenced by lower overpotential and higher current densities under identical experimental conditions. Furthermore, DFT calculations point out the unique single-atom-like coordination and electronic structure of Pt atoms in the Pt40Dy60 surface as responsible for enhanced ORR activity compared to the alloy with a higher Pt content. Additionally, Pt–Dy alloys showed activity in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), with the OER current density lower than that of pure Pt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials: Electrochemistry and Electro-Analytical Application)
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12 pages, 2130 KiB  
Article
Carbon Nanotube-Modified Nickel Hydroxide as Cathode Materials for High-Performance Li-S Batteries
by Qianwen Jin, Yajing Yan, Chenchen Hu, Yongguang Zhang, Xi Wang and Chunyong Liang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(5), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050886 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2165
Abstract
The advantages of high energy density and low cost make lithium–sulfur batteries one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. However, the electrical insulativity of sulfur and the serious shuttle effect of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) still impedes its further development. [...] Read more.
The advantages of high energy density and low cost make lithium–sulfur batteries one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. However, the electrical insulativity of sulfur and the serious shuttle effect of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) still impedes its further development. In this regard, a uniform hollow mesoporous Ni(OH)2@CNT microsphere was developed to address these issues. The SEM images show the Ni(OH)2 delivers an average size of about 5 μm, which is composed of nanosheets. The designed Ni(OH)2@CNT contains transition metal cations and interlayer anions, featuring the unique 3D spheroidal flower structure, decent porosity, and large surface area, which is highly conducive to conversion systems and electrochemical energy storage. As a result, the as-fabricated Li-S battery delivers the reversible capacity of 652 mAh g−1 after 400 cycles, demonstrating excellent capacity retention with a low average capacity loss of only 0.081% per cycle at 1 C. This work has shown that the Ni(OH)2@CNT sulfur host prepared by hydrothermal embraces delivers strong physical absorption as well as chemical affinity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials: Electrochemistry and Electro-Analytical Application)
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14 pages, 3504 KiB  
Article
Enhancement in Photovoltaic Performance of Solar Cells by Electrostatic Adsorption of Dyes on ZnO Nanorods
by Seong Il Cho, Baekseo Choi, Byeong Chul Lee, Yunsung Cho and Yoon Soo Han
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030372 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2165
Abstract
ZnO nanorods were formed by chemical bath deposition on fluorine–doped tin oxide (FTO) glass and the photovoltaic performance of ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated. A DSC with 8 h-grown ZnO nanorods showed a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than devices with [...] Read more.
ZnO nanorods were formed by chemical bath deposition on fluorine–doped tin oxide (FTO) glass and the photovoltaic performance of ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated. A DSC with 8 h-grown ZnO nanorods showed a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than devices with 4, 6, and 10 h-grown ones. Further improvement in PCE was achieved in a cell with a silver-ion-deposited ZnO/FTO electrode. By deposition of Ag+ on the surface of the 8 h-grown ZnO nanorods, the dye-loading amount increased by approximately 210%, compared to that of pristine ZnO nanorods, resulting in a 1.8-times higher PCE. A DSC with the pristine ZnO/FTO electrode showed a PCE of 0.629%, while in a device with the silver-ion-deposited ZnO/FTO, the PCE increased to 1.138%. In addition, interfacial resistance at the ZnO/dye/electrolyte was reduced to approximately 170 Ω from 460 Ω for the control cell with the pristine ZnO/FTO. We attributed the higher dye-loading amount in the silver-ion-deposited ZnO/FTO to the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged ZnO and carboxylate anions (–COO) of the N719 dyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials: Electrochemistry and Electro-Analytical Application)
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16 pages, 4586 KiB  
Article
Study of Structural and Optical Properties of Electrodeposited Silicon Films on Graphite Substrates
by Muhammad Monirul Islam, Hajer Said, Ahmed Hichem Hamzaoui, Adel Mnif, Takeaki Sakurai, Naoki Fukata and Katsuhiro Akimoto
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030363 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2426
Abstract
Silicon (Si) films were deposited on low-cost graphite substrates by the electrochemical reduction of silicon dioxide nanoparticles (nano-SiO2) in calcium chloride (CaCl2), melted at 855 °C. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to analyze the electrochemical reduction mechanism of SiO [...] Read more.
Silicon (Si) films were deposited on low-cost graphite substrates by the electrochemical reduction of silicon dioxide nanoparticles (nano-SiO2) in calcium chloride (CaCl2), melted at 855 °C. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to analyze the electrochemical reduction mechanism of SiO2 to form Si deposits on the graphite substrate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) along with Raman and photoluminescence (PL) results show that the crystallinity of the electrodeposited Si-films was improved with an increase of the applied reduction potential during the electrochemical process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that the size, shape, and morphology of the Si-layers can be controlled from Si nanowires to the microcrystalline Si particles by controlling the reduction potentials. In addition, the morphology of the obtained Si-layers seems to be correlated with both the substrate materials and particle size of the feed materials. Thus, the difference in the electron transfer rate at substrate/nano-SiO2 interface due to different applied reduction potentials along with the dissolution rate of SiO2 particles during the electrochemical reduction process were found to be crucial in determining the microstructural properties of the Si-films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials: Electrochemistry and Electro-Analytical Application)
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14 pages, 2965 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Sensor for Methamphetamine Detection Using Laser-Induced Porous Graphene Electrode
by Kasrin Saisahas, Asamee Soleh, Sunita Somsiri, Patthamaporn Senglan, Kiattisak Promsuwan, Jenjira Saichanapan, Proespichaya Kanatharana, Panote Thavarungkul, Khai Lee, Kah Haw Chang, Ahmad Fahmi Lim Abdullah, Kunanunt Tayayuth and Warakorn Limbut
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010073 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3319
Abstract
A 3D porous graphene structure was directly induced by CO2 laser from the surface of Kapton tape (carbon source) supported by polyethylene terephthalate (PET) laminating film. A highly flexible laser-induced porous graphene (LI-PGr) electrode was then fabricated via a facile one-step method [...] Read more.
A 3D porous graphene structure was directly induced by CO2 laser from the surface of Kapton tape (carbon source) supported by polyethylene terephthalate (PET) laminating film. A highly flexible laser-induced porous graphene (LI-PGr) electrode was then fabricated via a facile one-step method without reagent and solvent in a procedure that required no stencil mask. The method makes pattern design easy, and production cost-effective and scalable. We investigated the performance of the LI-PGr electrode for the detection of methamphetamine (MA) on household surfaces and in biological fluids. The material properties and morphology of LI-PGr were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) and Raman spectroscopy. The LI-PGr electrode was used as the detector in a portable electrochemical sensor, which exhibited a linear range from 1.00 to 30.0 µg mL−1 and a detection limit of 0.31 µg mL−1. Reproducibility was good (relative standard deviation of 2.50% at 10.0 µg mL−1; n = 10) and anti-interference was excellent. The sensor showed good precision and successfully determined MA on household surfaces and in saliva samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials: Electrochemistry and Electro-Analytical Application)
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