Hierarchical Nanostructured Materials for Multifunctional Applications

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanocomposite Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 7268

Special Issue Editor

Institute of Advanced Wear & Corrosion Resistant and Functional Materials, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
Interests: polymer nanocomposites; nanostructured materials; fiber-reinforced composites; carbon nanomaterials; energy storage and conversion; corrosion; wear
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well known that the performance of materials is highly dependent on their structures. Research on revealing their relationship is always the focus of material scientists. Due to their special mechanical properties, large specific surface area, excellent electrical/thermal conductive 3D network, and special porous structure, versatile hierarchical nanostructured materials have been designed and applied for various material systems, including polymers, metals, inorganic materials, and their composites. The study of the mechanisms of unique nanostructures on promoting the mechanical, electrical, thermal, and electrochemical properties of materials is essential to acquire new knowledge and pave the way for the development of novel advanced materials. Therefore, investigations in this field are attracting increasing research interest.

The aim of this Special Issue of Nanomaterials is to collect state-of-the-art contributions related to recent advancements in the field of designing and fabricating hierarchical nanostructured materials and their various applications, including (but not limited to) structure engineering materials, surface protective materials, functional materials for thermal management, electromagnetic shielding, supercapacitors, rechargeable batteries, sensors, etc.

Prof. Dr. Xusheng Du
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • polymer nanocomposites
  • carbon nanomaterials
  • fiber-reinforced composites
  • aerogel
  • hierarchical nanostructure
  • thermal conductivity
  • supercapacitors
  • corrosion
  • wear
  • conductive polymer

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

13 pages, 3324 KiB  
Article
Regulating Al2O3/PAN/PEG Nanofiber Membranes with Suitable Phase Change Thermoregulation Features
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(16), 2313; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13162313 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
To address the thermal comfort needs of the human body, the development of personal thermal management textile is critical. Phase change materials (PCMs) have a wide range of applications in thermal management due to their large thermal storage capacity and their isothermal properties [...] Read more.
To address the thermal comfort needs of the human body, the development of personal thermal management textile is critical. Phase change materials (PCMs) have a wide range of applications in thermal management due to their large thermal storage capacity and their isothermal properties during phase change. However, their inherent low thermal conductivity and susceptibility to leakage severely limit their application range. In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as the PCM and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as the polymer backbone, and the thermal conductivity was increased by adding spherical nano-alumina (Al2O3). Utilizing coaxial electrospinning technology, phase-change thermoregulated nanofiber membranes with a core-shell structure were created. The study demonstrates that the membranes perform best in terms of thermal responsiveness and thermoregulation when 5% Al2O3 is added. The prepared nanofiber membranes have a melting enthalpy of 60.05 J·g−1 and retain a high enthalpy after 50 cycles of cold and heat, thus withstanding sudden changes in ambient temperature well. Additionally, the nanofiber membranes have excellent air permeability and high moisture permeability, which can increase wearer comfort. As a result, the constructed coaxial phase change thermoregulated nanofiber membranes can be used as a promising textile for personal thermal management. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4499 KiB  
Article
Inorganic Skeleton Reinforcement—A Generic Approach to Improve the Mechanical Properties of Biochar
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(8), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13081298 - 07 Apr 2023
Viewed by 913
Abstract
Biochar is considered as a promising candidate for emerging sustainable energy systems and environmental technology applications. However, the improvement of mechanical properties remains challenges. Herein, we propose a generic strategy to enhance the mechanical properties of bio-based carbon materials through inorganic skeleton reinforcement. [...] Read more.
Biochar is considered as a promising candidate for emerging sustainable energy systems and environmental technology applications. However, the improvement of mechanical properties remains challenges. Herein, we propose a generic strategy to enhance the mechanical properties of bio-based carbon materials through inorganic skeleton reinforcement. As a proof-of-concept, silane, geopolymer, and inorganic gel are selected as precursors. The composites’ structures are characterized and an inorganic skeleton reinforcement mechanism is elucidated. Specifically, two types of reinforcement of the silicon-oxygen skeleton network formed in situ with biomass pyrolysis and the silica-oxy-al-oxy network are constructed to improve the mechanical properties. A significant improvement in mechanical strength was achieved for bio-based carbon materials. The compressive strength of well-balanced porous carbon materials modified by silane can reach up to 88.9 kPa, geopolymer-modified carbon material exhibits an enhanced compressive strength of 36.8 kPa, and that of inorganic-gel-polymer-modified carbon material is 124.6 kPa. Moreover, the prepared carbon materials with enhanced mechanical properties show excellent adsorption performance and high reusability for organic pollutant model compound methylene blue dye. This work demonstrates a promising and universal strategy for enhancing the mechanical properties of biomass-derived porous carbon materials. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 10297 KiB  
Article
Multi-Mixed Metal Hydroxide as a Strong Stratigraphic Nanoclay Inhibitor in Solid-Free Drilling Fluid
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(21), 3863; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12213863 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Solid-free drilling fluid has more advantages as a new type of drilling fluid compared with traditional drilling fluid, such as improving drilling efficiency, protecting oil and not having clay particles clog the oil and gas layer. In this study, Zn/Cu/Fe-doped magnesium–aluminum hydroxide (Mg-Al [...] Read more.
Solid-free drilling fluid has more advantages as a new type of drilling fluid compared with traditional drilling fluid, such as improving drilling efficiency, protecting oil and not having clay particles clog the oil and gas layer. In this study, Zn/Cu/Fe-doped magnesium–aluminum hydroxide (Mg-Al MMH) was prepared using the co-precipitation method and evaluated in solid-free drilling fluid. The inhibition mechanism of synthesized hydroxide was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, laser particle-size analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. The samples were directly used as drilling fluid base muds for performance evaluation. The results showed that the linear expansion rate of 4% M6-Fe was only 12.32% at room temperature within 2 h, that the linear expansion rate was 20.28% at 90 °C and that the anti-swelling rate was 81.16% at room temperature, indicating that it has a strong inhibition ability at both room temperature and at high temperatures. Meanwhile, the possibility of multi-mixed metal hydroxide as a drilling fluid base mud is discussed in this study. We found that 4% M6-Fe exhibited low viscosity, a high YP/PV ratio and high temperature resistance, and its apparent viscosity retention rate reached 100% rolled at 200 °C for 16 h, with a YP/PV ratio of 2.33. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 6580 KiB  
Article
Hierarchical Polyaniline Core-Shell Nanocomposites Coated on Modified Graphite for Improved Electrical Conductivity Performance
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(21), 3776; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12213776 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Graphite has recently gained scientific and industrial attention due to its high electrical conductivity. In the current endeavor, a new way to fabricate novel and multifunctional nanocomposites using functional graphite (FG) as filler is presented. The fabrication of multilayered conducting composites of PANi/PMMA/PPG-b-PEG-b-PPG [...] Read more.
Graphite has recently gained scientific and industrial attention due to its high electrical conductivity. In the current endeavor, a new way to fabricate novel and multifunctional nanocomposites using functional graphite (FG) as filler is presented. The fabrication of multilayered conducting composites of PANi/PMMA/PPG-b-PEG-b-PPG was carried out via in situ polymerization, using polyaniline (PANi), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and block copolymer as matrices in the presence of FGfiller. The growth of PANi chains is manifested by PMMA due to the formation of H-bonding between imine and carbonyl groups of PANi and MMA units, respectively, and are responsible for ion exchange sites. FTIR spectroscopy was used for structural elucidation of composites while elemental analysis was accomplished by XPS and EDX spectroscopy. The morphology of the prepared PANi/PMMA/PPG-b-PEG-b-PPG@FG composites was inspected by the SEM. The structure and crystallinity of the composites was investigated via XRD. The improved thermal stability and properties of the nanocomposites were observed using TGA and DSC. The conductivity measurements were used to characterize the electrical conductivity performance of the resulting composites. The presence of functional filler as well as polyaniline shows a significant contribution towards the enhancement of electrical conductivity of PANi/PMMA/PPG-b-PEG-b-PPG@FG nanocomposites. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3627 KiB  
Article
On the Distinctive Hardness, Anti-Corrosion Properties and Mechanisms of Flame-Deposited Carbon Coating with a Hierarchical Structure in Contrast to a Graphene Layer via Chemical Vapor Deposition
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(17), 2944; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12172944 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
Two carbonaceous (amorphous carbon and graphene) coatings were catalytically grown on bulk Ni plates. It was found that the flame-deposited carbon (FDC) layers exhibited a unique hierarchical structure with the formation of FDC/Ni nano-interlocking interface. The effect of the flame coating time on [...] Read more.
Two carbonaceous (amorphous carbon and graphene) coatings were catalytically grown on bulk Ni plates. It was found that the flame-deposited carbon (FDC) layers exhibited a unique hierarchical structure with the formation of FDC/Ni nano-interlocking interface. The effect of the flame coating time on its corrosion protective efficiency (PE) was studied and compared with that of graphene coating produced via chemical vapor deposition. The FDC grown for 10 min exhibited a PE of 92.7%, which was much greater than that of the graphene coating (75.6%). The anti-corrosive mechanisms of both coatings were revealed and compared. For graphene coatings, the higher reaction temperature than that for FDC resulted in large grain boundaries inherent in the coating. Such boundaries were weak points and easily initiated grain boundary corrosion. In contrast, corrosion started at only certain local defects in FDC layers, whose unique interface structure likely promoted its PE as well. Moreover, after the coating process, the hardness of FDC-coated Ni remained almost unchanged, in contrast to that of graphene-coated samples (reduced by ~30%). This is suggested to be related to the crystal structure evolution of the Ni substrate caused by the heat treatment accompanying the coating process. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

25 pages, 3694 KiB  
Review
Advancements in Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition for Producing Vertical Graphene Nanowalls
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(18), 2533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13182533 - 11 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
In recent years, vertical graphene nanowalls (VGNWs) have gained significant attention due to their exceptional properties, including their high specific surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, scalability, and compatibility with transition metal compounds. These attributes position VGNWs as a compelling choice for various applications, [...] Read more.
In recent years, vertical graphene nanowalls (VGNWs) have gained significant attention due to their exceptional properties, including their high specific surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, scalability, and compatibility with transition metal compounds. These attributes position VGNWs as a compelling choice for various applications, such as energy storage, catalysis, and sensing, driving interest in their integration into next-generation commercial graphene-based devices. Among the diverse graphene synthesis methods, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) stands out for its ability to create large-scale graphene films and VGNWs on diverse substrates. However, despite progress in optimizing the growth conditions to achieve micrometer-sized graphene nanowalls, a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physicochemical mechanisms that govern nanostructure formation remains elusive. Specifically, a deeper exploration of nanometric-level phenomena like nucleation, carbon precursor adsorption, and adatom surface diffusion is crucial for gaining precise control over the growth process. Hydrogen’s dual role as a co-catalyst and etchant in VGNW growth requires further investigation. This review aims to fill the knowledge gaps by investigating VGNW nucleation and growth using PECVD, with a focus on the impact of the temperature on the growth ratio and nucleation density across a broad temperature range. By providing insights into the PECVD process, this review aims to optimize the growth conditions for tailoring VGNW properties, facilitating applications in the fields of energy storage, catalysis, and sensing. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop