Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanoelectronics, Nanosensors and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 June 2020) | Viewed by 67756

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REQUIMTE/LAQV, ISEP, Polytechnic of Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
Interests: (bio)sensors; application of functional nanostructured materials; green technologies; new methodologies for (electro)analysis; environmental chemistry; monitoring/biomonitoring
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon-based nanomaterials have been increasingly used in sensors and biosensors design due to their advantageous intrinsic properties that include but are not limited to high electrical and thermal conductivity, chemical stability, optical properties, large specific surface, biocompatibility, and easy functionalization. The most commonly applied carbonaceous nanomaterials are carbon nanotubes (single or multiwalled nanotubes) and graphene, but promising data have been also reported for (bio)sensors based on carbon quantum dots and fullerene, among others. The incorporation of carbon-based nanomaterials, independently of the detection scheme and developed platform type (mechanical, thermal, optical, magnetic, chemical, and biological), has a major beneficial effect on the (bio)sensor sensitivity, specificity, and overall performance. As a consequence, carbon-based nanomaterials have been promoting a revolution in the field of (bio)sensors with the development of increasingly sensitive devices.

Thus, the aim of this Special Issue is to publish and disseminate original research data, review articles, communications, and short notes that focus on new (experimental or theoretical) advances, challenges, and outlooks concerning preparation, characterization, and application of carbon-based nanomaterials for (bio)sensors development.

Prof. Dr. Simone Morais
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Biosensors
  • Nanoprobes, electronic noses, and sensors
  • Graphene
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Carbon quantum dots
  • Fullerene
  • Nanodiamonds
  • Nanohybrids and nanocomposites
  • Coatings and thin films
  • Synthesis
  • Characterization
  • Functionalization
  • Applications

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

2 pages, 173 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development
by Simone Morais
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092430 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Carbon-based nanomaterials have been increasingly used in the design of sensors and biosensors due to their advantageous intrinsic properties, which include, but are not limited to, high electrical and thermal conductivity, chemical stability, optical properties, large specific surface, biocompatibility, and easy functionalization [...] [...] Read more.
Carbon-based nanomaterials have been increasingly used in the design of sensors and biosensors due to their advantageous intrinsic properties, which include, but are not limited to, high electrical and thermal conductivity, chemical stability, optical properties, large specific surface, biocompatibility, and easy functionalization [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)

Research

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14 pages, 2460 KiB  
Article
A Facile Method for the Non-Covalent Amine Functionalization of Carbon-Based Surfaces for Use in Biosensor Development
by Ffion Walters, Muhammad Munem Ali, Gregory Burwell, Sergiy Rozhko, Zari Tehrani, Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi, Jon E. Evans, Hina Y. Abbasi, Ryan Bigham, Jacob John Mitchell, Olga Kazakova, Anitha Devadoss and Owen J. Guy
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091808 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3656
Abstract
Affinity biosensors based on graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) or resistor designs require the utilization of graphene’s exceptional electrical properties. Therefore, it is critical when designing these sensors, that the electrical properties of graphene are maintained throughout the functionalization process. To that end, non-covalent [...] Read more.
Affinity biosensors based on graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) or resistor designs require the utilization of graphene’s exceptional electrical properties. Therefore, it is critical when designing these sensors, that the electrical properties of graphene are maintained throughout the functionalization process. To that end, non-covalent functionalization may be preferred over covalent modification. Drop-cast 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) was investigated as a quick and simple method for the non-covalent amine functionalization of carbon-based surfaces such as graphene, for use in biosensor development. In this work, multiple graphene surfaces were functionalized with DAN via a drop-cast method, leading to amine moieties, available for subsequent attachment to receptor molecules. Successful modification of graphene with DAN via a drop-cast method was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and real-time resistance measurements. Successful attachment of receptor molecules also confirmed using the aforementioned techniques. Furthermore, an investigation into the effect of sequential wash steps which are required in biosensor manufacture, on the presence of the DAN layer, confirmed that the functional layer was not removed, even after multiple solvent exposures. Drop-cast DAN is thus, a viable fast and robust method for the amine functionalization of graphene surfaces for use in biosensor development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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14 pages, 3933 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Lead Ions by a Green AC/HKUST-1 Nanocomposite
by Paria Soleimani Abhari, Faranak Manteghi and Zari Tehrani
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091647 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3278
Abstract
A new nanocomposite consisting of activated carbon (AC) from the Cortaderia selloana flower and copper-based metal-organic framework (HKUST-1) was synthesized through a single-step solvothermal method and applied for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solution through adsorption. The nanocomposite, AC/HKUST-1, was characterized [...] Read more.
A new nanocomposite consisting of activated carbon (AC) from the Cortaderia selloana flower and copper-based metal-organic framework (HKUST-1) was synthesized through a single-step solvothermal method and applied for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solution through adsorption. The nanocomposite, AC/HKUST-1, was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) methods. The SEM images of both HKUST-1 and AC/HKUST-1 contain octahedral crystals. Different factors affecting adsorption processes, such as solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial metal pollution concentration, were studied. The adsorption isotherm was evaluated with Freundlich and Langmuir models, and the latter was fitted with the experimental data on adsorption of lead ion. The adsorption capacity was 249.4 mg g−1 for 15 min at pH 6.1, which is an excellent result rivalling previously reported lead adsorbents considering the conditions. These nanocomposites show considerable potential for use as a functional material in the ink formulation of lead sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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21 pages, 5912 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Sensor Based on Prussian Blue Electrochemically Deposited at ZrO2 Doped Carbon Nanotubes Glassy Carbon Modified Electrode
by Marlon Danny Jerez-Masaquiza, Lenys Fernández, Gema González, Marjorie Montero-Jiménez and Patricio J. Espinoza-Montero
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071328 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4859
Abstract
In this work, a new hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) electrochemical sensor was fabricated. Prussian blue (PB) was electrodeposited on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with zirconia doped functionalized carbon nanotubes (ZrO2-fCNTs), (PB/ZrO2-fCNTs/GC). The morphology and [...] Read more.
In this work, a new hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) electrochemical sensor was fabricated. Prussian blue (PB) was electrodeposited on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with zirconia doped functionalized carbon nanotubes (ZrO2-fCNTs), (PB/ZrO2-fCNTs/GC). The morphology and structure of the nanostructured system were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), specific surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). Zirconia nanocrystallites (6.6 ± 1.8 nm) with cubic crystal structure were directly synthesized on the fCNTs walls, obtaining a well dispersed distribution with a high surface area. The experimental results indicate that the ZrO2-fCNTs nanostructured system exhibits good electrochemical properties and could be tunable by enhancing the modification conditions and method of synthesis. The fabricated sensor could be used to efficiently detect H2O2, presenting a good linear relationship between the H2O2 concentration and the peak current, with quantification limit (LQ) of the 10.91 μmol·L−1 and detection limit (LD) of 3.5913 μmol·L−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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14 pages, 3033 KiB  
Article
Portable Instrument for Hemoglobin Determination Using Room-Temperature Phosphorescent Carbon Dots
by Fabio Murru, Francisco J. Romero, Roberto Sánchez-Mudarra, Francisco J. García Ruiz, Diego P. Morales, Luis Fermín Capitán-Vallvey and Alfonso Salinas-Castillo
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050825 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3085
Abstract
A portable reconfigurable platform for hemoglobin determination based on inner filter quenching of room-temperature phosphorescent carbon dots (CDs) in the presence of H2O2 is described. The electronic setup consists of a light-emitting diode (LED) as the carbon dot optical exciter [...] Read more.
A portable reconfigurable platform for hemoglobin determination based on inner filter quenching of room-temperature phosphorescent carbon dots (CDs) in the presence of H2O2 is described. The electronic setup consists of a light-emitting diode (LED) as the carbon dot optical exciter and a photodiode as a light-to-current converter integrated in the same instrument. The reconfigurable feature provides adaptability to use the platform as an analytical probe for CDs coming from different batches with some variations in luminescence characteristics. The variables of the reaction were optimized, such as pH, concentration of reagents, and response time; as well as the variables of the portable device, such as LED voltage, photodiode sensitivity, and adjustment of the measuring range by a reconfigurable electronic system. The portable device allowed the determination of hemoglobin with good sensitivity, with a detection limit of 6.2 nM and range up to 125 nM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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12 pages, 2799 KiB  
Article
Nano Carbon Black-Based High Performance Wearable Pressure Sensors
by Junsong Hu, Junsheng Yu, Ying Li, Xiaoqing Liao, Xingwu Yan and Lu Li
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040664 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 4856
Abstract
The reasonable design pattern of flexible pressure sensors with excellent performance and prominent features including high sensitivity and a relatively wide workable linear range has attracted significant attention owing to their potential application in the advanced wearable electronics and artificial intelligence fields. Herein, [...] Read more.
The reasonable design pattern of flexible pressure sensors with excellent performance and prominent features including high sensitivity and a relatively wide workable linear range has attracted significant attention owing to their potential application in the advanced wearable electronics and artificial intelligence fields. Herein, nano carbon black from kerosene soot, an atmospheric pollutant generated during the insufficient burning of hydrocarbon fuels, was utilized as the conductive material with a bottom interdigitated textile electrode screen printed using silver paste to construct a piezoresistive pressure sensor with prominent performance. Owing to the distinct loose porous structure, the lumpy surface roughness of the fabric electrodes, and the softness of polydimethylsiloxane, the piezoresistive pressure sensor exhibited superior detection performance, including high sensitivity (31.63 kPa−1 within the range of 0–2 kPa), a relatively large feasible range (0–15 kPa), a low detection limit (2.26 pa), and a rapid response time (15 ms). Thus, these sensors act as outstanding candidates for detecting the human physiological signal and large-scale limb movement, showing their broad range of application prospects in the advanced wearable electronics field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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12 pages, 3511 KiB  
Article
Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy on Hybrid Graphene/Gold Substrates near the Percolation Threshold
by Dmitry E. Tatarkin, Dmitry I. Yakubovsky, Georgy A. Ermolaev, Yury V. Stebunov, Artem A. Voronov, Aleksey V. Arsenin, Valentyn S. Volkov and Sergey M. Novikov
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010164 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4560
Abstract
Graphene is a promising platform for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-active substrates, primarily due to the possibility of quenching photoluminescence and fluorescence. Here we study ultrathin gold films near the percolation threshold fabricated by electron-beam deposition on monolayer CVD graphene. The advantages of such [...] Read more.
Graphene is a promising platform for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-active substrates, primarily due to the possibility of quenching photoluminescence and fluorescence. Here we study ultrathin gold films near the percolation threshold fabricated by electron-beam deposition on monolayer CVD graphene. The advantages of such hybrid graphene/gold substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy are discussed in comparison with conventional substrates without the graphene layer. The percolation threshold is determined by independent measurements of the sheet resistance and effective dielectric constant by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The surface morphology of the ultrathin gold films is analyzed by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the thicknesses of the films in addition to the quartz-crystal mass-thickness sensor are also measured by AFM. We experimentally demonstrate that the maximum SERS signal is observed near and slightly below the percolation threshold. In this case, the region of maximum enhancement of the SERS signal can be determined using the figure of merit (FOM), which is the ratio of the real and imaginary parts of the effective dielectric permittivity of the films. SERS measurements on hybrid graphene/gold substrates with the dye Crystal Violet show an enhancement factor of ~105 and also demonstrate the ability of graphene to quench photoluminescence by an average of ~60%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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17 pages, 6923 KiB  
Article
Simulations of Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor for the Detection of Propane and Butane Gases: A First Principles Study
by Muhammad Haroon Rashid, Ants Koel and Toomas Rang
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010098 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4920
Abstract
During the last few years graphene has emerged as a potential candidate for electronics and optoelectronics applications due to its several salient features. Graphene is a smart material that responds to any physical change in its surrounding environment. Graphene has a very low [...] Read more.
During the last few years graphene has emerged as a potential candidate for electronics and optoelectronics applications due to its several salient features. Graphene is a smart material that responds to any physical change in its surrounding environment. Graphene has a very low intrinsic electronic noise and it can detect even a single gas molecule in its proximity. This property of graphene makes is a suitable and promising candidate to detect a large variety of organic/inorganic chemicals and gases. Typical solid state gas sensors usually requires high operating temperature and they cannot detect very low concentrations of gases efficiently due to intrinsic noise caused by thermal motion of charge carriers at high temperatures. They also have low resolution and stability issues of their constituent materials (such as electrolytes, electrodes, and sensing material itself) in harsh environments. It accelerates the need of development of robust, highly sensitive and efficient gas sensor with low operating temperature. Graphene and its derivatives could be a prospective replacement of these solid-state sensors due to their better electronic attributes for moderate temperature applications. The presence of extremely low intrinsic noise in graphene makes it highly suitable to detect a very low concentration of organic/inorganic compounds (even a single molecule ca be detected with graphene). In this article, we simulated a novel graphene nanoribbon based field effect transistor (FET) and used it to detect propane and butane gases. These are flammable household/industrial gases that must be detected to avoid serious accidents. The effects of atmospheric oxygen and humidity have also been studied by mixing oxygen and water molecules with desired target gases (propane and butane). The change in source-to-drain current of FET in the proximity of the target gases has been used as a detection signal. Our simulated FET device showed a noticeable change in density of states and IV-characteristics in the presence of target gas molecules. Nanoscale simulations of FET based gas sensor have been done in Quantumwise Atomistix Toolkit (ATK). ATK is a commercially available nanoscale semiconductor device simulator that is used to model a large variety of nanoscale devices. Our proposed device can be converted into a physical device to get a low cost and small sized integrated gas sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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10 pages, 2894 KiB  
Article
Terbium Functionalized Schizochytrium-Derived Carbon Dots for Ratiometric Fluorescence Determination of the Anthrax Biomarker
by Lina Zhang, Zhanwei Wang, Jingbo Zhang, Changliang Shi, Xiaoli Sun, Dan Zhao and Baozhong Liu
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091234 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3309
Abstract
Efficient and instant detection of biological threat-agent anthrax is highly desired in the fields of medical care and anti-terrorism. Herein, a new ratiometric fluorescence (FL) nanoprobe was elaborately tailored for the determination of 2,6-dipicolinic acid (DPA), a biomarker of anthrax spores, by grafting [...] Read more.
Efficient and instant detection of biological threat-agent anthrax is highly desired in the fields of medical care and anti-terrorism. Herein, a new ratiometric fluorescence (FL) nanoprobe was elaborately tailored for the determination of 2,6-dipicolinic acid (DPA), a biomarker of anthrax spores, by grafting terbium ions (Tb3+) to the surface of carbon dots (CDs). CDs with blue FL were fabricated by a simple and green method using schizochytrium as precursor and served as an FL reference and a supporting substrate for coordination with Tb3+. On account of the absorbance energy transfer emission effect (AETE), green emission peaks of Tb3+ in CDs-Tb nanoprobe appeared at 545 nm upon the addition of DPA. Under optimal conditions, good linearity between the ratio FL intensity of F545/F445 and the concentrations of DPA was observed within the experimental concentration range of 0.5–6 μM with the detection limit of 35.9 nM, which is superior to several literature studies and significantly lower than the infectious dosage of the Bacillus anthracis spores. Moreover, the CDs-Tb nanoprobe could sensitively detect DPA in the lake water sample. This work offers an efficient self-calibrating and background-free method for the determination of DPA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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14 pages, 5428 KiB  
Article
Bioinspired Cilia Sensors with Graphene Sensing Elements Fabricated Using 3D Printing and Casting
by Amar M. Kamat, Yutao Pei and Ajay G.P. Kottapalli
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9070954 - 30 Jun 2019
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 11057
Abstract
Sensor designs found in nature are optimal due to their evolution over millions of years, making them well-suited for sensing applications. However, replicating these complex, three-dimensional (3D), biomimetic designs in artificial and flexible sensors using conventional techniques such as lithography is challenging. In [...] Read more.
Sensor designs found in nature are optimal due to their evolution over millions of years, making them well-suited for sensing applications. However, replicating these complex, three-dimensional (3D), biomimetic designs in artificial and flexible sensors using conventional techniques such as lithography is challenging. In this paper, we introduce a new processing paradigm for the simplified fabrication of flexible sensors featuring complex and bioinspired structures. The proposed fabrication workflow entailed 3D-printing a metallic mold with complex and intricate 3D features such as a micropillar and a microchannel, casting polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) inside the mold to obtain the desired structure, and drop-casting piezoresistive graphene nanoplatelets into the predesigned microchannel to form a flexible strain gauge. The graphene-on-PDMS strain gauge showed a high gauge factor of 37 as measured via cyclical tension-compression tests. The processing workflow was used to fabricate a flow sensor inspired by hair-like ‘cilia’ sensors found in nature, which comprised a cilia-inspired pillar and a cantilever with a microchannel that housed the graphene strain gauge. The sensor showed good sensitivity against both tactile and water flow stimuli, with detection thresholds as low as 12 µm in the former and 58 mm/s in the latter, demonstrating the feasibility of our method in developing flexible flow sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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16 pages, 4824 KiB  
Article
Facile Synthesis of MnO2 Nanoflowers/N-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite and Its Application for Simultaneous Determination of Dopamine and Uric Acid
by Xuan Wan, Shihui Yang, Zhaotian Cai, Quanguo He, Yabing Ye, Yonghui Xia, Guangli Li and Jun Liu
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060847 - 02 Jun 2019
Cited by 86 | Viewed by 5084
Abstract
This study reports facile synthesis of MnO2 nanoflowers/N-doped reduced graphene oxide (MnO2NFs/NrGO) composite and its application on the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The microstructures, morphologies, and electrochemical performances of MnO2NFs/NrGO were studied using [...] Read more.
This study reports facile synthesis of MnO2 nanoflowers/N-doped reduced graphene oxide (MnO2NFs/NrGO) composite and its application on the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The microstructures, morphologies, and electrochemical performances of MnO2NFs/NrGO were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The electrochemical experiments showed that the MnO2NFs/NrGO composites have the largest effective electroactive area and lowest charge transfer resistance. MnO2NFs/NrGO nanocomposites displayed superior catalytic capacity toward the electro-oxidation of DA and UA due to the synergistic effect from MnO2NFs and NrGO. The anodic peak currents of DA and UA increase linearly with their concentrations varying from 0.2 μM to 6.0 μM. However, the anodic peak currents of DA and UA are highly correlated to the Napierian logarithm of their concentrations ranging from 6.0 μM to 100 μM. The detection limits are 0.036 μM and 0.029 μM for DA and UA, respectively. Furthermore, the DA and UA levels of human serum samples were accurately detected by the proposed sensor. Combining with prominent advantages such as facile preparation, good sensitivity, and high selectivity, the proposed MnO2NFs/NrGO nanocomposites have become the most promising candidates for the simultaneous determination of DA and UA from various actual samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

29 pages, 2419 KiB  
Review
Application of Nanostructured Carbon-Based Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors for Screening of Emerging Pharmaceutical Pollutants in Waters and Aquatic Species: A Review
by Álvaro Torrinha, Thiago M. B. F. Oliveira, Francisco W.P. Ribeiro, Adriana N. Correia, Pedro Lima-Neto and Simone Morais
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071268 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4351
Abstract
Pharmaceuticals, as a contaminant of emergent concern, are being released uncontrollably into the environment potentially causing hazardous effects to aquatic ecosystems and consequently to human health. In the absence of well-established monitoring programs, one can only imagine the full extent of this problem [...] Read more.
Pharmaceuticals, as a contaminant of emergent concern, are being released uncontrollably into the environment potentially causing hazardous effects to aquatic ecosystems and consequently to human health. In the absence of well-established monitoring programs, one can only imagine the full extent of this problem and so there is an urgent need for the development of extremely sensitive, portable, and low-cost devices to perform analysis. Carbon-based nanomaterials are the most used nanostructures in (bio)sensors construction attributed to their facile and well-characterized production methods, commercial availability, reduced cost, high chemical stability, and low toxicity. However, most importantly, their relatively good conductivity enabling appropriate electron transfer rates—as well as their high surface area yielding attachment and extraordinary loading capacity for biomolecules—have been relevant and desirable features, justifying the key role that they have been playing, and will continue to play, in electrochemical (bio)sensor development. The present review outlines the contribution of carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, fullerene, carbon nanofibers, carbon black, carbon nanopowder, biochar nanoparticles, and graphite oxide), used alone or combined with other (nano)materials, to the field of environmental (bio)sensing, and more specifically, to pharmaceutical pollutants analysis in waters and aquatic species. The main trends of this field of research are also addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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23 pages, 8887 KiB  
Review
Carbon-Based Nanomaterials in Sensors for Food Safety
by Mingfei Pan, Zongjia Yin, Kaixin Liu, Xiaoling Du, Huilin Liu and Shuo Wang
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091330 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 63 | Viewed by 5182
Abstract
Food safety is one of the most important and widespread research topics worldwide. The development of relevant analytical methods or devices for detection of unsafe factors in foods is necessary to ensure food safety and an important aspect of the studies of food [...] Read more.
Food safety is one of the most important and widespread research topics worldwide. The development of relevant analytical methods or devices for detection of unsafe factors in foods is necessary to ensure food safety and an important aspect of the studies of food safety. In recent years, developing high-performance sensors used for food safety analysis has made remarkable progress. The combination of carbon-based nanomaterials with excellent properties is a specific type of sensor for enhancing the signal conversion and thus improving detection accuracy and sensitivity, thus reaching unprecedented levels and having good application potential. This review describes the roles and contributions of typical carbon-based nanomaterials, such as mesoporous carbon, single- or multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene and carbon quantum dots, in the construction and performance improvement of various chemo- and biosensors for various signals. Additionally, this review focuses on the progress of applications of this type of sensor in food safety inspection, especially for the analysis and detection of all types of toxic and harmful substances in foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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18 pages, 4439 KiB  
Review
Carbon Nanofiber-Based Functional Nanomaterials for Sensor Applications
by Zhuqing Wang, Shasha Wu, Jian Wang, Along Yu and Gang Wei
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9071045 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 115 | Viewed by 7075
Abstract
Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) exhibit great potentials in the fields of materials science, biomedicine, tissue engineering, catalysis, energy, environmental science, and analytical science due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Usually, CNFs with flat, mesoporous, and porous surfaces can be synthesized by chemical [...] Read more.
Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) exhibit great potentials in the fields of materials science, biomedicine, tissue engineering, catalysis, energy, environmental science, and analytical science due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Usually, CNFs with flat, mesoporous, and porous surfaces can be synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and electrospinning techniques with subsequent chemical treatment. Meanwhile, the surfaces of CNFs are easy to modify with various materials to extend the applications of CNF-based hybrid nanomaterials in multiple fields. In this review, we focus on the design, synthesis, and sensor applications of CNF-based functional nanomaterials. The fabrication strategies of CNF-based functional nanomaterials by adding metallic nanoparticles (NPs), metal oxide NPs, alloy, silica, polymers, and others into CNFs are introduced and discussed. In addition, the sensor applications of CNF-based nanomaterials for detecting gas, strain, pressure, small molecule, and biomacromolecules are demonstrated in detail. This work will be beneficial for the readers to understand the strategies for fabricating various CNF-based nanomaterials, and explore new applications in energy, catalysis, and environmental science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for (Bio)Sensors Development)
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