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Anticancer Inhibitors

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Medicinal Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 January 2021) | Viewed by 44804

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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, G. d’Annunzio University, 66100 Chieti, Italy
Interests: medicinal chemistry; drug discovery; aromatase inhibitors; PPAR ligands; anticancer agents
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The word "cancer" is associated with at least 100 different pathologies, depending on the organ involved and the type of tumor developed. Cancer is a complex disease involving multiple pathogenetic mechanisms. Characterization of different types of cancers, which distinguishes them from healthy cells and other cancers, allows for the identification of specific targets for each individual tumor. The principle of chemotherapy is based on interference with the mechanisms that regulate the life and proliferation of cancer cells, causing their death. In recent years there has been continuous progress in the development of therapeutic agents against cancer, which is ongoing.

In this Special Issue, we focus attention on new target-based anticancer agents that inhibit a specific target involved in the suppression of various types of cancer and in the control of their chemoresistance.

We welcome the submission of research and review articles on the advances in drug discovery, design, and development of new inhibitor compounds with potency against various cancer types.

Dr. Marialuigia Fantacuzzi
Dr. Alessandra Ammazzalorso
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Anticancer drugs
  • Cancer therapy
  • Drug discovery and development
  • Inhibitor
  • Chemical synthesis
  • Structure activity relationship (SAR)
  • Biological activity

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 195 KiB  
Editorial
Anticancer Inhibitors
by Alessandra Ammazzalorso and Marialuigia Fantacuzzi
Molecules 2022, 27(14), 4650; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27144650 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Cancer is a multifactorial disorder caused by several aberrations in gene expression that generate a homeostatic imbalance between cell division and death [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)

Research

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22 pages, 4378 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Transcriptomic Profiles of MiaPaCa-2 Pancreatic Cancer Cells Treated with Different Statins
by Silvie Rimpelová, Michal Kolář, Hynek Strnad, Tomáš Ruml, Libor Vítek and Helena Gbelcová
Molecules 2021, 26(12), 3528; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123528 - 9 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2758
Abstract
Statins have been widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia due to their ability to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of de novo cholesterol synthesis, via the so-called mevalonate pathway. However, their inhibitory action also causes depletion of downstream intermediates of the [...] Read more.
Statins have been widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia due to their ability to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of de novo cholesterol synthesis, via the so-called mevalonate pathway. However, their inhibitory action also causes depletion of downstream intermediates of the pathway, resulting in the pleiotropic effects of statins, including the beneficial impact in the treatment of cancer. In our study, we compared the effect of all eight existing statins on the expression of genes, the products of which are implicated in cancer inhibition and suggested the molecular mechanisms of their action in epigenetic and posttranslational regulation, and in cell-cycle arrest, death, migration, or invasion of the cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)
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13 pages, 3122 KiB  
Article
Tacrine-Coumarin Derivatives as Topoisomerase Inhibitors with Antitumor Effects on A549 Human Lung Carcinoma Cancer Cell Lines
by Eva Konkoľová, Monika Hudáčová, Slávka Hamuľaková, Rastislav Jendželovský, Jana Vargová, Juraj Ševc, Peter Fedoročko and Mária Kožurková
Molecules 2021, 26(4), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26041133 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2391
Abstract
A549 human lung carcinoma cell lines were treated with a series of new drugs with both tacrine and coumarin pharmacophores (derivatives 1a2c) in order to test the compounds’ ability to inhibit both cancer cell growth and topoisomerase I and II [...] Read more.
A549 human lung carcinoma cell lines were treated with a series of new drugs with both tacrine and coumarin pharmacophores (derivatives 1a2c) in order to test the compounds’ ability to inhibit both cancer cell growth and topoisomerase I and II activity. The ability of human topoisomerase I (hTOPI) and II to relax supercoiled plasmid DNA in the presence of various concentrations of the tacrine-coumarin hybrid molecules was studied with agarose gel electrophoresis. The biological activities of the derivatives were studied using MTT assays, clonogenic assays, cell cycle analysis and quantification of cell number and viability. The content and localization of the derivatives in the cells were analysed using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. All of the studied compounds were found to have inhibited topoisomerase I activity completely. The effect of the tacrine-coumarin hybrid compounds on cancer cells is likely to be dependent on the length of the chain between the tacrine and coumarin moieties (1c, 1d = tacrine-(CH2)8–9-coumarin). The most active of the tested compounds, derivatives 1c and 1d, both display longer chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)
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12 pages, 4266 KiB  
Article
Saponins Extracted from Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Flowers Induces Autophagy in Ovarian Cancer Cells
by Yaomin Wang, Chen Xia, Lianfu Chen, Yi Charlie Chen and Youying Tu
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5254; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225254 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2522
Abstract
Tea flower saponins (TFS) possess effective anticancer properties. The diversity and complexity of TFS increases the difficulty of their extraction and purification from tea flowers. Here, multiple methods including solvent extraction, microporous resin separation and preparative HPLC separation were used to obtain TFS [...] Read more.
Tea flower saponins (TFS) possess effective anticancer properties. The diversity and complexity of TFS increases the difficulty of their extraction and purification from tea flowers. Here, multiple methods including solvent extraction, microporous resin separation and preparative HPLC separation were used to obtain TFS with a yield of 0.34%. Furthermore, we revealed that TFS induced autophagy—as evidenced by an increase in MDC-positive cell populations and mCherry-LC3B-labeled autolysosomes and an upregulation of LC3II protein levels. 3-MA reversed the decrease in cell viability induced by TFS, showing that TFS induced autophagic cell death. TFS-induced autophagy was not dependent on the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. TFS-induced autophagy in OVCAR-3 cells was accompanied by ERK pathway activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This paper is the first report of TFS-mediated autophagy of ovarian cancer cells. These results provide new insights for future studies of the anti-cancer effects of TFS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)
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18 pages, 3173 KiB  
Article
Engineering Stem Cell Factor Ligands with Different c-Kit Agonistic Potencies
by Tal Tilayov, Tal Hingaly, Yariv Greenshpan, Shira Cohen, Barak Akabayov, Roi Gazit and Niv Papo
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4850; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204850 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2353
Abstract
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are major players in signal transduction, regulating cellular activities in both normal regeneration and malignancy. Thus, many RTKs, c-Kit among them, play key roles in the function of both normal and neoplastic cells, and as such constitute attractive targets [...] Read more.
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are major players in signal transduction, regulating cellular activities in both normal regeneration and malignancy. Thus, many RTKs, c-Kit among them, play key roles in the function of both normal and neoplastic cells, and as such constitute attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. We thus sought to manipulate the self-association of stem cell factor (SCF), the cognate ligand of c-Kit, and hence its suboptimal affinity and activation potency for c-Kit. To this end, we used directed evolution to engineer SCF variants having different c-Kit activation potencies. Our yeast-displayed SCF mutant (SCFM) library screens identified altered dimerization potential and increased affinity for c-Kit by specific SCF-variants. We demonstrated the delicate balance between SCF homo-dimerization, c-Kit binding, and agonistic potencies by structural studies, in vitro binding assays and a functional angiogenesis assay. Importantly, our findings showed that a monomeric SCF variant exhibited superior agonistic potency vs. the wild-type SCF protein and vs. other high-affinity dimeric SCF variants. Our data showed that action of the monomeric ligands in binding to the RTK monomers and inducing receptor dimerization and hence activation was superior to that of the wild-type dimeric ligand, which has a higher affinity to RTK dimers but a lower activation potential. The findings of this study on the binding and c-Kit activation of engineered SCF variants thus provides insights into the structure–function dynamics of ligands and RTKs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)
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16 pages, 2266 KiB  
Article
A Series of Isatin-Hydrazones with Cytotoxic Activity and CDK2 Kinase Inhibitory Activity: A Potential Type II ATP Competitive Inhibitor
by Huda S. Al-Salem, Md Arifuzzaman, Hamad M. Alkahtani, Ashraf N. Abdalla, Iman S. Issa, Aljawharah Alqathama, Fatemah S. Albalawi and A. F. M. Motiur Rahman
Molecules 2020, 25(19), 4400; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194400 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4541
Abstract
Isatin derivatives potentially act on various biological targets. In this article, a series of novel isatin-hydrazones were synthesized in excellent yields. Their cytotoxicity was tested against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and human ovary adenocarcinoma (A2780) cell lines using MTT assay. Compounds 4j (IC [...] Read more.
Isatin derivatives potentially act on various biological targets. In this article, a series of novel isatin-hydrazones were synthesized in excellent yields. Their cytotoxicity was tested against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and human ovary adenocarcinoma (A2780) cell lines using MTT assay. Compounds 4j (IC50 = 1.51 ± 0.09 µM) and 4k (IC50 = 3.56 ± 0.31) showed excellent activity against MCF7, whereas compound 4e showed considerable cytotoxicity against both tested cell lines, MCF7 (IC50 = 5.46 ± 0.71 µM) and A2780 (IC50 = 18.96± 2.52 µM), respectively. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) revealed that, halogen substituents at 2,6-position of the C-ring of isatin-hydrazones are the most potent derivatives. In-silico absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) results demonstrated recommended drug likeness properties. Compounds 4j (IC50 = 0.245 µM) and 4k (IC50 = 0.300 µM) exhibited good inhibitory activity against the cell cycle regulator CDK2 protein kinase compared to imatinib (IC50 = 0.131 µM). A molecular docking study of 4j and 4k confirmed both compounds as type II ATP competitive inhibitors that made interactions with ATP binding pocket residues, as well as lacking interactions with active state DFG motif residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)
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12 pages, 1520 KiB  
Article
The Potential Role of Cathepsin K in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
by Hui Yang, Jasmine Heyer, Hui Zhao, Shengxian Liang, Rui Guo and Li Zhong
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4136; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184136 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3167
Abstract
(1) Background: Cathepsin K has been found overexpressed in several malignant tumors. However, there is little information regarding the involvement of Cathepsin K in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (2) Methods: Cathepsin K expression was tested in human NSCLC cell lines A549 and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Cathepsin K has been found overexpressed in several malignant tumors. However, there is little information regarding the involvement of Cathepsin K in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (2) Methods: Cathepsin K expression was tested in human NSCLC cell lines A549 and human embryo lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells using Western blot and immunofluorescence assay. Cathepsin K was transiently overexpressed or knocked down using transfection with a recombinant plasmid and siRNA, respectively, to test the effects on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. (3) Results: Expression of Cathepsin K was increased significantly in A549 cells and diffused within the cytoplasm compared to the MRC-5 cells used as control. Cathepsin K overexpression promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of A549 cells, accompanied by mTOR activation. Cathepsin K knockdown reversed the above malignant behavior and inhibited the mTOR signaling activation, suggesting that Cathepsin K may promote the progression of NSCLC by activating the mTOR signaling pathway. (4) Conclusion: Cathepsin K may potentially represent a viable drug target for NSCLC treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)
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15 pages, 2510 KiB  
Article
Structural Basis of Beneficial Design for Effective Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibitors
by Sei-ichi Tanuma, Kiyotaka Katsuragi, Takahiro Oyama, Atsushi Yoshimori, Yuri Shibasaki, Yasunobu Asawa, Hiroaki Yamazaki, Kosho Makino, Miwa Okazawa, Yoko Ogino, Yoshimi Sakamoto, Miyuki Nomura, Akira Sato, Hideaki Abe, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Hideyo Takahashi, Nobuhiro Tanuma and Fumiaki Uchiumi
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3633; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163633 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3475
Abstract
Inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an attractive therapeutic strategy for targeting cancer metabolism. So far, many potent NAMPT inhibitors have been developed and shown to bind to two unique tunnel-shaped cavities existing adjacent to each active site of a NAMPT homodimer. However, [...] Read more.
Inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an attractive therapeutic strategy for targeting cancer metabolism. So far, many potent NAMPT inhibitors have been developed and shown to bind to two unique tunnel-shaped cavities existing adjacent to each active site of a NAMPT homodimer. However, cytotoxicities and resistances to NAMPT inhibitors have become apparent. Therefore, there remains an urgent need to develop effective and safe NAMPT inhibitors. Thus, we designed and synthesized two close structural analogues of NAMPT inhibitors, azaindole–piperidine (3a)- and azaindole–piperazine (3b)-motif compounds, which were modified from the well-known NAMPT inhibitor FK866 (1). Notably, 3a displayed considerably stronger enzyme inhibitory activity and cellular potency than did 3b and 1. The main reason for this phenomenon was revealed to be due to apparent electronic repulsion between the replaced nitrogen atom (N1) of piperazine in 3b and the Nδ atom of His191 in NAMPT by our in silico binding mode analyses. Indeed, 3b had a lower binding affinity score than did 3a and 1, although these inhibitors took similar stable chair conformations in the tunnel region. Taken together, these observations indicate that the electrostatic enthalpy potential rather than entropy effects inside the tunnel cavity has a significant impact on the different binding affinity of 3a from that of 3b in the disparate enzymatic and cellular potencies. Thus, it is better to avoid or minimize interactions with His191 in designing further effective NAMPT inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)
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17 pages, 4255 KiB  
Article
Standardized Saponin Extract from Baiye No.1 Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flowers Induced S Phase Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis via AKT-MDM2-p53 Signaling Pathway in Ovarian Cancer Cells
by Youying Tu, Lianfu Chen, Ning Ren, Bo Li, Yuanyuan Wu, Gary O. Rankin, Yon Rojanasakul, Yaomin Wang and Yi Charlie Chen
Molecules 2020, 25(15), 3515; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153515 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3652
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is considered to be one of the most serious malignant tumors in women. Natural compounds have been considered as important sources in the search for new anti-cancer agents. Saponins are characteristic components of tea (Camellia sinensis) flower and have [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is considered to be one of the most serious malignant tumors in women. Natural compounds have been considered as important sources in the search for new anti-cancer agents. Saponins are characteristic components of tea (Camellia sinensis) flower and have various biological activities, including anti-tumor effects. In this study, a high purity standardized saponin extract, namely Baiye No.1 tea flower saponin (BTFS), which contained Floratheasaponin A and Floratheasaponin D, were isolated from tea (Camellia sinensis cv. Baiye 1) flowers by macroporous resin and preparative liquid chromatography. Then, the component and purity were detected by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS/MS. This high purity BTFS inhibited the proliferation of A2780/CP70 cancer cells dose-dependently, which is evidenced by the inhibition of cell viability, reduction of colony formation ability, and suppression of PCNA protein expression. Further research found BTFS induced S phase cell cycle arrest by up-regulating p21 proteins expression and down-regulating Cyclin A2, CDK2, and Cdc25A protein expression. Furthermore, BTFS caused DNA damage and activated the ATM-Chk2 signaling pathway to block cell cycle progression. Moreover, BTFS trigged both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis—BTFS up-regulated the expression of death receptor pathway-related proteins DR5, Fas, and FADD and increased the ratio of pro-apoptotic/anti-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family. BTFS-induced apoptosis seems to be related to the AKT-MDM2-p53 signaling pathway. In summary, our results demonstrate that BTFS has the potential to be used as a nutraceutical for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)
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15 pages, 2519 KiB  
Article
Tamoxifen and the PI3K Inhibitor: LY294002 Synergistically Induce Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells
by Mohamed E. Abdallah, Mahmoud Zaki El-Readi, Mohammad Ahmad Althubiti, Riyad Adnan Almaimani, Amar Mohamed Ismail, Shakir Idris, Bassem Refaat, Waleed Hassan Almalki, Abdullatif Taha Babakr, Mohammed H. Mukhtar, Ashraf N. Abdalla and Omer Fadul Idris
Molecules 2020, 25(15), 3355; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153355 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4263
Abstract
Breast cancer is considered as one of the most aggressive types of cancer. Acquired therapeutic resistance is the major cause of chemotherapy failure in breast cancer patients. To overcome this resistance and to improve the efficacy of treatment, drug combination is employed as [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is considered as one of the most aggressive types of cancer. Acquired therapeutic resistance is the major cause of chemotherapy failure in breast cancer patients. To overcome this resistance and to improve the efficacy of treatment, drug combination is employed as a promising approach for this purpose. The synergistic cytotoxic, apoptosis inducing, and cell cycle effects of the combination of LY294002 (LY), a phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, with the traditional cytotoxic anti-estrogen drug tamoxifen (TAM) in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were investigated. LY and TAM exhibited potent cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells with IC50 values 0.87 µM and 1.02 µM. The combination of non-toxic concentration of LY and TAM showed highly significant synergistic interaction as observed from isobologram (IC50: 0.17 µM, combination index: 0.18, colony formation: 9.01%) compared to untreated control. The percentage of early/late apoptosis significantly increased after treatment of MCF-7 cells with LY and TAM combination: 40.3%/28.3% (p < 0.001), compared to LY single treatment (19.8%/11.4%) and TAM single treatment (32.4%/5.9%). In addition, LY and TAM combination induced the apoptotic genes Caspase-3, Caspase-7, and p53, as well as p21 as cell cycle promotor, and significantly downregulated the anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and survivin. The cell cycle assay revealed that the combination induced apoptosis by increasing the pre-G1: 28.3% compared to 1.6% of control. pAKT and Cyclin D1 protein expressions were significantly more downregulated by the combination treatment compared to the single drug treatment. The results suggested that the synergistic cytotoxic effect of LY and TAM is achieved by the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through cyclin D1, pAKT, caspases, and Bcl-2 signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

21 pages, 5658 KiB  
Review
Development of CDK4/6 Inhibitors: A Five Years Update
by Alessandra Ammazzalorso, Mariangela Agamennone, Barbara De Filippis and Marialuigia Fantacuzzi
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051488 - 9 Mar 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5441
Abstract
The inhibition of cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 plays a role in aromatase inhibitor resistant metastatic breast cancer. Three dual CDK4/6 inhibitors have been approved for the breast cancer treatment that, in combination with the endocrine therapy, dramatically improved the survival outcomes [...] Read more.
The inhibition of cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 plays a role in aromatase inhibitor resistant metastatic breast cancer. Three dual CDK4/6 inhibitors have been approved for the breast cancer treatment that, in combination with the endocrine therapy, dramatically improved the survival outcomes both in first and later line settings. The developments of the last five years in the search for new selective CDK4/6 inhibitors with increased selectivity, treatment efficacy, and reduced adverse effects are reviewed, considering the small-molecule inhibitors and proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) approaches, mainly pointing at structure-activity relationships, selectivity against different kinases and antiproliferative activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)
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23 pages, 4245 KiB  
Review
Targeting Toxins toward Tumors
by Henrik Franzyk and Søren Brøgger Christensen
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051292 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3977
Abstract
Many cancer diseases, e.g., prostate cancer and lung cancer, develop very slowly. Common chemotherapeutics like vincristine, vinblastine and taxol target cancer cells in their proliferating states. In slowly developing cancer diseases only a minor part of the malignant cells will be in a [...] Read more.
Many cancer diseases, e.g., prostate cancer and lung cancer, develop very slowly. Common chemotherapeutics like vincristine, vinblastine and taxol target cancer cells in their proliferating states. In slowly developing cancer diseases only a minor part of the malignant cells will be in a proliferative state, and consequently these drugs will exert a concomitant damage on rapidly proliferating benign tissue as well. A number of toxins possess an ability to kill cells in all states independently of whether they are benign or malignant. Such toxins can only be used as chemotherapeutics if they can be targeted selectively against the tumors. Examples of such toxins are mertansine, calicheamicins and thapsigargins, which all kill cells at low micromolar or nanomolar concentrations. Advanced prodrug concepts enabling targeting of these toxins to cancer tissue comprise antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT), lectin-directed enzyme-activated prodrug therapy (LEAPT), and antibody-drug conjugated therapy (ADC), which will be discussed in the present review. The review also includes recent examples of protease-targeting chimera (PROTAC) for knockdown of receptors essential for development of tumors. In addition, targeting of toxins relying on tumor-overexpressed enzymes with unique substrate specificity will be mentioned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)
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12 pages, 1689 KiB  
Review
Regulation of ZMYND8 to Treat Cancer
by Yun Chen, Ya-Hui Tsai and Sheng-Hong Tseng
Molecules 2021, 26(4), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26041083 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3340
Abstract
Zinc finger myeloid, nervy, and deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor 1-type containing 8 (Zinc finger MYND-type containing 8, ZMYND8) is a transcription factor, a histone H3-interacting protein, and a putative chromatin reader/effector that plays an essential role in regulating transcription during normal cellular growth. [...] Read more.
Zinc finger myeloid, nervy, and deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor 1-type containing 8 (Zinc finger MYND-type containing 8, ZMYND8) is a transcription factor, a histone H3-interacting protein, and a putative chromatin reader/effector that plays an essential role in regulating transcription during normal cellular growth. Mutations and altered expression of ZMYND8 are associated with the development and progression of cancer. Increased expression of ZMYND8 is linked to breast, prostate, colorectal, and cervical cancers. It exerts pro-oncogenic effects in breast and prostate cancers, and it promotes angiogenesis in zebrafish, as well as in breast and prostate cancers. In contrast, downregulation of ZMYND8 is also reported in breast, prostate, and nasopharyngeal cancers. ZMYND8 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast and prostate cancers, and it inhibits tumor growth by promoting differentiation; inhibiting proliferation, cell-cycle progression, invasiveness, and metastasis; and maintaining the epithelial phenotype in various types of cancers. These data together suggest that ZMYND8 is important in tumorigenesis; however, the existing data are contradictory. More studies are necessary to clarify the exact role of ZMYND8 in tumorigenesis. In the future, regulation of expression/activity of ZMYND8 and/or its binding partners may become useful in treating cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Inhibitors)
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