Geochronology, Crystallography and Phase Transition in Shocked Minerals

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 15464

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Earth Science, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Belville 7535, South Africa
2. GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ), 14473 Potsdam, Germany
Interests: metamorphic petrology and deformation in shear zones; tectonic deformation and shock deformation effects in accessory minerals; formation and evolution of shock-generated melts and other impactites

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Guest Editor
Department of Earth Science, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
Interests: planetary science, particularly pertaining to shock deformation and geochemistry relating to hypervelocity impact structures

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Guest Editor
Department of Geology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Interests: structural geology, remote sensing, and spatial analysis of impact deformed and post-impact deformed rocks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, geoscientists have significantly improved their understanding of planetary processes relating to the evolution of the Earth, Moon, Mars, and other rocky bodies in our Solar System. These breakthroughs became possible, in part, due to developments in high-resolution analytical techniques, such as electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS and nanoSIMS), sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro-CT scanning, X-ray diffraction (XRF) analyses, etc. These techniques allow petrological, geochronological, geochemical, and microstructural investigations of mineral phases from meteorites, impactites, and samples returned from planetary bodies, and in combination with numerical modeling and (micro)structural studies, they allow for the history of the solar system and its rocky objects to be untangled. This Special Issue will include studies of impactites and planetary materials with a focus on geochemistry, geochronology, and phase transitions of rock-forming and accessory mineral phases. Such contributions should shed light on planetary tectonics and especially hypervelocity impact events.

We cordially invite you to express your interest and to submit contributions to this Special Issue.

Dr. Elizaveta Kovaleva
Dr. Matthew Huber
Dr. Martin Clark
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • impact processes
  • geochronology and cosmochronology
  • phase transitions
  • shock deformation
  • equation of state
  • structural geology
  • microstructures
  • planetary processes
  • meteorites
  • micrometeorites
  • shocked zircon
  • shocked monazite
  • shocked apatite
  • shocked titanite
  • shocked quartz
  • shock-induced diamond
  • ringwoodite
  • reidite
  • lechatelierite
  • coesite
  • stishovite
  • maskelynite
  • granular textures
  • planar deformation features
  • feather features
  • diaplectic glass
  • planar fractures
  • mosaicism
  • impact glass
  • tectites
  • impact melt
  • impactites
  • target rocks
  • suevite
  • impact breccia
  • impact craters
  • cubic zirconia

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 5566 KiB  
Article
Silica Polymorphs Formation in the Jänisjärvi Impact Structure: Tridymite, Cristobalite, Quartz, Trace Stishovite and Coesite
by Daria A. Zamiatina, Dmitry A. Zamyatin, Georgii B. Mikhalevskii and Nikolai S. Chebikin
Minerals 2023, 13(5), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13050686 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1365
Abstract
The study of silica polymorphs in impactites is important for determining the pressure and temperature of impact rock formation. Silica modifications in impact melt rocks of the Janisjärvi impact structure (Karelia, Russia) are presented by tridymite, cristobalite, quartz, trace stishovite and coesite. Silica [...] Read more.
The study of silica polymorphs in impactites is important for determining the pressure and temperature of impact rock formation. Silica modifications in impact melt rocks of the Janisjärvi impact structure (Karelia, Russia) are presented by tridymite, cristobalite, quartz, trace stishovite and coesite. Silica modifications were characterized and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and Raman and cathodoluminescent spectroscopy. Investigations were carried out in order to clarify polymorphs formation mechanisms and search for signs of the transition of certain structural modifications to others. For the first time, a description of tridymite with a ballen-like texture from impact melt rock is given. A sequence of silica modification and textural transformation in impact rocks after the impact event is suggested. We conclude that the pressure of 40 GPa and a temperature of more than 900 °C were achieved in the impact structure. Full article
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13 pages, 8976 KiB  
Article
Ballen Quartz in Jänisjärvi Impact Melt Rock with High Concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Al: EPMA, EDS, EBSD, CL, and Raman Spectroscopy
by Daria A. Zamiatina, Dmitry A. Zamyatin and Georgii B. Mikhalevskii
Minerals 2022, 12(7), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12070886 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Ballen quartz is a spherical aggregate that is typical for impactites. Previous studies of ballen quartz in different impact structures have revealed the presence of Fe, K, Al, Mg, and Ca in the contact zone between individual ballen only. In the present study, [...] Read more.
Ballen quartz is a spherical aggregate that is typical for impactites. Previous studies of ballen quartz in different impact structures have revealed the presence of Fe, K, Al, Mg, and Ca in the contact zone between individual ballen only. In the present study, we describe ballen quartz found in a sample from a Jänisjärvi impact structure with a high concentration of Al2O3 (up to 4.56 wt.%), FeO (6.43 wt.%), and MgO (2.12 wt.%) in individual ballen. Microbeam methods: EPMA (Electron Probe Microanalysis), EDS (Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy), BSE (Back-scattered Electrons), EBSD (Electron Backscatter Diffraction), CL (Cathodoluminescence), and Raman spectroscopy were used to understand the atypical compositions of ballen quartz and its formation processes. Ballen quartz in our sample consists of unaltered quartz (domain A), which was formed as a result of shock heating, and hydrothermally altered quartz (domain B). The abundance of Fe, Mg, and Al in domain B is associated with submicron-sized inclusions of chlorite or other Fe-Mg minerals. Misorientations in subgrains in ballen quartz type A and B reach 1° and 7°, respectively. The micrometer-sized orientational inhomogeneity in ballen quartz type B is comparable in size to the micrometer-sized blocks separated by the grid of microfractures. The new data obtained expand the diversity of the ballen quartz studied and could be used for an understanding the mechanisms of their formation. Full article
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22 pages, 13438 KiB  
Article
Properties of Impact-Related Pseudotachylite and Associated Shocked Zircon and Monazite in the Upper Levels of a Large Impact Basin: a Case Study From the Vredefort Impact Structure
by Elizaveta Kovaleva and Roger Dixon
Minerals 2020, 10(12), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121053 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
The Vredefort impact structure in South Africa is deeply eroded to its lowermost levels. However, granophyre (impact melt) dykes in such structures preserve clasts of supracrustal rocks, transported down from the uppermost levels of the initial structure. Studying these clasts is the only [...] Read more.
The Vredefort impact structure in South Africa is deeply eroded to its lowermost levels. However, granophyre (impact melt) dykes in such structures preserve clasts of supracrustal rocks, transported down from the uppermost levels of the initial structure. Studying these clasts is the only way to understand the properties of already eroded impactites. One such lithic clast from the Vredefort impact structure contains a thin pseudotachylite vein and is shown to be derived from the near-surface environment of the impact crater. Traditionally, impact pseudotachylites are referred to as in situ melt rocks with the same chemical and isotopic composition as their host rocks. The composition of the sampled pseudotachylite vein is not identical to its host rock, as shown by the micro-X-ray fluorescence (µXRF) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry mapping. Mapping shows that the melt transfer and material mixing within pseudotachylites may have commonly occurred at the upper levels of the structure. The vein is spatially related to shocked zircon and monazite crystals in the sample. Granular zircons with small granules are concentrated within and around the vein (not farther than 6–7 mm from the vein). Zircons with planar fractures and shock microtwins occur farther from the vein (6–12 mm). Zircons with microtwins (65°/{112}) are also found inside the vein, and twinned monazite (180°/[101]) is found very close to the vein. These spatial relationships point to elevated shock pressure and shear stress, concentrated along the vein’s plane during impact. Full article
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14 pages, 3940 KiB  
Article
Graphite-Based Geothermometry on Almahata Sitta Ureilitic Meteorites
by Anna Barbaro, M. Chiara Domeneghetti, Cyrena A. Goodrich, Moreno Meneghetti, Lucio Litti, Anna Maria Fioretti, Peter Jenniskens, Muawia H. Shaddad and Fabrizio Nestola
Minerals 2020, 10(11), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10111005 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3261
Abstract
The thermal history of carbon phases, including graphite and diamond, in the ureilite meteorites has implications for the formation, igneous evolution, and impact disruption of their parent body early in the history of the Solar System. Geothermometry data were obtained by micro-Raman spectroscopy [...] Read more.
The thermal history of carbon phases, including graphite and diamond, in the ureilite meteorites has implications for the formation, igneous evolution, and impact disruption of their parent body early in the history of the Solar System. Geothermometry data were obtained by micro-Raman spectroscopy on graphite in Almahata Sitta (AhS) ureilites AhS 72, AhS 209b and AhS A135A from the University of Khartoum collection. In these samples, graphite shows G-band peak centers between 1578 and 1585 cm−1 and the full width at half maximum values correspond to a crystallization temperature of 1266 °C for graphite for AhS 209b, 1242 °C for AhS 72, and 1332 °C for AhS A135A. Recent work on AhS 72 and AhS 209b has shown graphite associated with nanodiamonds and argued that this assemblage formed due to an impact-event. Our samples show disordered graphite with a crystalline domain size ranging between about 70 and 140 nm. The nanometric grain-size of the recrystallized graphite indicates that it records a shock event and thus argues that the temperatures we obtained are related to such an event, rather than the primary igneous processing of the ureilite parent body. Full article
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23 pages, 23758 KiB  
Article
Textural Identification of Polycrystalline Magmatic, Tectonically-Deformed, and Shock-Related Zircon Aggregates
by Elizaveta Kovaleva
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050469 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2942
Abstract
Zircon with polycrystalline or polygranular appearance is either produced in the magmatic environment through crystallization, or due to deformation in metamorphic settings (including regional metamorphism and ductile shear zones), or as a result of shock-induced recrystallization. All three types can be easily confused [...] Read more.
Zircon with polycrystalline or polygranular appearance is either produced in the magmatic environment through crystallization, or due to deformation in metamorphic settings (including regional metamorphism and ductile shear zones), or as a result of shock-induced recrystallization. All three types can be easily confused and potentially lead to incorrect interpretations, especially if the crystallographic orientation analyses of zircon are not conducted. It is particularly important to establish the difference between tectonically-deformed polygranular zircon and shock-induced polygranular zircon because the latter serves as an indicator of shock event and is often used for dating asteroid impacts. In this paper, a series of polycrystalline zircon grains from ductile shear zones and metamorphic rocks are analyzed using a combination of techniques (BSE, CL, orientation contrast, EBSD, and microprobe mapping), and their properties are compared to reported polycrystalline zircons from magmatic and impact settings. This work shows how appearance, crystallographic orientation, and CL signature of “granules” differ between the different types of deformed zircon. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 2489 KiB  
Review
Application of Raman Spectroscopy for Studying Shocked Zircon from Terrestrial and Lunar Impactites: A Systematic Review
by Dmitry A. Zamyatin
Minerals 2022, 12(8), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12080969 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2127
Abstract
A highly resistant mineral, zircon is capable of preserving information about impact processes. The present review paper is aimed at determining the extent to which Raman spectroscopy can be applied to studying shocked zircons from impactites to identify issues and gaps in the [...] Read more.
A highly resistant mineral, zircon is capable of preserving information about impact processes. The present review paper is aimed at determining the extent to which Raman spectroscopy can be applied to studying shocked zircons from impactites to identify issues and gaps in the usage of Raman spectroscopy, both in order to highlight recent achievements, and to identify the most effective applications. Method: Following PRISMA guidelines, the review is based on peer-reviewed papers indexed in Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science databases up to 5 April 2022. Inclusion criteria: application of Raman spectroscopy to the study of shocked zircon from terrestrial and lunar impactites. Results: A total of 25 research papers were selected. Of these, 18 publications studied terrestrial impact craters, while 7 publications focused on lunar breccia samples. Nineteen of the studies were focused on the acquisition of new data on geological structures, while six examined zircon microstructures, their textural and spectroscopic features. Conclusions: The application of Raman spectroscopy to impactite zircons is linked with its application to zircon grains of various terrestrial rocks and the progress of the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique in the early 2000s. Raman spectroscopy was concluded to be most effective when applied to examining the degree of damage, as well as identifying phases and misorientation in zircon. Full article
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