Petrology, Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Geochronology of Granites

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 12780

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Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
Interests: metamorphism; igneous rocks petrology; geochemistry; geochronology
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Department of Geosciences, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504, Japan
Interests: geology, petrology, and geochemistry of plutonic rocks; geology and geochemistry for geological disposal of radioactive wastes

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Deportment of Geology (Petrology and Geochemistry), University of Salamanca, Plaza de los Caídos s/n, 37008 Salamanca, Spain
Interests: geochemistry; biogeochemistry; stable isotopes; IRMS; granite genesis; mineralizing fluids; hydrocarbon provenance; environmental pollution; forensic isotopes

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Guest Editor
Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
Interests: petrology and geochemistry of mantle peridotites, basalts and basaltic rocks, granites and granitoid rocks, high- and ultra-high-pressure metamorphic rocks and ore deposits; ocean ridge magmatism, intraplate magmatism, subduction-zone processes, magmatism associated with continental collision and continental crust accretion; auses and effects of seafloor subduction and global tectonics, chemical geodynamics and mantle circulation; elemental and isotope geochemistry, geochronology and geological applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Granites or granitoids are the dominant plutonic bodies of the upper and middle continental crust that generally result from partial melting of the crust in continental rifting environments along or above the subduction zone and within arc-related settings. In granite petrogenesis, magma source, sediment and fluid roles during the partial melting of the crust; the assimilation of wall-rock with granite magma; and detailed petrological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geochronological evidence are inevitable. Thus far, numerous studies have been conducted on granitoids exposed on the earth's surface—some have been interpreted as I-type, i.e., having their igneous source; others are reported as S-type, which are likely derived from melting of sedimentary source and some have been formed by the direct ascent of magma from the mantle into the shallow crustal levels, which are described as M-type. Besides, there are other commonly used terminologies, such as A-type or A2-type, etc., that have been interpreted for their anorogenic-like tectonic settings. The majority of these terminologies were based on whole-rock major and trace elements with some isotope data; however, secondary processes (chemical and physical weathering, wall-rock assimilation with the granite magma, and mixing of mafic or sedimentary xenoliths in granite magma) may alter the geochemical signatures of the primary magma, hence posing challenges to geologically interpreting the results.

In contrast, with the advent of analytical methods and micro-scale techniques, it has become easy to conduct relatively larger numbers of analyses in shorter times with more accurate and precise geochemical and geochronological results. Moreover, multi-isotope analysis on more than one mineral phase enables cross-checking and producing geologically meaningful and reliable results. For example, the majority of the analyses that were conducted in the late 1970s to the 1980s were conducted on whole-rock powders (e.g., major and trace elements). Similarly, K-Ar age-dating was conducted mainly on whole-rock powders or on mixed fractions of dominant mineral phases that may have inherited geochemical signatures from a different source or show growth zoning; hence, the results may have been trivial to interpret or had larger uncertainty. In contrast, modern techniques with a smaller spatial resolution (< 20 microns) and higher analytical precisions yield accurate results.

The Special Issue "Petrogenesis, Geochemistry and Geochronology of Granites" is aimed to bring the newly obtained geochemical and geochronological results from the well-known granitoid bodies around the globe that are well-supported by field and microscopic/textural evidence. We invite contributions from expert petrologists and emerging researchers that have quality data and would like to publish, in a single compilation, in the open access journal Minerals, which reaches a wide-ranging audience and serves as a nice example for learners of igneous petrology and geochemistry.

Dr. Hafiz U. Rehman
Prof. Dr. Atsushi Kamei
Dr. Clemente Recio
Prof. Dr. Yaoling Niu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • granites and granitoids
  • igneous petrology
  • magma genesis
  • major trace- and rare-earth element analysis
  • isotope geochemistry
  • zircon and monazite geochronology

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 6543 KiB  
Article
Petrogenesis of the Helong Granites in Southern Jiangxi Province, China: Constraints from Geochemistry and In Situ Analyses of Zircon U–Pb–Hf Isotopes
by Xinxing Liu, Weixin Shi, Juan Zhang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Junfeng Yang and Wei Li
Minerals 2023, 13(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13010101 - 09 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
The Jinzhuping and Changkeng granites are related to the Helong W–Sn ore field in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Three different phases can be found in the Jinzhuping pluton, and their LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb ages are 155.2 ± 0.68 Ma, 154.0 ± 0.56 Ma, [...] Read more.
The Jinzhuping and Changkeng granites are related to the Helong W–Sn ore field in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Three different phases can be found in the Jinzhuping pluton, and their LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb ages are 155.2 ± 0.68 Ma, 154.0 ± 0.56 Ma, and 153.4 ± 0.99 Ma, respectively, indicating two types of granitic rocks. All granites in the Helong ore field have similar geochemical characteristics, they have high contents of SiO2 (73.99 wt.%–77.68 wt.%), and total alkali (7.56 wt.%–8.76 wt.%) and are weakly to strongly peraluminous. They are slightly enriched in HREE and depleted in Eu, Ba, Sr, P, and Ti. Zircon εHf(t) values of the Jinzhuping three granites are from −14.4 to −10.4, from −15.3 to −11.4, and from −18.1 to −10.5, and the Hf TDM model ages range from 1.83 to 2.06 Ga, from 1.89 to 2.14 Ga, and from 1.83 to 2.31 Ga, respectively. Whole-rock geochemistry and Hf isotope analysis indicate that the Helong granites experienced a high degree of differentiation and evolution derived by partial melting of the Late Paleoproterozoic crustal materials, and they formed in a backarc caused by low-angle subduction of the Paleopacific plate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrology, Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Geochronology of Granites)
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16 pages, 5858 KiB  
Article
Late Mesozoic Granitoid Magmatism in the Evolution of the Eastern Flank of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogenic Belt (Russia)
by Inna M. Derbeko
Minerals 2022, 12(11), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12111374 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1191
Abstract
In this article, for the first time, a comparison is made of magmatic events that occurred in the northern and southern framing of the eastern flank of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogenic belt. It is established that these events occurred simultaneously. The igneous rocks accompanying [...] Read more.
In this article, for the first time, a comparison is made of magmatic events that occurred in the northern and southern framing of the eastern flank of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogenic belt. It is established that these events occurred simultaneously. The igneous rocks accompanying these events are identical in their material characteristics. And their geochemical characteristics reflect the geodynamic processes that took place in the frame of the Mongolian-Okhotsk orogenic belt at the end of the Mesozoic. Igneous rocks are represented by a wide range of rocks: from plutonic to volcanic. The range of their material composition is also wide. But the main component belongs to granitoids. At the initial stage of the Late Mesozoic geological events, granitoids of the adakitic series (149–138 Ma) were formed. Then formations of the calc-alkaline series (140–122 Ma) begin to form. However, the rocks of both the first and second stages were formed under suprasubduction conditions. The difference in the composition of these formations is established by the values of Sr-Nd isotopes. This reflects their spatial affiliation. In the northern frame, they break through the widely developed Archean and Proterozoic formations, and in the southern frame, only Proterozoic ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrology, Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Geochronology of Granites)
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16 pages, 4276 KiB  
Article
Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of the Wadhrai Granite Stock of the Malani Igneous Suite in Nagar Parkar Area, SE Pakistan
by M. Qasim Jan, M. Hassan Agheem, Tahseenullah Khan, Hafiz U. Rehman and Akhtar Hussain Markhand
Minerals 2022, 12(10), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12101240 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3105
Abstract
The Wadhrai granite stock is a part of the Nagar Parkar Igneous Complex, an extension of the Neoproterozoic Malani Igneous Suite of western Rajasthan. It is occupied by a petrographically uniform granite comprising perthite, plagioclase, quartz, with small quantities of biotite, opaque oxides, [...] Read more.
The Wadhrai granite stock is a part of the Nagar Parkar Igneous Complex, an extension of the Neoproterozoic Malani Igneous Suite of western Rajasthan. It is occupied by a petrographically uniform granite comprising perthite, plagioclase, quartz, with small quantities of biotite, opaque oxides, titanite, and secondary minerals. The rocks are sparingly porphyritic and contain dykes of microgranite, aplite, and rare pegmatite. In the south-central part, parallel sheets and swarms of mafic dykes, and in the western part very fine-grained felsic sheets intrude the body. The granite is metaluminous to peraluminous and characterized by high silica (73–76 wt%), and alkalis (7–9 wt%), and low CaO (0.15–1.4 wt%), MgO (0.15–0.38 wt%), Th (7–12 ppm), and U (1–2 ppm). On geochemical discriminant diagrams, it classifies mostly as A-type (with rather high Y/Nb (8.6 to 2.4, average 5.2) and low Nb/Ga and Ce (typical of A2-type), but sparingly as I-type. Chondrite-normalized patterns show enrichment in LREE over HREE, and small negative Eu anomalies, whereas mantle-normalized spidergrams display higher LILE over HFSE, distinct troughs for Nb, Sr, P, Ti, and spikes for La, Ce, Nd, Sm and Tb. The granite magma was possibly derived from a tonalite-granodiorite-dominated crustal source. Based on the above-mentioned geochemical evidence, it is interpreted that the source rocks of the magma of the Wadhrai granite likely developed initially in a continental margin subduction setting and underwent partial melting in a continental extensional environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrology, Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Geochronology of Granites)
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21 pages, 4890 KiB  
Article
Geological Significance of Late Permian Magmatic Rocks in the Middle Section of the Ailaoshan Orogenic Belt, SW China: Constraints from Petrology, Geochemistry and Geochronology
by Yaoyao Zhang, Kai Liu, Ye Wang, Da Zhang, Xuanxue Mo, Yuefei Deng, Tingxi Yu and Zenan Zhao
Minerals 2022, 12(5), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12050652 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
The Ailaoshan orogenic belt, located in the SE margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, is an important Paleo-Tethys suture zone in the eastern margin of the Sanjiang Tethys tectonic domain. The areas of Mojiang and Zhenyuan, located in the middle part of the Ailaoshan [...] Read more.
The Ailaoshan orogenic belt, located in the SE margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, is an important Paleo-Tethys suture zone in the eastern margin of the Sanjiang Tethys tectonic domain. The areas of Mojiang and Zhenyuan, located in the middle part of the Ailaoshan orogenic belt, are the key parts of the Ailaoshan Paleo-Tethys Ocean closure and collision orogeny. The rhyolites outcropped in the Mojiang area, and the granite porphyries outcropped in Zhenyuan area, are systematically studied for petrology, isotope geochemistry and geochronology. The Zircon U-Pb geochronology of rhyolites and granite porphyries give weighted average ages of 253.4 ± 4.2 Ma and 253.3 ± 2.0 Ma, respectively, both of which were formed in the late Permian period. The rhyolites belong to potassic calc-alkaline to subalkaline series. The patterns of the rare earth elements (REE) show a right-inclined seagull-type distribution, and the trace elements plot is right-inclined. The granite porphyries are high potassic calc-alkaline to subalkaline. The REE patterns show a right-inclined distribution, and the trace elements plot is right-inclined, which is consistent with the typical patterns observed in the crust. The peraluminous, highly differentiated and high ASI values suggest that rhyolites and granite porphyries are S-type granites. The zircon εHf(t) of the rhyolites range from −7.22 to −0.72, and two-stage Hf zircon model ages are (TDMC) 1771–2352 Ma, indicating that the magma source area is mainly crust-derived. The zircon εHf(t) of the granite porphyries range from −0.97 to 4.08, and two-stage Hf zircon model ages are (TDMC) 1336–1795 Ma, indicating that the magma is derived from a depleted mantle source and the partial melting of ancient crustal materials. The rhyolites and granite porphyries were possibly formed in the syn-collisional tectonic setting during the late Permian, and their ages limited the time of the final closure of the Ailaoshan Ocean and the initiation of collisional orogeny. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrology, Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Geochronology of Granites)
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23 pages, 10901 KiB  
Article
Geochemistry and Zircon U–Pb Geochronology of the Zhuxi Granites in the Jingdezhen Area, Jiangxi Province, China: Implications for the Mesozoic Tectonic Development of South China
by Hailong Huo, Da Zhang, Zhengle Chen, Yongjun Di, Xiaolong He, Ning Li and Bojie Hu
Minerals 2022, 12(3), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12030283 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Mesozoic granitic magmatism in Northeastern Jiangxi, China is of tectonic significance for the evolution of the South China Block. Whole-rock geochemical and zircon U–Pb geochronological and Lu–Hf isotopic data for Mesozoic Zhuxi granites in the Jingdezhen area of Northeastern Jiangxi were presented. The [...] Read more.
Mesozoic granitic magmatism in Northeastern Jiangxi, China is of tectonic significance for the evolution of the South China Block. Whole-rock geochemical and zircon U–Pb geochronological and Lu–Hf isotopic data for Mesozoic Zhuxi granites in the Jingdezhen area of Northeastern Jiangxi were presented. The Zhuxi granites are composed of granodiorite, biotite granite, and two-mica granite. Zircon LA–ICP–MS U–Pb isotopic analyses indicated emplacement at 159–147 Ma. The granites are characterized by a strongly peraluminous nature with high A/CNK values (>1.1), high SiO2 (66.09–74.46 wt.%) and K2O (3.50–5.52 wt.%) contents, depletion in Ba, Nb, Ce, Sr, and Ti, moderately negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.40–0.63), enrichment in LREE, and depletion in HREE ((La/Yb)N > 7.43). The A/CNK > 1.1, widespread aluminum-rich minerals (e.g., muscovite and tourmaline), indicating they are S–type granites and belong to muscovite–bearing peraluminous granites (MPG). The Zhuxi granites exhibited negative εHf(t) values (−9.9 to −3.7) and the TDM2 model ages of 1840–1442 Ma indicated derivation from ancient crustal sources. The magma is possibly caused by the subsequent process of intracontinental subduction. It is inferred that the Mesozoic magmatism in Northeastern Jiangxi was associated with oceanic–continental convergence of the Paleo–Pacific and Eurasian plates as well as the intracontinental subduction of the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks. The Zhuxi granites highlight the primary role of oceanic–continental convergence and intracontinental subduction in early Yanshanian granitoid magmatism in South China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrology, Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Geochronology of Granites)
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17 pages, 7778 KiB  
Article
Petrogenesis of Garnet Clinopyroxenite and Associated Dunite in Hujialin, Sulu Orogenic Belt, Eastern China
by Jianguo Liu, Jian Wang, Keiko Hattori and Zeli Wang
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12020162 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
The origin of ultramafic rocks, especially those in suture zones, has been a focus because they are not only important mantle sources of magma, but also provide substantial information on metamorphism and melt/fluid–peridotite interaction. Ultramafic rocks in Hujialin, in the central part of [...] Read more.
The origin of ultramafic rocks, especially those in suture zones, has been a focus because they are not only important mantle sources of magma, but also provide substantial information on metamorphism and melt/fluid–peridotite interaction. Ultramafic rocks in Hujialin, in the central part of the Sulu orogen, include peridotite and pyroxenite. Although many papers on their origin and tectonic evolution have been published in the past few decades, these questions are still highly debated. Here, we present mineralogy, mineral composition, and bulk-rocks of these ultramafic rocks to evaluate their origin and tectonic evolution. The garnet clinopyroxenite is low in heavy rare-earth elements (HREE, 5.97–10.6 ppm) and has convex spoon-shaped chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting the garnet formed later, and its precursor is clinopyroxenite. It is high in incompatible elements (i.e., Cs, Rb, Ba) and shows negative to positive U, Nb, and Ta anomalies, without pronounced positive Sr or Eu anomalies. Clinopyroxene in garnet clinopyroxenite contains high MgO (Mg# 0.90–0.97). The mineral chemistry and bulk-rock compositions are similar to those of reactive clinopyroxenite, suggesting that it originally formed via peridotite–melt interaction, and that such silicic and calcic melt might derive from the subducted Yangtze continent (YZC). Dunite contains olivine with high Fo (93.0–94.1), low NiO (0.11–0.29 wt.%) and MnO (≤0.1 wt.%), chromite with high Cr# (0.75–0.96), TiO2 (up to 0.88 wt.%), and Na2O (0.01–0.10 wt.%). It has negatively sloped chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Mineral chemistry and bulk rocks suggest dunite likely represent residual ancient lithosperic mantle peridotite beneath the North China Craton (NCC) that was overprinted by aqueous fluids. The lack of prograde and retrograde metamorphic minerals in dunite and irregular shaped mineral inclusions in chromite suggest dunite did not subduct to deep levels. Dunite mingled with garnet clinopyroxenite during exhumation of the latter at shallow depths. These ultramafic rocks, especially hydrated peridotite, may be important sources of Au for the Jiaodong gold province in the NCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrology, Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Geochronology of Granites)
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