Life and Carbonate: Biotic and Abiotic Fingerprints in Past and Recent Carbonate Sediments

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 2012

Special Issue Editors

Institute of Geosciences, Universidade de Brasília, Brasilia 70910-900, Brazil
Interests: carbonate sedimentology; isotopes geochemistry; paleoceanography; paleoclimatology; stratigraphy
Prof. Dr. Luca Basilone
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico, 191, São Paulo, SP 05508-120, Brazil
2. IISS E. Ascione, Via Centuripe 11, 90135 Palermo, Italy
Interests: carbonate sedimentology; basin analysis; sedimentary basins; stratigraphy; biostratigraphy; sequence stratigraphy; tectonics; geological mapping
Dr. Tomaso Bontognali
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Space Exploration Institute, Fbg de l’Hopital 68, 2002 Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Interests: geobiology; astrobiology
Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico, 191, São Paulo, SP 05508-120, Brazil
Interests: paleomagnetism; applied marine geophysics; stratigraphic methods; paleoclimatology and paleoceanography
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbonate sediments yield important information for understanding the evolution of environments, climate, and life through geological times. Therefore, gaining a deeper understanding of carbonate deposits is essential for unravelling some of the most controversial issues in Earth’s history, such as which biogeochemical processes characterized the earliest forms of life, what favored the proliferation of complex organisms, and how the biosphere and the geosphere have interacted through time. On the other hand, the identification of original biological and environmental fingerprints in carbonate sediments is complicated by post-depositional processes and the limited availability of modern analogs for some ancient geological periods. Important advances in the study of carbonate systems can come from the integration of different approaches and techniques of various disciplines, such as sedimentology, paleontology, geochemistry, and geobiology, among others. The integration of these methodologies facilitates the cross-referencing of data that can be mutually confirmed, as well as the interpretation of various features of carbonate archives. We invite the submission of contributions that address carbonate sediments and sedimentary processes from various perspectives in recent and past environments.

Dr. Martino Giorgioni
Prof. Dr. Luca Basilone
Dr. Tomaso Bontognali
Prof. Dr. Luigi Jovane
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • carbonate mineralization
  • carbonate geochemistry
  • biogenic carbonate
  • microbial mineralization
  • carbonate environments
  • carbonate diagenesis
  • carbonate proxies

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

27 pages, 39970 KiB  
Article
The Middle Miocene Microfacies, Cyclicity, and Depositional History: Implications on the Marmarica Formation at the Siwa Oasis, Western Desert (Egypt)
Minerals 2024, 14(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14010073 - 08 Jan 2024
Viewed by 730
Abstract
Microfacies studies were carried out on the Middle Miocene Marmarica Formation exposed at the Gabal Western Bahi El-Din and Gabal El-Najdeen, the Siwa Oasis, northwestern Desert (Egypt). It was distinguished into the lower, middle, and upper members. Eleven microfacies types were recognized, which [...] Read more.
Microfacies studies were carried out on the Middle Miocene Marmarica Formation exposed at the Gabal Western Bahi El-Din and Gabal El-Najdeen, the Siwa Oasis, northwestern Desert (Egypt). It was distinguished into the lower, middle, and upper members. Eleven microfacies types were recognized, which include skeletal lime-mudstone, dolomitic lime-mudstone, intraclastic wackestone, bryozoan wackestone, foraminiferal wackestone, foraminiferal bryozoan packstone, glauconitic molluscan packstone, molluscan intraclastic packstone, pelletal peloidal skeletal packstone, dolostones, and claystone microfacies. This formation includes several types of emergence- meter-scale cycles (shallowing-upward). Field observations and petrographic analyses revealed that these cycles consist of pure carbonates and mixed siliciclastic carbonates. These cycles consist of four types of gradual cycles and six types of non-gradual cycles. The gradual emergence cycles indicate a balance between the rate of subsidence, sea level oscillations, and sedimentation rate. The non-gradual cycles indicate an irregular balance between sedimentation rate and subsidence rate. The non-gradual cycles denote high-frequency sea level variation and/or short-term sea level oscillations, which are associated with high carbonate formation. The depositional environments of the Marmarica Formation are restricted to lagoonal at the base, followed upward to open marine conditions. Both environments most probably characterize the platform setting. Full article
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26 pages, 15897 KiB  
Article
Clumped Isotope Reordering and Kinetic Differences in Co-Hosted Calcite and Dolomite Minerals throughout Burial Diagenesis and Exhumation
Minerals 2023, 13(12), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13121466 - 22 Nov 2023
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Abstract
The clumped isotope paleo-thermometer has become a valuable proxy for the burial history reconstruction of carbonate formations. To maximise the accuracy of these reconstructions, post-depositional alterations, such as recrystallisation and Δ47 isotope exchange reactions, must be understood. In this study, we examine [...] Read more.
The clumped isotope paleo-thermometer has become a valuable proxy for the burial history reconstruction of carbonate formations. To maximise the accuracy of these reconstructions, post-depositional alterations, such as recrystallisation and Δ47 isotope exchange reactions, must be understood. In this study, we examine the isotopic behaviour of calcites and early dolomite samples from the same stratigraphic intervals, and thus with similar burial history. This approach provides additional constraints on the kinetics of Δ47 reordering in dolomite during exhumation. Clumped isotope measurements were performed on 19 calcites and 15 early dolomites from the Permian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods from four locations in Oman spanning different burial regimes. The calcite and dolomite samples were collected from the rock matrix, based on the assumption that fine material was more susceptible to recrystallisation. Our results show that calcites and dolomites record different Δ47 values despite being subjected to the same thermal history. The maximum Δ47 temperature recorded in dolomites (181 ± 13 °C) corresponds to the oldest and most deeply buried Permian rock. This value is approximately 35 °C higher than those measured in the co-located and coeval calcite matrix (145 ± 14 °C). This discrepancy suggests that calcite and dolomite have different kinetic parameters. Our data confirm (1) that dolomite Δ47 values are more resistant to alteration during burial and exhumation than Δ47 calcite values, and (2) that dolomite has a higher Δ47 closing temperature than calcite during cooling. The presence of two mineral phases with distinct kinetic parameters in the same stratigraphic unit provides additional constraints on models of burial and uplift. In addition, mineralogical data coupled with Δ47 and burial depths suggest that the progressive development of dolomite cation ordering is driven by temperature elevation, as previously suggested. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Ana Valéria Alves Calmon Almeida et al. Diagenetic fingerprints in carbonate shells of Corumbella werneri (Tamengo Formation, Ediacaran)

2. Igor Carrasqueira, Luigi Jovane, Luca Lanci Evidence of magnetite reduction and primary magnetization destruction during early diagenesis in carbonaceous sediments from Maldives Inner Sea

3. Mateus Gama et al Morphologic and mineralogical characterization of carbonate platforms in Brazillian mixed shelf

4. Eduardo Marcon Carbonaceous reef deposits in Amapá Margin

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