Fluid, Melt and Solid Inclusions as a Petrogenetic Indicators

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Deposits".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 14547

Special Issue Editors

Department of Mineralogy, Petrography and Geochemistry, AGH University of Science and Technology, Av. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Interests: gemstones; igneous petrology; alkaline rocks; ore deposits
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Polish Geological Institute-National Research Institute, Upper Silesian Branch, 1 Królowej Jadwigi Str., 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Interests: fluid and solid inclusions; conventional and NIR-microthermometry; Raman carbonaceous material geothermometry; hydrothermal ore deposits; gemology
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH UST, University of Science and Technology, 30 Mickiewicz Av., 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Interests: fluid inclusions; microthermometry; Raman spectroscopy, hydrothermal ore deposits; salt deposits; geochemistry
Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council, IGG-CNR, Florence Unit, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence, Italy
Interests: geothermal exploration; hydrothermal ore deposits; ore-forming processes; fluid inclusions; synthetic fluid inclusions; stable isotopes; hydrothermal alterations; fluid/rock interaction processes; experimental petrology; CO2 mineral sequestration
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inclusions are the small windows into the past. The vast majority of minerals are enriched in various types of inclusion assemblages, i.e., solid such as guest minerals, melt inclusions, organic matter, as well as fluid inclusions containing liquid, gaseous and solid species, closed in crystal at various stages of their growth. The research of these inclusions hosted by minerals coming from various geological settings could provide valuable physicochemical data on fluids/melts emanating from different systems, and tectonic events far back in time. Hence, the application of inclusions study could be found in diverse geological fields such as ore deposits, sedimentary systems, metamorphic petrology, tectonic evolution, crustal and mantle magmas, lunar geology and many others. The detailed inclusion characteristics are also very crucial in gemology, providing a clear fingerprint for specific geological conditions, genesis, and gives a clue for distinguishing gemstones from specific localities in the world as a result. Although the study of inclusions has been of special interests of geologists for a long time, due to the development of the analytical methodology and more in-depth interpretation of the data, it has been still a promising tool for the reconstruction of geological history. Contributions focused on inclusions coming from various geological systems and based on the most modern analytical approach to the inclusions petrography are therefore appreciated for this Special Issue.

Dr. Magdalena Dumańska-Słowik
Dr. Beata Naglik 
Dr. Tomasz Toboła 
Dr. Giovanni Ruggieri 
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Microthermometry
  • Petrogenesis
  • Geochemistry
  • Ore genesis
  • Gemology
  • Fluid inclusion assemblages
  • Solid inclusions
  • Melt inclusions
  • Tectonics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

27 pages, 55324 KiB  
Article
Transformation of the Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle Beneath the North China Craton (NCC): Constraints from the Geochemical Characteristics of Olivine Websterite Xenoliths and Their Minerals in the Cenozoic Basalts from Hannuoba
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040401 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1871
Abstract
The sub-continental mantle beneath North China Craton (NCC) has attracted extensive attention in the past decades because of its dramatic transformation from an old, cold, thick, and refractory mantle to a juvenile, hot, thinner, and fertile mantle. However, the transformation mechanism remains largely [...] Read more.
The sub-continental mantle beneath North China Craton (NCC) has attracted extensive attention in the past decades because of its dramatic transformation from an old, cold, thick, and refractory mantle to a juvenile, hot, thinner, and fertile mantle. However, the transformation mechanism remains largely controversial. The mantle xenoliths entrapped in basalts, as petrogenetic indicators, can provide an important window to reveal the evolution of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. In this study, we present a systematical study on the geochemical characteristics of the olivine websterite xenoliths and their minerals in the Cenozoic basalts in the Hannuoba region located at the central orogenic belt of the NCC. The results, compared with the geochemical data of Paleozoic and Meosozic peridotites, the Cenozoic composite pyroxenites as well as the global cumulate pyroxenites, demonstrate that: (1) The source of the websterite is probably the lithospheric mantle, which is mainly newly accreted, but with small amounts of ancient mantle residues. The source may be contaminated by different degrees of crustal materials. The high Nb/Ta ratios (11.36–20.57) of the websterite indicate that the Ti-bearing minerals (such as rutile) are probably involved in the source; (2) The websterite is more likely to be produced as a result of interaction of mantle peridotite with the silica-rich melts that are mainly derived from the asthenospheric mantle and also contributed by the crustal materials; (3) The metasomatic crustal melts might be derived from the subducted Paleo-Pacific plate. These melts interacted with the lithospheric mantle can significantly transform the chemical composition of the lithospheric mantle, and consequently play an important role in the destruction of the NCC. An important implication for the destruction of the NCC is further discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid, Melt and Solid Inclusions as a Petrogenetic Indicators)
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19 pages, 4604 KiB  
Article
High Sulfur in Primitive Arc Magmas, Its Origin and Implications
Minerals 2022, 12(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12010037 - 26 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3095
Abstract
Sulfur contents in 98.5% of melt inclusions (MI) from calc-alkaline subduction basalts do not exceed 4000 ppm, whereas experimentally established limits of sulfur solubility in basaltic melts with high fO2 (characteristic of subduction zones, e.g., QFM + 2) surpass 14,000 ppm. [...] Read more.
Sulfur contents in 98.5% of melt inclusions (MI) from calc-alkaline subduction basalts do not exceed 4000 ppm, whereas experimentally established limits of sulfur solubility in basaltic melts with high fO2 (characteristic of subduction zones, e.g., QFM + 2) surpass 14,000 ppm. Here we show that primitive (Mg# 62-64) subduction melts may contain high sulfur, approaching the experimental limit of sulfur solubility. Up to 11,700 ppm S was measured in olivine-hosted MI from primitive arc basalt from the 1941 eruption of the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka. These MI often contain magmatic sulfide globules (occasionally enriched in Cu, Ni, and platinum-group elements) and anhydrite enclosed within a brown, oxidized glass. We conclude that the ubiquitous low sulfur contents in MI may originate either from insufficient availability of sulfur in the magma generation zone or early magma degassing prior to inclusion entrapment. Our findings extend the measured range of sulfur concentrations in primitive calc-alkaline basaltic melts and demonstrate that no fundamental limit of 4000 ppm S exists for relatively oxidized subduction basalts, where the maximum sulfur content may approach the solubility limit determined by crystallization of magmatic anhydrite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid, Melt and Solid Inclusions as a Petrogenetic Indicators)
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18 pages, 6302 KiB  
Article
Diversity of Pyrite-Hosted Solid Inclusions and Their Metallogenic Implications—A Case Study from the Myszków Mo–Cu–W Porphyry Deposit (the Kraków–Lubliniec Fault Zone, Poland)
Minerals 2021, 11(12), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11121426 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3144
Abstract
Pyrite from the central part of the Myszków porphyry deposit in Poland was investigated using a combination of reflected and transmitted polarizing microscopy, back-scattered imaging with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Raman micro-spectroscopy. Five generations of pyrite (I–V) found in hydrothermal veins were distinguished, [...] Read more.
Pyrite from the central part of the Myszków porphyry deposit in Poland was investigated using a combination of reflected and transmitted polarizing microscopy, back-scattered imaging with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Raman micro-spectroscopy. Five generations of pyrite (I–V) found in hydrothermal veins were distinguished, differing in morphology, microtexture, and the types and amounts of solid inclusions. In general, pyrite hosts a diversity of mineral inclusions, including both gangue and ore phases, i.e., chlorite, quartz, monazite, cerianite-(Ce), xenotime, K-feldspars, albite, sericite, barite, magnetite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, bastnaesite (Ce), bismuthinite, native silver, cassiterite, rutile, anatase, and aikinite-group species. The presence of inclusions is good evidence of various stages of the evolution of the hydrothermal lode system ranging from high- to low-temperature conditions. During the formation of stockworks, some fluctuations in the physicochemical conditions of mineralizing fluids were indicated by the occurrence of cassiterite formed from acidic, reducing solutions, and hematite hosted in xenotime or REE phases found in pyrite, which signal more oxidizing conditions. Periodically, some episodes of boiling in the hydrothermal, porphyry-related system were recorded. They were mainly evidenced by the presence of (1) lattice-bladed calcite found in the close vicinity of pyrite II, (2) irregular grain edges of pyrite I, (3) clustered micropores in pyrite I, and (4) the variety of mineral inclusions hosted in I and II generations of pyrite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid, Melt and Solid Inclusions as a Petrogenetic Indicators)
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22 pages, 5712 KiB  
Article
Fluid and Solid Inclusions in Host Minerals of Permian Pegmatites from Koralpe (Austria): Deciphering the Permian Fluid Evolution during Pegmatite Formation
Minerals 2021, 11(6), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11060638 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2734
Abstract
Fluid inclusions (FIs) and associated solids in host minerals garnet, tourmaline, spodumene, and quartz from six pegmatite fields of Permian origin at Koralpe (Eastern Alps) have been investigated. Although pegmatites suffered intense Eoalpine high-pressure metamorphic overprint during the Cretaceous period, the studied samples [...] Read more.
Fluid inclusions (FIs) and associated solids in host minerals garnet, tourmaline, spodumene, and quartz from six pegmatite fields of Permian origin at Koralpe (Eastern Alps) have been investigated. Although pegmatites suffered intense Eoalpine high-pressure metamorphic overprint during the Cretaceous period, the studied samples originate from rock sections with well-preserved Permian magmatic textures. Magmatic low-saline aqueous FIs in garnet domains entrapped as part of an unmixed fluid together with primary N2-bearing FIs that originate from a host rock-derived CO2-N2 dominated high-grade metamorphic fluid. This CO2-N2 fluid is entrapped as primary FIs in garnet, tourmaline, and quartz. During host mineral crystallization, fluid mixing between the magmatic and the metamorphic fluid at the solvus formed CO2-N2-H2O–rich FIs of various compositional degrees that are preserved as pseudo-secondary inclusions in tourmaline, quartz, and as primary inclusions in spodumene. Intense fluid modification processes by in-situ host mineral–fluid reactions formed a high amount of crystal-rich inclusions in spodumene but also in garnet. The distribution of different types of FIs enables a chronology of pegmatite host mineral growth (garnet-tourmaline/quartz-spodumene) and their fluid chemistry is considered as having exsolved from the pegmatite parent melt together with the metamorphic fluid from the pegmatite host rocks. Minimum conditions for pegmatite crystallization of ca. 4.5–5.5 kbar at 650–750 °C have been constrained by primary FIs in tourmaline that, unlike to FIs in garnet, quartz, and spodumene, have not been affected by post-entrapment modifications. Late high-saline aqueous FIs, only preserved in the recrystallized quartz matrix, are related to a post-pegmatite stage during Cretaceous Eoalpine metamorphism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid, Melt and Solid Inclusions as a Petrogenetic Indicators)
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14 pages, 4410 KiB  
Article
Variety of Iron Oxide Inclusions in Sapphire from Southern Vietnam: Indication of Environmental Change during Crystallization
Minerals 2021, 11(3), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11030241 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2526
Abstract
Sapphires from alluvial deposits associated with Cenozoic basalts in Southern Vietnam were collected for investigation of mineral inclusions. In this report, primary iron oxide inclusions were focused on, with detailed mineral chemistry using a Raman spectroscope and electron probe micro-analyzer. Consequently, a variety [...] Read more.
Sapphires from alluvial deposits associated with Cenozoic basalts in Southern Vietnam were collected for investigation of mineral inclusions. In this report, primary iron oxide inclusions were focused on, with detailed mineral chemistry using a Raman spectroscope and electron probe micro-analyzer. Consequently, a variety of iron oxide inclusions were recognized as wüstite, hercynite, and ilmenite. Ilmenite falling within an ilmenite–hematite series ranged in composition between Il24-30He36-38Mt35-40 and Il49-54He34-40Mt7-10, classified as titanomagnetite and titanohematite, respectively. Wüstite with non-stoichiometry, (Fe2+0.3-0.9)(Ti3+<0.179Al3+≤0.6Cr3+<0.1Fe3+≤0.46)☐≤0.23O, was associated with hercynite inclusions, clearly indicating cogenetic sapphire formation. Wüstite and sapphire appear to have been formed from the breakdown reaction of hercynite (hercynite = sapphire+wüstite) within a reduction magma chamber. Titanohematite and titanomagnetite series might have crystallized during iron–titanium reequilibration via subsolidus exsolution under a slightly oxidized cooling process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid, Melt and Solid Inclusions as a Petrogenetic Indicators)
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