Geological Evolution of South American Cratons

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 2944

Special Issue Editors


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Università Degli Studi di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato, Italy
Interests: paleoenvironmental reconstructions; geochronology; Archean–Paleoproterozoic transition; Amazon Craton; Sao Francisco Craton

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Dipartimento di Matematica e Geoscienze, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Via Weiss 8, 34128 Trieste, Italy
Interests: basaltic and silicic magmatic systems; alkaline magmatism; Archean–Paleoproterozoic transition; Amazon and São Francisco cratons; continental erosion

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Departamento de Geologia, Escola de Minas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Morro do Cruzeiro, Ouro Preto 35400-000, MG, Brazil
Interests: isotope geochemistry; laser ablation; geodynamic evolution of South America; geodynamic evolution of Africa

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

South America is made up of large extents of Archean to Paleoproterozoic crustal terrains which are recognized to be some of the largest cratons on Earth, such as the Amazon and São Francisco cratons. Other small cratonic nuclei also exist, such as the São Luis and Luis Alves cratons, but their study is still in its infancy. The long-lasting geological evolution of these cratons, which spanned most of the Archean and Proterozoic eons, offers the opportunity to document processes that operated on the early Earth, including mantle and crustal evolution, the formation and stabilization of these cratonic areas, their evolution through time, and the co-evolution between the deep Earth and the surface. In addition, there are growing lines of evidence that processes that led to the formation, evolution, and stabilization of some of the South American cratons could have been different from those recognized in other similar terrains worldwide.

In this Special Issue, we welcome contributions dealing with the geological evolution of the different cratons exposed in South America. We encourage submissions that showcase multi-disciplinary approaches including, but not limited to, field studies and geochemical and geophysical studies in order to better constrain the geodynamic evolution of these cratonic areas.

Dr. Camille Rossignol
Dr. Francesco Narduzzi
Prof. Dr. Cristiano de Carvalho Lana
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Amazon Craton
  • São Francisco Craton
  • São Luis Craton
  • Luis Alves Craton

Published Papers (2 papers)

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14 pages, 2120 KiB  
Article
Linking the Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic Belts Bordering the West African and Amazonian Cratons: Review and New Hypothesis
by Michel Villeneuve and Camille Rossignol
Minerals 2024, 14(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14010048 - 30 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Correlations between the Neoproterozoic belts surrounding the West African Craton and northern Brazilian cratons have long been a subject of interest and controversies. Due to the splitting of African and South American continents by the Atlantic oceanic domains, no direct links are preserved, [...] Read more.
Correlations between the Neoproterozoic belts surrounding the West African Craton and northern Brazilian cratons have long been a subject of interest and controversies. Due to the splitting of African and South American continents by the Atlantic oceanic domains, no direct links are preserved, requiring relying on various geological or geophysical characteristics to propose such correlations. In addition to the opening of the Atlantic oceanic domains, another difficulty arises from the covering of northern Brazilian belts by upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic basins, making these correlations speculative. Here, we propose new correlations based on the comparison between African and Brazilian belts. Recently, new geochronological and geodynamical data obtained in West Africa have evidenced four orogens in the Neoproterozoic belts of the western margin of the West Africa Craton, while the belts on the eastern side underwent only one orogeny. Similarities with the Pan-African I (900–650 Ma) and with the Pan-African II (650–480 Ma) orogenic events have been evidenced in the western Brazilian belts (Araguay and Paraguay). The first two orogens on the western margin (Pan-African I and Pan-African II) can thus be extended to the western Brazilian belts and can be considered as parts of a single geodynamic system running from the Mauritania to the Paraguay including the “Gurupi rift” as an aulacogen connected to the NNW-SSE Panafrican I and II oceanic domains. Consequently, the eastern Brazilian belt should rather be linked the Eastern Trans-Saharan belts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Evolution of South American Cratons)
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38 pages, 13006 KiB  
Review
Wrapping a Craton: A Review of Neoproterozoic Fold Belts Surrounding the São Francisco Craton, Eastern Brazil
by Alexandre Uhlein, Gabriel Jubé Uhlein, Fabrício de Andrade Caxito and Samuel Amaral Moura
Minerals 2024, 14(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14010043 - 29 Dec 2023
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Abstract
A synthesis of the evolution of the Neoproterozoic belts or orogens surrounding the São Francisco craton (SFC) in northeastern and southeastern Brazil is presented. Emphasis is placed on recognizing the superposition of sedimentary basins, from rift to passive margin to retroarc and foreland, [...] Read more.
A synthesis of the evolution of the Neoproterozoic belts or orogens surrounding the São Francisco craton (SFC) in northeastern and southeastern Brazil is presented. Emphasis is placed on recognizing the superposition of sedimentary basins, from rift to passive margin to retroarc and foreland, as well as identifying three diachronic continental collisions in the formation of the SFC. The Tonian passive margin occurs in the southern Brasília Belt with the Vazante, Canastra, and Araxá Groups. During the Tonian, island magmatic arcs and basins developed in front and behind these arcs (fore- and back-arcs). Subsequently, in the Cryogenian–Ediacaran, a retroarc foreland basin developed with part of the Araxá Group and the Ibiá Group, and finally, a foreland basin developed, which was filled by the Bambuí Group. A tectonic structure of superimposed nappes, with subhorizontal S1–2 foliation, formed between 650 and 610 Ma, is striking. In the northern Brasília Belt, there is the Stenian passive margin of the Paranoá Group, the Tonian intrusion of the Mafic–Ultramafic Complexes, and the Mara Rosa Island magmatic arc, active since the Tonian, with limited volcanic–sedimentary basins associated with the arc. A thrust–fold belt structure is prominent, with S1 foliation and late transcurrent, transpressive tectonics characterized by the Transbrasiliano (TB) lineament. The Cryogenian–Ediacaran collision between the Paranapanema and São Francisco cratons is the first collisional orogenic event to the west. In the Rio Preto belt, on the northwestern margin of the São Francisco craton, the Cryogenian–Ediacaran Canabravinha rift basin is prominent, with gravitational sediments that represent the intracontinental termination of the passive margin that occurs further northeast. The rift basin was intensely deformed at the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary, as was the Bambuí Group. On the northern and northeastern margins of the São Francisco craton, the Riacho do Pontal and Sergipano orogens stand out, showing a comparable evolution with Tonian and Cryogenian rifts (Brejo Seco, Miaba, and Canindé); Cryogenian–Ediacaran passive margin, where the Monte Orebe ophiolite is located; and Cordilleran magmatic arcs, which developed between 620 and 610 Ma. In the Sergipano fold belt, with a better-preserved outer domain, gravitational sedimentation occurs with glacial influence. A continental collision between the SFC and the PEAL (Pernambuco-Alagoas Massif) occurred between 610 and 540 Ma, with intense deformation of nappes and thrusts, with vergence to the south and accommodation by dextral transcurrent shear zones, such as the Pernambuco Lineament (PE). The Araçuaí belt or orogen was formed at the southeastern limit of the SFC by a Tonian intracontinental rift, later superimposed by a Cryogenian–Ediacaran rift–passive margin of the Macaúbas Group, with gravitational sedimentation and glacial influence, and distally by oceanic crust. It is overlain by a retroarc basin with syn-orogenic sedimentation of the Salinas Formation, partly derived from the Rio Doce cordilleran magmatic arc and associated basins, such as the Rio Doce and Nova Venécia Groups. A third continental collision event (SF and Congo cratons), at the end of the Ediacaran (580–530 Ma), developed a thrust–fold belt that deforms the sediments of the Araçuaí Belt and penetrates the Paramirim Corridor, transitioning to the south to a dextral strike-slip shear zone that characterizes the Ribeira Belt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Evolution of South American Cratons)
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