Advances in Low-Dimensional Materials: Synthesis, Characterization and Device Applications

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D:Materials and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 5402

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
Interests: synthesis; nanomaterials; 2D materials; physics; surface characterization

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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Interests: 2D materials; chemical vapor deposition; optical spectroscopy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, the rapid development of nanotechnology has enabled the innovative design and precise control of thin film synthesis, characterization, and device application. As a result, researchers have discovered and studied a number of new material systems that possess fundamentally novel structures and physical properties. In particular, low-dimensional materials exhibit unique properties due to quantum confinement and high surface area. These classes of materials include quantum dots, nanowires and nanotubes, and recently emerging two-dimensional materials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, boron nitride, MXenes, and perovskite semiconductors. Their plethora of electronic properties and quasiparticles, including plasmons, polaritons, trions, and excitons that can all be controlled and modulated, have given rise to many device applications. In addition, these materials exhibit novel physical properties such as spin and valley polarization, magnetism, superconductivity, piezoelectricity that depend on composition, crystal structure, twist angle, layer number, and phases.

Therefore, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, communications, and review articles that focus on (1) synthesis discussions of low-dimensional materials for emerging physics and functional device fabrication; (2) characterization approaches to defining low-dimensional materials in atomic scale and probing their novel structure and physical properties; and (3) device applications of low-dimensional materials in field-effect transistors, sensors, memristors, nonvolatile memories and energy conversion.

Dr. Xiaotian Zhang
Dr. Tianyi Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • low-dimensional materials: quantum dots, nanowires, nanotubes, graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, boron nitride, MXenes, perovskite
  • physical and structural characterization
  • device applications: field-effect transistors, sensors, memristors, nonvolatile memories, energy conversion

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 7241 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Mechanical Oscillations in Bismuth Selenide Nanowires at Low Temperatures
by Liga Jasulaneca, Raimonds Poplausks, Juris Prikulis, Elza Dzene, Tom Yager and Donats Erts
Micromachines 2023, 14(10), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14101910 - 7 Oct 2023
Viewed by 869
Abstract
A single transistor preamplifier circuit was designed to facilitate electrical detection of mechanical oscillations in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMSs) at low temperatures. The amplifier was integrated in the close vicinity of the nanowire inside the cryostat to minimize cabling load and interference. The function [...] Read more.
A single transistor preamplifier circuit was designed to facilitate electrical detection of mechanical oscillations in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMSs) at low temperatures. The amplifier was integrated in the close vicinity of the nanowire inside the cryostat to minimize cabling load and interference. The function of the circuit was impedance conversion for current flow measurements in NEMSs with a high internal resistance. The circuit was tested to operate at temperatures as low as 5 K and demonstrated the ability to detect oscillations in double-clamped bismuth selenide nanowires upon excitation by a 0.1 MHz–10 MHz AC signal applied to a mechanically separated gate electrode. A strong resonance frequency dependency on temperature was observed. A relatively weak shift in the oscillation amplitude and resonance frequency was measured when a DC bias voltage was applied to the gate electrode at a constant temperature. Full article
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13 pages, 5253 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Elastic Macroporous Graphene Aerogel Based on Pickering Emulsion Method and Combination with ETPU for High Performance Piezoresistive Sensors
by Wei Zhao, Hao Chen, Yuqi Wang, Qing Zhuo, Yaopeng Liu, Yuanyuan Li, Hangyu Dong, Shidong Li, Linli Tan, Jianfeng Tan, Zhuo Liu and Yingru Li
Micromachines 2023, 14(10), 1904; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14101904 - 5 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
High-performance pressure sensors provide the necessary conditions for smart shoe applications. In this paper, the elastic Macroporous Graphene Aerogel (MGA) was synthesized via the modified Hummers’ method, and it was further combined with Expanded-Thermoplastic polyurethane (ETPU) particles to assemble MGA-ETPU flexible sensors. The [...] Read more.
High-performance pressure sensors provide the necessary conditions for smart shoe applications. In this paper, the elastic Macroporous Graphene Aerogel (MGA) was synthesized via the modified Hummers’ method, and it was further combined with Expanded-Thermoplastic polyurethane (ETPU) particles to assemble MGA-ETPU flexible sensors. The MGA-ETPU has a low apparent density (3.02 mg/cm3), high conductivity (0.024 S/cm) and fast response time (50 ms). The MGA-ETPU has a large linear sensing range (0–10 kPa) and consists of two linear regions: the low-pressure region (0 to 8 kPa) and the high-pressure region (8 to 10 kPa), with sensitivities of 0.08 kPa−1, and 0.246 kPa−1, respectively. Mechanical test results show that the MGA-ETPU sensor showed 19% reduction in maximum stress after 400 loading–unloading compression cycles at 40% strain. Electrical performance tests showed that the resistance of MGA-ETPU sensor decreased by 12.5% when subjected to sudden compression at 82% strain and returned to its original state within 0.05 s. Compared to existing flexible sensors, the MGA-ETPU sensors offer excellent performance and several distinct advantages, including ease of fabrication, high sensitivity, fast response time, and good flexibility. These remarkable features make them ideally suited as flexible pressure sensors for smart shoes. Full article
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13 pages, 4332 KiB  
Article
Asymmetrically Nanostructured 2D Janus Films Obtained from Pickering Emulsions Polymerized in a Langmuir–Blodgett Trough
by Andrei Honciuc and Oana-Iuliana Negru
Micromachines 2023, 14(7), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14071459 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
Low-dimensional structures, such as two-dimensional (2D) Janus films, can be useful in studying fundamental interactions or in applications at the nanoscale. In this work, we report the fabrication of 2D polymer Janus films consisting of one smooth and another nanostructured facet on which [...] Read more.
Low-dimensional structures, such as two-dimensional (2D) Janus films, can be useful in studying fundamental interactions or in applications at the nanoscale. In this work, we report the fabrication of 2D polymer Janus films consisting of one smooth and another nanostructured facet on which silica nanoparticles (NPs) are self-assembled in a compact monolayer shield. The 2D films are made from Pickering emulsions of monomers in water, stabilized by NPs, which are spread over the surface of the water in a Langmuir–Blodgett trough. Following the spreading of the colloidosomes, oil droplets stabilized by NPs collapse, and the interfaces reorganize such that the NP monolayer is found exclusively at the oil/water interface. Upon compression followed by UV polymerization, a 2D solid film is formed, with one smooth and another nanostructured face. The film can be removed from the surface of the water and handled with tweezers. The 2D films exhibit different surface properties on the two sides, such as differences in water wettability. On the nanostructured side, water wettability can be tuned by tuning the surface energy of the nanoparticles, namely by changing their surface functional groups. Upon removal of NPs, the surface can be patterned with an array of circular traces. Full article
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13 pages, 4486 KiB  
Article
Ag2S-Ag2O-Ag/poly-2-aminobenzene-1-thiol Nanocomposite as a Promising Two-Electrode Symmetric Supercapacitor: Tested in Acidic and Basic Mediums
by Mohamed Rabia, Asmaa M. Elsayed, Maha Abdallah Alnuwaiser and Ahmed Adel A. Abdelazeez
Micromachines 2023, 14(7), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14071423 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 902
Abstract
A Ag2S-Ag2O-Ag/poly-2-aminobenzene-1-thiol (P2ABT) nanocomposite was prepared using the photopolymerization reaction using AgNO3 as an oxidant. The size of the nanocomposite was about 40 nm, in which the morphology was confirmed using TEM and SEM analyses. The functional groups [...] Read more.
A Ag2S-Ag2O-Ag/poly-2-aminobenzene-1-thiol (P2ABT) nanocomposite was prepared using the photopolymerization reaction using AgNO3 as an oxidant. The size of the nanocomposite was about 40 nm, in which the morphology was confirmed using TEM and SEM analyses. The functional groups of Ag2S-Ag2O-Ag/P2ABT were confirmed using FTIR; also, XRD confirmed the inorganic Ag2S, Ag, and Ag2O formation. This nanocomposite has great performance in supercapacitor applications, with it tested in acidic (1.0 M HCl) and basic mediums (1.0 M NaOH). This pseudo-capacitor has great performance that appeared through the charge time in an acid medium in comparison to the basic medium with values of 118 s and 103 s, correspondingly. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis further confirmed the excellent performance of the supercapacitor material, as indicated by the large area under the cyclic curve. The specific capacitance (CS) and energy density (E) values (at 0.3 A/g) were 92.5 and 44.4 F/g and 5.0 and 2.52 W·h·Kg−1 in the acidic and basic mediums, correspondingly. The charge transfer was studied through a Nyquist plot, and the produced Rs values were 4.9 and 6.2 Ω, respectively. Building on these findings, our objective is to make a significant contribution to the progress of supercapacitor technology through a prototype design soon. Full article
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Review

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21 pages, 10394 KiB  
Review
Advances in Carbon Dot-Based Ratiometric Fluorescent Probes for Environmental Contaminant Detection: A Review
by Xinxin Xing, Zhezhe Wang and Yude Wang
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030331 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Detecting environmental contaminants is crucial for protecting ecosystems and human health. While traditional carbon dot (CD) fluorescent probes are versatile, they may suffer from limitations like fluctuations in signal intensity, leading to detection inaccuracies. In contrast, ratiometric fluorescent probes, designed with internal self-calibration [...] Read more.
Detecting environmental contaminants is crucial for protecting ecosystems and human health. While traditional carbon dot (CD) fluorescent probes are versatile, they may suffer from limitations like fluctuations in signal intensity, leading to detection inaccuracies. In contrast, ratiometric fluorescent probes, designed with internal self-calibration mechanisms, offer enhanced sensitivity and reliability. This review focuses on the design and applications of ratiometric fluorescent probes based on CDs for environmental monitoring. Our discussion covers construction strategies, ratiometric fluorescence principles, and applications in detecting various environmental contaminants, including organic pollutants, heavy metal ions, and other substances. We also explore associated advantages and challenges and provide insights into potential solutions and future research directions. Full article
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