The Next Generation of Magnetometer Microsystems and Applications

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2024 | Viewed by 6675

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Semiconductors and Physics, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China
Interests: quqantum sensing; precision measurement; MEMS; AFM

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Guest Editor
School of Instrument and Electronics, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China
Interests: magnetometer; quantum sensor; chip scale

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Instrument Science and Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China
Interests: chip scale; quantum sensor; application

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magnetic field sensors, including superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID), giant magnetoresistance (GMR), SERF (spin exchange relaxation-free), Hall sensors, as well as NV magnetometers, are indispensable in a wide range of industrial and scientific fields. Nowadays, fetotesla to picotesla sensitivity under various conditions have been achieved using the magnetometers mentioned above with small volume, especially in cardiac magnetography and magnetoencephalography, geomagnetic measurements, and metal contaminant detection, etc. Therefore, the focus of this Special Issue is on promising portable magnetometers and their application by decreasing the sensing volume and enhancing the magnetic field sensitivity with integrated technologies, MEMS, chip-scale processing, and even microsystem technologies. This Special Issue calls for original research papers and reviews detailing state-of-the-art results on these topics.

Prof. Dr. Zongmin Ma
Prof. Dr. Huanfei Wen
Prof. Dr. Xiujian Chou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • quantum sensor
  • magnetometer
  • chip scale
  • NV center
  • OPM
  • SQUID
  • SERF
  • magnetometer microsystem
  • magnetometer application.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 8249 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Attitude Estimation for Spinning Projectiles by Magnetometer Based on an Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter
by Ge Zhang, Xiaoming Zhang, Lizhen Gao, Jun Liu and Jie Zhou
Micromachines 2023, 14(11), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14112000 - 28 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
The attitude measurement system based on geomagnetic information offers advantages such as small space requirements, fast response times, excellent resistance to high-overload conditions, and cost-effectiveness. However, during the flight process of a high-mobility guided spinning projectile, calculating attitude based on geomagnetic information often [...] Read more.
The attitude measurement system based on geomagnetic information offers advantages such as small space requirements, fast response times, excellent resistance to high-overload conditions, and cost-effectiveness. However, during the flight process of a high-mobility guided spinning projectile, calculating attitude based on geomagnetic information often leads to non-unique solutions. To address this challenge, this paper proposes the Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF) attitude estimation algorithm, based on geomagnetic vector information. Based on the analysis of the short-term attitude motion characteristics of the projectile, the Kalman state system equation and the nonlinear observation equation are established, along with real-time correction of the yaw angle and adaptive updates of parameters. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by simulations and experiments, demonstrating its ability to eliminate the dual solution problem inherent in traditional Single-Epoch algorithms. It notably improves the accuracy of pitch and roll angle estimation while providing precise estimates of attitude angular rates. Furthermore, the algorithm effectively mitigates the impact of magnetic disturbances on attitude determination. The proposed method has many potential applications in attitude measurement and navigation using geomagnetic data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Next Generation of Magnetometer Microsystems and Applications)
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12 pages, 2720 KiB  
Article
Noise Suppression of Nitrogen-Vacancy Magnetometer in Lock-In Detection Method by Using Common Mode Rejection
by Yang Li, Doudou Zheng, Zhenhua Liu, Hui Wang, Yankang Liu, Chenyu Hou, Hao Guo, Zhonghao Li, Yashuhiro Sugawara, Jun Tang, Zongmin Ma and Jun Liu
Micromachines 2023, 14(10), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14101823 - 24 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1446
Abstract
Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds are promising solid-state magnetic sensors with potential applications in power systems, geomagnetic navigation, and diamond NV color center current transformers, in which both high bandwidth and high magnetic field resolution are required. The wide bandwidth requirement often necessitates [...] Read more.
Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds are promising solid-state magnetic sensors with potential applications in power systems, geomagnetic navigation, and diamond NV color center current transformers, in which both high bandwidth and high magnetic field resolution are required. The wide bandwidth requirement often necessitates high laser power, but this induces significant laser fluctuation noise that affects the detection magnetic field resolution severely. Therefore, enhancement of the magnetic field resolution of wide-bandwidth NV center magnetic sensors is highly important because of the reciprocal effects of the bandwidth and magnetic field resolution. In this article, we develop a common mode rejection (CMR) model to eliminate the laser noise effectively. The simulation results show that the noise level of the light-detected magnetic resonance signal is significantly reduced by a factor of 6.2 after applying the CMR technique. After optimization of the laser power and modulation frequency parameters, the optimal system bandwidth was found to be 75 Hz. Simultaneously, the system’s detection magnetic field resolution was enhanced significantly, increasing from 4.49 nT/Hz1/2 to 790.8 pT/Hz1/2, which represents an improvement of nearly 5.7 times. This wide-bandwidth, high-magnetic field resolution NV color center magnetic sensor will have applications including power systems, geomagnetic navigation, and diamond NV color center current transformers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Next Generation of Magnetometer Microsystems and Applications)
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15 pages, 1081 KiB  
Article
Neuromuscular Magnetic Field Measurement Based on Superconducting Bio-Sensors
by Zhidan Zhang, Anran He, Zihan Xu, Kun Yang and Xiangyan Kong
Micromachines 2023, 14(9), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14091768 - 15 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
These years, disease-causing and disabling diseases have caused great concern. Neurological musculoskeletal disorders are diverse and affect people of a wide range of ages. And the lack of comprehensive diagnostic methods places a huge burden on healthcare systems and social economies. In this [...] Read more.
These years, disease-causing and disabling diseases have caused great concern. Neurological musculoskeletal disorders are diverse and affect people of a wide range of ages. And the lack of comprehensive diagnostic methods places a huge burden on healthcare systems and social economies. In this paper, the current status of clinical research on neuromuscular diseases is introduced, and the advantages of magnetic field measurement compared with clinical diagnostic methods are illustrated. A comprehensive description of the related technology of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), magnetic field detection noise suppression scheme, the development trend of the sensor detection system, and the application and model establishment of the neuromuscular magnetic field is also given in this paper. The current research and development trends worldwide are compared simultaneously, and finally the conclusions and outlook are put forward. Based on the description of the existing literature and the ideas of other researchers, the next development trends and my own research ideas are presented in this paper, that is, starting from the establishment of a neuromuscular model, combining medical and industrial work, designing a sensor system that meets clinical needs, and laying the foundation for the clinical application of a bio-magnetic system. This review promotes a combination between medicine and industry, and guides researchers on considering the challenges of sensor development in terms of clinical needs. In addition, in this paper, the development trends are described, including the establishment of the model, the clinical demand for sensors, and the challenges of system development so as to give certain guidance to researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Next Generation of Magnetometer Microsystems and Applications)
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11 pages, 5588 KiB  
Article
Pyrolytic Graphite for an In-Plane Force Study of Diamagnetic Levitation: A Potential Microdetector of Cracks in Magnetic Material
by Runze Liu, Wenjiang Yang, Hongjun Xiang, Peng Zhao, Fuwen Deng and Juzhuang Yan
Micromachines 2023, 14(6), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14061242 - 13 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1361
Abstract
The diamagnetic levitation technique can be applied in non-destructive testing for identifying cracks and defects in magnetic materials. Pyrolytic graphite is a material that can be leveraged in micromachines due to its no-power diamagnetic levitation on a permanent magnet (PM) array. However, the [...] Read more.
The diamagnetic levitation technique can be applied in non-destructive testing for identifying cracks and defects in magnetic materials. Pyrolytic graphite is a material that can be leveraged in micromachines due to its no-power diamagnetic levitation on a permanent magnet (PM) array. However, the damping force applied to pyrolytic graphite prevents it from maintaining continuous motion along the PM array. This study investigated the diamagnetic levitation process of pyrolytic graphite on a permanent magnet array from various aspects and drew several important conclusions. Firstly, the intersection points on the permanent magnet array had the lowest potential energy and validated the stable levitation of pyrolytic graphite on these points. Secondly, the force exerted on the pyrolytic graphite during in-plane motion was at the micronewton level. The magnitude of the in-plane force and the stable time of the pyrolytic graphite were related to the size ratio between it and the PM. During the fixed-axis rotation process, the friction coefficient and friction force decreased as the rotational speed decreased. Smaller-sized pyrolytic graphite can be used for magnetic detection, precise positioning and other microdevices. The diamagnetic levitation of pyrolytic graphite can also be used for detecting cracks and defects in magnetic materials. We hope this technique will be used in crack detection, magnetic detection and other micromachines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Next Generation of Magnetometer Microsystems and Applications)
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9 pages, 2521 KiB  
Article
Research on Micro-Displacement Measurement Accuracy Enhancement Method Based on Ensemble NV Color Center
by Yuqi Liu, Zhonghao Li, Hao Zhang, Hao Guo, Ziyang Shi and Zongmin Ma
Micromachines 2023, 14(5), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14050938 - 26 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1160
Abstract
This paper builds a corresponding micro-displacement test system based on an ensemble nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center magnetometer by combining the correlation between a magnetic flux concentrator, a permanent magnet, and micro-displacement. By comparing the measurement results obtained with and without the magnetic flux [...] Read more.
This paper builds a corresponding micro-displacement test system based on an ensemble nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center magnetometer by combining the correlation between a magnetic flux concentrator, a permanent magnet, and micro-displacement. By comparing the measurement results obtained with and without the magnetic flux concentrator, it can be seen that the resolution of the system under the magnetic flux concentrator can reach 25 nm, which is 24 times higher than without the magnetic flux concentrator. The effectiveness of the method is proven. The above results provide a practical reference for high-precision micro-displacement detection based on the diamond ensemble. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Next Generation of Magnetometer Microsystems and Applications)
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