Progress and Application of Ultra-Precision Laser Interferometry

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 4518

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Ultra Precision Photoelectric Instrument Engineering, School of Instrument Science and engineering, Harbin Institute of technology, Harbin 150006, China
Interests: measurement and instrumentation; optical sensing; laser interferometry; laser tracking; LiDAR

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Guest Editor
Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Interests: nanophotonics; near-field optics; nanometrology; characterization of micro- and nanomaterials
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Guest Editor
Precision Measurement Laboratory, School of Information Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China
Interests: laser interferometry; digital holography; large-scale absolute distance measurement; nanometer displacement measurement; three-dimensional surface measurement

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Guest Editor
College of Intelligence Science and Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China
Interests: optical interferometry; optical frequency comb; precision spectroscopy; quantum sensing; photonic integrated chip

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The vigorous development of precision engineering has greatly promoted the progress and application of ultra-precision laser interferometry. For the interferometer itself, there is a high diversity in the principles of interference (homodyne, heterodyne, low coherence, optical frequency modulation, self-mixing, etc.), types of light sources (gas lasers, LD, solid lasers, fiber lasers, optical combs, etc.), interference optical configurations (spatial, fiber optic, micro-sensing probes, etc.), and phase demodulation methods (pulse counting, phase-locked, PGC, etc.). In terms of engineering applications, from the traditional special instruments for measuring geometric quantities (length, displacement, angle, profile, etc.) and motion quantities (speed, acceleration, vibration, etc.), laser interferometers have been further applied to material thermal expansion analysis, precision spectroscopy, gravity gradient and gravitational wave measurement, atmospheric environment monitoring, structural health monitoring, etc.

This special issue focuses on new advances and applications of ultra-precision laser interferometry, topics to be considered include, but are not limited to:

  • Novel laser interferometric methods and models;
  • Novel devices and systems for laser interferometry;
  • Progress in performance of laser interferometers or their key components;
  • Progress of laser interferometry in precision metrology;
  • Applications of laser interferometry in frontier scientific research.
  • Applications of laser interferometry in precision engineering.

Prof. Dr. Haijin Fu
Dr. Benfeng Bai
Prof. Dr. Liping Yan
Dr. Guochao Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • optical testing and sensing
  • interferometric methods and models
  • interferometric devices and systems
  • laser interferometry
  • fiber interferometry
  • optical metrology
  • optical precision engineering.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 2991 KiB  
Article
High-Bandwidth Heterodyne Laser Interferometer for the Measurement of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Pressure
by Ke Wang, Guangzhen Xing, Ping Yang, Min Wang, Zheng Wang and Qi Tian
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122225 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 727
Abstract
As a high-end medical technology, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is widely used in cancer treatment and ultrasonic lithotripsy technology. The acoustic output level and safety of ultrasound treatments are closely related to the accuracy of sound pressure measurements. Heterodyne laser interferometry is applied [...] Read more.
As a high-end medical technology, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is widely used in cancer treatment and ultrasonic lithotripsy technology. The acoustic output level and safety of ultrasound treatments are closely related to the accuracy of sound pressure measurements. Heterodyne laser interferometry is applied to the measurement of ultrasonic pressure owing to its characteristics of non-contact, high precision, and traceability. However, the upper limit of sound pressure measurement is limited by the bandwidth of the interferometer. In this paper, a high-bandwidth heterodyne laser interferometer for the measurement of high-intensity focused ultrasound pressure is developed and tested. The optical carrier with a frequency shift of 358 MHz is realized by means of an acousto-optic modulator. The selected electrical devices ensure that the electrical bandwidth can reach 1.5 GHz. The laser source adopts an iodine frequency-stabilized semiconductor laser with high-frequency spectral purity, which can reduce the influence of spectral purity on the bandwidth to a negligible level. The interference light path is integrated and encapsulated to improve the stability in use. An HIFU sound pressure measurement experiment is carried out, and the upper limit of the sound pressure measurement is obviously improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress and Application of Ultra-Precision Laser Interferometry)
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15 pages, 5775 KiB  
Article
Development of a 3-DOF Angle Sensor Based on a Single Laser Interference Probe
by Liang Yu, Xingyang Feng, Pengcheng Hu, Xionglei Lin and Tao Jing
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2221; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122221 - 10 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 824
Abstract
The development of high-precision satellites has increased the demand for ultraprecision three-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) angle measurements for detecting structural deformation. The required instrument should simultaneously measure pitch, yaw, and roll angles using a single reference point. This paper proposes a 3-DOF angle measurement method [...] Read more.
The development of high-precision satellites has increased the demand for ultraprecision three-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) angle measurements for detecting structural deformation. The required instrument should simultaneously measure pitch, yaw, and roll angles using a single reference point. This paper proposes a 3-DOF angle measurement method based on the wavefront interference principle, and a mathematical model and its decoupling algorithm were built. Then, an angle-sensing probe with an extremely simple structure was designed and constructed. Finally, a series of experiments were performed to verify the method’s feasibility. The experiment results showed that the roll, pitch, and yaw measurement resolution of the probe was better than 10, 1, and 1 μrad, respectively, providing a high-performance 3-DOF angle measurement with a single probe. The short-term stabilities of roll, pitch, and yaw were better than 22, 1.7, and 2.0 μrad, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress and Application of Ultra-Precision Laser Interferometry)
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14 pages, 4391 KiB  
Article
A Two-Dimensional Precision Level for Real-Time Measurement Based on Zoom Fast Fourier Transform
by Haijin Fu, Zheng Wang, Xionglei Lin, Xu Xing, Ruitao Yang, Hongxing Yang, Pengcheng Hu, Xuemei Ding and Liang Yu
Micromachines 2023, 14(11), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14112028 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 919
Abstract
This paper proposes a two-dimensional precision level for real-time measurement using a zoom fast Fourier transform (zoom FFT)-based decoupling algorithm that was developed and integrated in an FPGA. This algorithm solves the contradiction between obtaining high resolution and obtaining high measurement speed, and [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a two-dimensional precision level for real-time measurement using a zoom fast Fourier transform (zoom FFT)-based decoupling algorithm that was developed and integrated in an FPGA. This algorithm solves the contradiction between obtaining high resolution and obtaining high measurement speed, and achieves both high angle-resolution measurement and real-time measurement. The proposed level adopts a silicone-oil surface as the angle-sensitive interface and combines the principle of homodyne interference. By analyzing the frequency of the interference fringes, the angle variation can be determined. The zoom-FFT-based decoupling algorithm improves the system’s frequency resolution of the interference fringes, thereby significantly enhancing the angle resolution. Furthermore, this algorithm improves the efficiency of angle decoupling, while the angle decoupling process can also be transplanted to the board to realize real-time measurement of the level. Finally, a prototype based on the level principle was tested to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The principle analysis and test results showed that the angle resolution of the prototype improved from 9 arcsec to about 0.1 arcsec using this angle-solution method. At the same time, the measurement repeatability of the prototype was approximately ±0.2 arcsec. In comparison with a commercial autocollimator, the angle measurement accuracy reached ±0.6 arcsec. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress and Application of Ultra-Precision Laser Interferometry)
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13 pages, 1073 KiB  
Article
Ultra-Narrow Bandwidth Microwave Photonic Filter Implemented by Single Longitudinal Mode Parity Time Symmetry Brillouin Fiber Laser
by Jiaxin Hou, Yajun You, Yuan Liu, Kai Jiang, Xuefeng Han, Wenjun He, Wenping Geng, Yi Liu and Xiujian Chou
Micromachines 2023, 14(7), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14071322 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
In this paper, a novel microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a single longitudinal mode Brillouin laser achieved by parity time (PT) symmetry mode selection is proposed, and its unparalleled ultra-narrow bandwidth as low as to sub-kHz together with simple and agile tuning [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a single longitudinal mode Brillouin laser achieved by parity time (PT) symmetry mode selection is proposed, and its unparalleled ultra-narrow bandwidth as low as to sub-kHz together with simple and agile tuning performance is experimentally verified. The Brillouin fiber laser ring resonator is cascaded with a PT symmetric system to achieve this MPF. Wherein, the Brillouin laser resonator is excited by a 5 km single mode fiber to generate Brillouin gain, and the PT symmetric system is configured with Polarization Beam Splitter (PBS) and polarization controller (PC) to achieve PT symmetry. Thanks to the significant enhancement of the gain difference between the main mode and the edge mode when the polarization state PT symmetry system breaks, a single mode oscillating Brillouin laser is generated. Through the selective amplification of sideband modulated signals by ultra-narrow linewidth Brillouin single mode laser gain, the MPF with ultra-narrow single passband performance is obtained. By simply tuning the central wavelength of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) pumped laser to adjust the Brillouin oscillation frequency, the gain position of the Brillouin laser can be shifted, thereby achieving flexible tunability. The experimental results indicate that the MPF proposed in this paper achieves a single pass band narrow to 72 Hz and the side mode rejection ratio of more than 18 dB, with a center frequency tuning range of 0–20 GHz in the testing range of vector network analysis, which means that the MPF possesses ultra high spectral resolution and enormous potential application value in the domain of ultra fine microwave spectrum filtering such as radar imaging and electronic countermeasures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress and Application of Ultra-Precision Laser Interferometry)
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