Allergic Rhinitis: Epidemiology, Prevention and Management

A special issue of Medical Sciences (ISSN 2076-3271). This special issue belongs to the section "Pneumology and Respiratory Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018) | Viewed by 18538

Special Issue Editor

Distinguished Invited Researcher, Department of Microbiology, Shimane University, Faculty of Medicine, Matsue, Japan
Interests: allergic rhinitis treatment; immunotherapy; mucosal immunology; innate immunity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Allergic rhinitis is a common respiratory disease that not only can strongly affect the quality of life of many patients but also can be detrimental to work performance and generate productivity and healthcare costs. Inflammatory mechanisms are nowadays better understood, which allows us synthesize more effective treatments and to stablish specific guidelines to facilitate prevention and management of the disease, specially to avoid complications that may appear.

This Special Issue will focus on the causes underlying the occurrence of allergic rhinitis, on the strategies to prevent it and other comorbidities, the patient monitoring during diagnostic, development and treatment of the disease and on healthcare management.

Prof. Dr. Hideyuki Kawauchi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • allergic rhinitis
  • allergens
  • prevention
  • epidemiology
  • management
  • healthcare
  • treatment
  • comorbidities

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1973 KiB  
Article
Determining an Appropriate Time to Start Prophylactic Treatment with Intranasal Corticosteroids in Japanese Cedar Pollinosis
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7010011 - 15 Jan 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3140
Abstract
Prophylactic treatment with intranasal corticosteroids is effective for pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis. However, the appropriate time to start this treatment remains unclear. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Starting on 1 February 2014, patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis received either fluticasone furoate [...] Read more.
Prophylactic treatment with intranasal corticosteroids is effective for pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis. However, the appropriate time to start this treatment remains unclear. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Starting on 1 February 2014, patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis received either fluticasone furoate nasal spray (FFNS) for 8 weeks (Group A: n = 24), placebo nasal spray for 2 weeks followed by FFNS for 6 weeks (Group B: n = 23), or placebo for 4 weeks followed by FFNS for 4 weeks (Group C: n = 23). The primary endpoint was comparison of the total naso-ocular symptom score (TSS). Secondary endpoints including the increment cost effective ratio (ICER) were also determined. Continuous pollen dispersion began on the 24th of February. Therefore, Group A and Group B received 3-weeks and 1-week of prophylactic treatment, respectively, whereas Group C received post-onset treatment. During the peak pollen-dispersal period, significant differences in TSS were seen between the groups, particularly between Group A and C. The ICER of Group B vs. Group C was lower than that of Group A vs. Group C. These results suggest that long-term prophylactic treatment with FFNS is clinically the most potent treatment, whereas short-term prophylactic treatment is cost effective for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Rhinitis: Epidemiology, Prevention and Management)
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13 pages, 1760 KiB  
Article
OK-432 Administration Inhibits Murine Allergic Rhinitis at the Induction Phase, through the Macrophage Activation with TLR2 Signaling Pathway
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6040107 - 26 Nov 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3144
Abstract
OK-432, a preparation of a low-virulence strain (Su) of Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) killed by a penicillin and lyophilized, is a stiff inducer of Th1 cytokines, and exerts anti-cancer effects in tumor-bearing mice. OK-432 has been reported to consist of many bacterial components, [...] Read more.
OK-432, a preparation of a low-virulence strain (Su) of Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) killed by a penicillin and lyophilized, is a stiff inducer of Th1 cytokines, and exerts anti-cancer effects in tumor-bearing mice. OK-432 has been reported to consist of many bacterial components, such as peptidoglycan, M-protein, etc. However, it is yet to be ascertained which bacterial component induces T helper 1 (Th1) responses. For the last decade, Toll-like receptor (TLR) family proteins are well elucidated to play a role in recognizing bacterial components and inducing interleukin (IL)-12 from macrophages. Above all, peptidoglycan seems to be the agonist of TLR2 rather than the obverse. In our present study, the role of TLR2 for the recognition of OK-432 by macrophages and the effects of OK-432 are examined on murine allergic rhinitis model. Interestingly, results show IL-12 production by macrophages derived from TLR2 knock-out (ko) mice was significantly decreased, in comparison with that of macrophages derived from wild-type mice. Moreover, in TLR2 ko mice, no regulatory effect of OK-432 was observed on an allergic rhinitis model. These data indicate that TLR2 signaling is involved in regulating OK-432-induced anti-T helper 2 (Th2) immunity, and may offer a new prophylactic and therapeutic approach using OK-432 to downregulate allergic disorders, such as allergic rhinitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Rhinitis: Epidemiology, Prevention and Management)
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Review

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9 pages, 203 KiB  
Review
Differentiating Rhinitis in the Paediatric Population by Giving Focus on Medical History and Clinical Examination
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7030038 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3540
Abstract
Chronic rhinitis is defined as an inflammation of the nasal epithelium, and is characterized by the presence of two or more specific nasal symptoms including obstruction, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and/or itching for at least 12 weeks. In childhood, this clinical entity is very common [...] Read more.
Chronic rhinitis is defined as an inflammation of the nasal epithelium, and is characterized by the presence of two or more specific nasal symptoms including obstruction, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and/or itching for at least 12 weeks. In childhood, this clinical entity is very common and carries a significant socioeconomic burden. The impact on the physical, social, and psychological well-being of family cannot be underestimated. Rhinitis is an umbrella term which includes different phenotypes of rhinitis with distinct underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. In most cases the diagnosis of rhinitis is rather straightforward; however, sometimes when based on clinical symptomatology, characterization may be challenging. Herein, we provide guidance for getting all the data needed for the differential diagnosis of rhinitis based on medical history and clinical examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Rhinitis: Epidemiology, Prevention and Management)
9 pages, 1556 KiB  
Review
Regulation of Interaction Between the Upper and Lower Airways in United Airway Disease
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7020027 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5525
Abstract
The concept of united airway disease comprises allergic rhinitis (AR) with asthma, and eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) with asthma. It embodies a comprehensive approach to the treatment of upper and lower airway inflammation. The treatment of upper airway inflammation reduces asthma symptoms and [...] Read more.
The concept of united airway disease comprises allergic rhinitis (AR) with asthma, and eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) with asthma. It embodies a comprehensive approach to the treatment of upper and lower airway inflammation. The treatment of upper airway inflammation reduces asthma symptoms and decreases the dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) necessary to treat asthma. However, little is known about the mechanisms of interaction between upper and lower airway inflammation. Here we review these mechanisms, focusing on neural modulation and introduce a novel therapeutic approach to united airway disease using a fine-particle ICS. Our understanding of the relationship between the upper and lower airways and its contribution to T helper 2 (Th2)-skewed disease, such as AR and/or ECRS with asthma, has led us to this novel therapeutic strategy for a comprehensive approach to the treatment of upper airway inflammation with asthma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Rhinitis: Epidemiology, Prevention and Management)
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10 pages, 259 KiB  
Review
Early Intervention is Important to Prevent Sensitization to New Allergens
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6040114 - 11 Dec 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2544
Abstract
We review current management for allergic rhinitis and possible new treatments for this condition. Management of allergic rhinitis includes promotion of protective factors, avoidance of allergens, and possibly immunotherapy. In recent years, the incidence of allergic rhinitis has increased in many countries. Early [...] Read more.
We review current management for allergic rhinitis and possible new treatments for this condition. Management of allergic rhinitis includes promotion of protective factors, avoidance of allergens, and possibly immunotherapy. In recent years, the incidence of allergic rhinitis has increased in many countries. Early intervention at different stages is an important part of management. Allergic disease in infants has been described as the allergic march, commencing with atopic dermatitis accompanied by infantile asthma and progressing to perennial allergic rhinitis induced by house dust mite allergy. In order to prevent polysensitization, allergen-specific immunotherapy should probably be initiated at an earlier age, especially in children with rhinitis who show monosensitization to house dust mite antigens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Rhinitis: Epidemiology, Prevention and Management)
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