Advance in Additive Manufacturing

A special issue of Machines (ISSN 2075-1702). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Manufacturing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 11035

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Materials and Transport science and engineering, ETSI, University of Seville, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: metallurgy; additive manufacturing; metal composites
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials and Transport science and engineering, ETSI, University of Seville, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: simulation; nuclear materials; titanium composites; additive manufacturing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials and Transport science and engineering, ETSI, University of Seville, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: porous materials; additive manufacturing; freeze casting; titanium composites; powder metallurgy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today the use of 3D manufacturing techniques is a reality that has been possible thanks to advances in technology. The use of layer-by-layer manufacturing techniques allows the development of advanced materials and components that are highly demanded in the industry. The complex geometries that can be obtained thanks to additive manufacturing processes allow substantial savings not only in material but also in processing time, partially eliminating secondary operations in the finished parts. In this sense, it is necessary to continue researching, developing and implementing manufacturing processes that contribute to these cost savings. The design of the equipment and the optimization of the manufacturing parameters are important to achieve this objective. Hence, the motivation for creating the Special Issue " Advance in Additive Manufacturing".

Dr. Cristina Arevalo Mora
Dr. Eva M. Pérez-Soriano
Dr. Isabel Montealegre-Meléndez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Machines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • additive manufacturing techniques
  • powder bed systems
  • powder injection system
  • wire feed system
  • advance materials manufacturing

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 37348 KiB  
Article
Manufacturing via Plasma Metal Deposition of Hastelloy C-22 Specimens Made from Particles with Different Granulometries
by Isabel Montealegre-Meléndez, Eva M. Pérez-Soriano, Enrique Ariza, Erich Neubauer, Michael Kitzmantel and Cristina Arévalo
Machines 2024, 12(4), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12040253 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Additive manufacturing techniques offer significant advantages for creating complex components efficiently, saving both time and materials. This makes them particularly appealing for producing parts from intricate alloys, such as Hastelloy C-22. One such technique, plasma metal deposition, uses plasma on powdered material to [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing techniques offer significant advantages for creating complex components efficiently, saving both time and materials. This makes them particularly appealing for producing parts from intricate alloys, such as Hastelloy C-22. One such technique, plasma metal deposition, uses plasma on powdered material to build up layers. The novelty of this work is to analyze and determine whether there is a correlation between the particle size and the final behaviour of specimens produced via additive manufacturing. To achieve this, four powders with an identical chemical composition but different granulometries were employed. Additionally, some of the samples underwent thermal treatment (progressive heating at 10 °C/min until 1120 °C, maintained for 20 min, followed by rapid air cooling). Four walls were constructed, and after mechanical, tribological, and microstructural characterization, it was determined that the influence of the thermal treatment remained consistent, regardless of particle size. It was observed that the particle size slightly affected the final properties: the finer the powder, the lower the ultimate tensile strength values. Furthermore, it was evident that the thermal treatment substantially affected the microstructure and wear behavior of all the specimens, regardless of their initial particle size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Additive Manufacturing)
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15 pages, 9082 KiB  
Article
Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of CAP-WAAM Single-Track Al5356 Specimens of Differing Scale
by Georgi Kotlarski, Maria Ormanova, Alexander Nikitin, Iuliia Morozova, Ralf Ossenbrink, Vesselin Michailov, Nikolay Doynov and Stefan Valkov
Machines 2024, 12(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12010072 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 755
Abstract
The mass production of metallic components requires high agility in the working process conditioned by the necessity of building details of different shapes and sizes. Changing the size of the components theoretically influences the thermal dissipation capability of the same, which could lead [...] Read more.
The mass production of metallic components requires high agility in the working process conditioned by the necessity of building details of different shapes and sizes. Changing the size of the components theoretically influences the thermal dissipation capability of the same, which could lead to a change in their structure and mechanical properties. This is particularly important when aluminum alloys are concerned. For this reason, two Al5356 single-track specimens were built using the same technological conditions of layer deposition by varying only their geometrical size. In all cases, the specimens were wire and arc additively manufactured (WAAM) using a process based on gas metal arc welding (GMAW) in the cold arc pulse mode (CAP). The structure of both specimens was studied and defects along their surfaces were detected in the form of micro-pores and micro-cracks. A high concentration of undissolved Mg particles was also detected, along with some standalone Si particles. Uniformity in the build-up process was achieved, which led to the formation of nearly identical structures in the specimens. Subsequently, the resultant mechanical properties were also highly comparable. This indicates that the geometry-related variation in thermal conditions has an insignificant influence on the component’s structure and properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Additive Manufacturing)
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19 pages, 4383 KiB  
Article
Orientation-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of 3D Printed Polylactic Acid Parts: An Experimental–Numerical Study
by Saeedeh Vanaei, Mohammadali Rastak, Anouar El Magri, Hamid Reza Vanaei, Kaddour Raissi and Abbas Tcharkhtchi
Machines 2023, 11(12), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11121086 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
In Additive Manufacturing, wherein the construction of parts directly from 3D models is facilitated, a meticulous focus on enhancing the mechanical characteristics of these components becomes imperative. This study delves into the nuanced impact of the orientation of deposited layers on the mechanical [...] Read more.
In Additive Manufacturing, wherein the construction of parts directly from 3D models is facilitated, a meticulous focus on enhancing the mechanical characteristics of these components becomes imperative. This study delves into the nuanced impact of the orientation of deposited layers on the mechanical properties of 3D printed Polylactic Acid (PLA) parts. Experimental testing, coupled with predictive modeling using Tsai–Hill and Tsai–Wu criteria, forms the crux of our investigation. The predicted ultimate strength from both criteria exhibits commendable agreement with the 3D printed specimens across a spectrum of orientation angles. Concurrently, Finite Element Simulations are meticulously executed to forecast mechanical behavior, taking into account the observed elasticity and plasticity in various orientations. Our observations reveal a significant augmentation in Young’s modulus and ductility/elongation—40% and 70%, respectively—when transitioning from θ = 0° to θ = 90°. Furthermore, the ultimate strength experiences a notable increase, leading to varied failure modes contingent upon θ. These findings underscore the pivotal role played by the orientation of printed layers in shaping the anisotropic behavior of 3D printed PLA parts, thereby integrating key process variables for optimization objectives. This study contributes valuable insights for professionals in the engineering, design, and manufacturing domains who seek to harness the advantages of 3D printing technology while ensuring that the mechanical integrity of 3D printed parts aligns with their functional requisites. It emphasizes the critical consideration of orientation as a design parameter in the pursuit of optimization objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Additive Manufacturing)
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21 pages, 4846 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Infill Percentages, Layer Width, and Mechanical Properties in Fused Deposition Modelling of Poly-Lactic Acid 3D Printing
by Mahmoud Moradi, Mohammad Rezayat, Fakhir Aziz Rasul Rozhbiany, Saleh Meiabadi, Giuseppe Casalino, Mahmoud Shamsborhan, Amar Bijoy, Sidharth Chakkingal, Mathews Lawrence, Nasli Mohammed and Mojtaba Karamimoghadam
Machines 2023, 11(10), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11100950 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
The field of additive manufacturing (AM) has seen a transformation in the production of intricate and complex parts for various applications. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), among AM techniques, has garnered significant attention, particularly in fields like fibre-reinforced composites (FRC). In this study, the [...] Read more.
The field of additive manufacturing (AM) has seen a transformation in the production of intricate and complex parts for various applications. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), among AM techniques, has garnered significant attention, particularly in fields like fibre-reinforced composites (FRC). In this study, the world of FDM-printed Polylactic Acid (PLA) components is explored, with a focus on how mechanical properties are influenced by infill percentages and layer widths. Through the utilisation of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the optimisation of FDM-PLA 3D printing for a wide range of biomaterial applications is achieved, along with the unveiling of the potential for remarkable improvements in mechanical performance. Notably, a remarkable 91% reduction in surface roughness for PLA composites was achieved, accompanied by an impressive 25.6% and 34.1% enhancement in the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of fibre-reinforced PLA composites, respectively. This work, positioned at the crossroads of FDM, lays the groundwork for substantial advancements in the realm of additive manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Additive Manufacturing)
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11 pages, 9579 KiB  
Communication
Computer Vision Method for In Situ Measuring Forming Accuracy of 3D Sand Mold Printing
by Shuren Guo, Shang Li, Lanxiu Wang, Huatang Cao, Dong Xiang and Xuanpu Dong
Machines 2023, 11(3), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030330 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 985
Abstract
The three-dimensional sand mold printing technology (3DSP) for casting sand molds via a binding jet is a breakthrough in the casting mold-making process. It is a favorable combination of digital forming technology and sand casting, which is a significantly interesting research area in [...] Read more.
The three-dimensional sand mold printing technology (3DSP) for casting sand molds via a binding jet is a breakthrough in the casting mold-making process. It is a favorable combination of digital forming technology and sand casting, which is a significantly interesting research area in the foundry industry. This study has proposed an edge extraction approach for the forming region in the sand bed image. With the edge information, the study measures the forming accuracy of the printed molds, which offers a basis for assessing the forming quality after 3DSP. The extracted edges essentially match the original image through the validation of cube printing. The error between the measured and actual size is below 0.6 mm, and the standard deviation of the straight line edge is below 0.170 mm, which fulfills the accuracy requirements for 3D sand mold printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Additive Manufacturing)
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15 pages, 15285 KiB  
Article
4D Printing of Hydrogels Controlled by Hinge Structure and Spatially Gradient Swelling for Soft Robots
by Masanari Kameoka, Yosuke Watanabe, MD Nahin Islam Shiblee, Masaru Kawakami, Jun Ogawa, Ajit Khosla, Hidemitsu Furukawa, Shengyang Zhang, Shinichi Hirai and Zhongkui Wang
Machines 2023, 11(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11010103 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2220
Abstract
In 4D printing, structures with gradients in physical properties are 3D printed in order to dramatically increase deformation. For example, printing bilayer structures with passive and active layers has been proposed, however, these methods have the disadvantages that the material of each layer [...] Read more.
In 4D printing, structures with gradients in physical properties are 3D printed in order to dramatically increase deformation. For example, printing bilayer structures with passive and active layers has been proposed, however, these methods have the disadvantages that the material of each layer is mixed, and the modeling process is complicated. Herein, we present a method of creating gradient gels with different degrees of polymerization on the UV-exposed side and the other side using a single material by simply increasing the amount of initiator. This gel is the first example in which the differential swelling ratio between two sides causes the gradient to curl inward toward the UV-exposed side. The mechanical properties (swelling ratio and Young’s modulus) were measured at different material concentrations and structures, and the effects of each on deformation were analyzed and simulated. The results show that adding an initiator concentration of 0.2 (mol/L) or more causes deformation, that increasing the crosslinker concentration by a factor of three or more increases deformation, and that adding a hinge structure limits the gradient gel to deformation up to 90°. Thus, it was found that the maximum deformation can be predicted to some extent by simulation. In the future, we will be able to create complex structures while utilizing simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Additive Manufacturing)
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18 pages, 7255 KiB  
Article
Influence of Processing Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of 17-4PH Specimens Produced by Additive Manufacturing
by Enrique Ariza-Galván, Isabel Montealegre-Meléndez, Eva María Pérez-Soriano, Erich Neubauer, Michael Kitzmantel and Cristina Arévalo
Machines 2022, 10(11), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10110976 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to study the influence of the processing conditions that affect the final behaviour of specimens made from a 17-4PH composition powder without the necessary thermal treatment to be considered 17-4PH, which is manufactured using the additive technique [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research is to study the influence of the processing conditions that affect the final behaviour of specimens made from a 17-4PH composition powder without the necessary thermal treatment to be considered 17-4PH, which is manufactured using the additive technique known as plasma metal deposition (PMD). To that end, two walls manufactured from the prealloyed powder were built under two distinct atmospheric conditions, i.e., air and argon, with previously optimized manufacturing parameters. The additional effect of two applied thermal treatments (TT) was studied by means of property and microstructural analyses of the extracted specimens from each consolidated wall. The two thermal treatments consisted of a heating rate of 10 °C/min to 482 °C (TT1) and 620 °C (TT2), with the temperatures for 1 and 4 h, respectively; the cooling rate was 5 °C/min for both treatments. According to the findings, the presence of an argon atmosphere during manufacturing promoted the presence of an austenite phase, reducing the deformation of the samples and enhancing their Young’s modulus. The TT1 treatment positively contributed, improving the mechanical properties in general, and TT2 substantially improved the elongation in both sets of specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Additive Manufacturing)
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15 pages, 2767 KiB  
Article
Parametric Optimization of FDM Process for Improving Mechanical Strengths Using Taguchi Method and Response Surface Method: A Comparative Investigation
by Ge Gao, Fan Xu and Jiangmin Xu
Machines 2022, 10(9), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090750 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
In the present study, a comparison of two widely used optimization approaches for fused deposition modeling (FDM), that is, Taguchi method in contrast with response surface method (RSM), was investigated. Four operating parameters, namely extrusion temperature, layer thickness, raster width, print speed, and [...] Read more.
In the present study, a comparison of two widely used optimization approaches for fused deposition modeling (FDM), that is, Taguchi method in contrast with response surface method (RSM), was investigated. Four operating parameters, namely extrusion temperature, layer thickness, raster width, print speed, and their interaction terms, were identified as control variables with three levels, while tensile strength and compressive strength were selected responses. L27 orthogonal array and face-centered central composite design (FCCCD) were used for the experimental approach for Taguchi and RSM, respectively. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to find the optimal FDM parameter combination as well as the main factor that affect the performance of the PLA samples. Based on experimental results, it was observed that conclusions about significant ranking of parameters on FDM process from these two methods were different. However, both the Taguchi method and RSM succeed in predicting better results compared with the original groups. In addition, the optimum combinations for tensile strength and compressive strength obtained from the RSM were 2.11% and 8.15% higher than Taguchi method, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Additive Manufacturing)
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